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Full text of "New England aviators 1914-1918; their portraits and their records"

The Old Corner Book 

Store, Inc. 
Boston, - Mass, 



NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 

IN TWO VOLUMES 
Volume I 



NORMAN PRINCE 



NEW ENGLAND AVIATOR 
! 1914-1918 

THEIR PORTRAITS AND THEIR RECORDS 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 

A. LAWRENCE LOWELL 
Volume I 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

THE RIVERSIDE PRESS CAMBRIDGE 



NORMAN PHI NCE 



NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 
1914-1918 



THEIR PORTRAITS AND THEIR RECORDS 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 

A. LAWRENCE LOWELL 
Volume I 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

THE RIVERSIDE PRESS CAMBRIDGE 
1919 



COPYRIGHT, 1919, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



THIS EDITION CONSISTS OF ONE THOUSAND COPIES 
PRINTED AT THE RIVERSIDE PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, 
MASSACHUSETTS, FOR THE PUBLISHING COMMITTEE 
OF THE NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 



TO 

THE IMMORTAL MEMORY OF 
THE AVIATORS OF NEW ENGLAND 
WHO 

WHETHER IN FRANCE OR IN AMERICA 
FELL IN THE CAUSE OF 
FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY 



NOTE 



The Committee takes this opportunity of expressing to 
Miss Caroline Ticknor its appreciation of lier work in com- 
piling and editing these records. She has been untiring in 
her devotion and has given her ability with great sympathy 
and interest. Without her assistance this memorial of faith 
and courage could not have been achieved. 

Mrs. Charles Frost Aldrich 
Mrs. J. Randolph Coolidge, Jr. 
Mrs. J. Bertram Williams 

Publishing Committee 



PREFACE 



In December, 1918, there was held in Boston a notable exhibition 
of portraits of New England Aviators; a collection so inspiring as 
to create a demand for its permanent preservation. And in re- 
sponse to this demand these volumes have been compiled. The 
Committee in charge of this project has striven to enlarge the 
original group, so as to include as many as possible of the New 
England Flyers, to be placed with their records in the accompany- 
ing volumes. It is too soon to attempt to offer any complete list of 
the New England Aviators; therefore, these volumes offer only 
a representative group of the flower of New England manhood 
whose courageous work in the air proved so vital a factor in the 
Great War. 

Founded, as this work is, upon the original collection, which was 
thrown open to all New England Flyers, it necessarily includes 
many whose military service may seem of minor importance, yet 
all must realize, that, measured by true standards, no less fine 
service was rendered by the men who did their best in the American 
flying-fields, while longing to "get across," than by those who 
performed glorious service at the front. The heavy toll of life taken 
upon "inglorious" fields is voiced in the words of an aviator who 
wrote last January from Texas: "Since this field was opened about 
a year ago, there have been over forty men killed in crashes, and 
probably five times that number wounded. Of the sixteen men 
who came here to learn to fly with me, four are dead; six have 
crashed and been hurt more or less seriously. There are not many 
outfits which have contended for democracy on the shell-whipped 
fields of France which can show as high a percentage of killed and 
wounded." 

In presenting the records included in this work, the Committee 
desires to state that it has had to contend with numerous obstacles. 
Questionnaires were sent out while the majority of the Flyers were 
still abroad, which made it difficult for their families to secure 
accurate data; some questionnaires brought back but scanty in- 
formation; others failed to return at all. In calling for letters of 
especial interest, the Editor elicited, in many instances, a more 
ample response from those whose service seemed of lesser im- 
portance, while, on the other hand, but fragmentary items came 

[ vii ] 



PREFACE 



in from many of those who had earned numerous citations. More- 
over, in regard to the inclusion of the citations themselves the 
same problem arose; it was the desire of the compilers to tabulate 
them all, but only a portion could be obtained. 

The aim of the Committee has been to make, out of dry military 
records, something like human documents, embodying the spirit 
of the men who served, as well as the outward facts concerning 
them. And if the letter of this work offers some unavoidable errors, 
the spirit, embodied in extracts from many sincere and beautiful 
documents, must atone for any faults in tabulation of data, and 
in the translation of certain questionnaires that needed a skilled 
interpreter. 

There are a few men included in these volumes who technically 
belong outside of New England, but these either were in the orig- 
inal collection or were linked to New England by their traditions 
or associations. Portraits of some important Flyers could not be 
secured, and lack of space has made it necessary to omit others 
received after the assigned limit had been reached. The placing of 
some pictures two on a page is not significant of any distinction in 
value or importance, but merely the result of necessary economy 
of space, attained by putting in close proximity a number of the 
shorter records. 

Had there been time and space, it would have added greatly to 
the value of this work to have included many more special articles 
dealing with various groups and branches of the Air Service. The 
compilers are very grateful for those which have been kindly con- 
tributed by interested Flyers. 

Almost one hundred men included in these volumes gave their 
lives in the Service. One fifth of the contents of this work belongs 
to them, and to their families, to whose brave hearts these books, 
it is hoped, will bring comfort and satisfaction. To these heroic 
parents of brave sons, high tribute should be paid. They are 
worthy of every winner of a "gold star" and of that highest 
decoration, the "White Wooden Cross." They have been proud 
and patient, and, with a smile upon their lips, have given their 
best, believing that what they have given still remains theirs, 
bright and immortal; to them each "gold star" is a star of hope, 
and every "Croix de Guerre" a cross transfigured. 



CONTENTS 



Introduction. By A. Lawrence Lowell xv 

The Faces of the Aviators. By Joseph Edgar Chamberlin . . . xvii 

First Pursuit Group. By Lieutenant James Knowles, Jr 47 

First Day Bombardment Group 98 

Twentieth Aero Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group. By Lieu- 
tenant Karl C. Payne 112 

A Bit of Unintentional "Acrobatics." By Lieutenant Samuel P. Mandell 120 

The Last Raid. By Lieutenant Gardiner H. Fiske 124 

Ninety-Sixth Aero Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group. By Lieu- 
tenant Arthur Hadden Alexander 128 

Eleventh Aero Squadron. By Lieutenant Paul S. Greene .... 100 

Aviators 

Abbott, George M., Second Lieutenant 428 

*Adams, Briggs Kilburn, Second Lieutenant 254 

Adams, Schuyler, Ensign 412 

Alexander, Arthur Hadden, First Lieutenant 130 

Amory, Roger, Major 414 

*Angell, Cyril M., Second Lieutenant 172 

Arnold, David B., Lieutenant (j.g.) 440 

Ashley, John W., Lieutenant (j.g.) 442 

Atwood, Edward Wilson, Second Lieutenant 106 

Avery, Walter Roger, First Lieutenant 257 

Babcock, Philip Rodney, Captain . 188 

Bacon, William Bartlett, First Lieutenant 326 

Baldwin, Raymond Peacock, First Lieutenant 220 

Barker, John de Forest, Second Lieutenant 470 

*Barron, Robert James, Cadet 318 

Batchelder, Sidney Spaulding, First Lieutenant 274 

*Baylies, Frank Leaman, Second Lieutenant 6 

Bazley, Halsey R., Second Lieutenant 458 

Beaman, Bartlett, First Lieutenant 174 

*Beauclerk, Sidney W., Jr., First Lieutenant 180 

Berry, John E., First Lieutenant 145 

Bigelow, Stephen Sohier, Sergeant 32 

Blanchard, Carleton Woodman, Second Lieutenant .... 468 

Blanchard, George Kinson, Second Lieutenant 468 

*Blodgett, Richard Ashley, First Lieutenant 48 

Bowditch, William Ingersoll, Second Lieutenant 460 

*Bradley, John Watling, Second Lieutenant 334 

Bradley, William George, Second Lieutenant 336 

Briggs, Henry, First Lieutenant 164 

Briggs, Russell, Cadet 166 

*Bruce, Alexander Bern, First Lieutenant 94 

Bryan, Mahlon Philip, Second Lieutenant 176 

[ix] 



CONTENTS 



Buchanan, Douglas R., First Lieutenant 166 

*Buck, Walter Francis, Second Lieutenant ....... 292 

Buckley, Harold R., Captain 67 

*Bullard, Edward Lauriston, Second Lieutenant 204 

Butler, Michael A., Second Lieutenant ....... 466 

Caldwell, Frederic Wyllis, Second Lieutenant 358 

Cann, Frederick B., Second Lieutenant 458 

Carlisle, Sumner, Lieutenant 211 

Cassidy, John Alexander, Second Lieutenant . . . . . 446 

*Cate, Laurence Hill, Ensign 374 1 , 

Chadwick, Noel, Lieutenant (j.g.) 402 

*Chadwick, Oliver Moulton, Corporal 10 

Chalmers, William Wallace, First Lieutenant 92 

*Chapin, Elliot Adams, First Lieutenant 282 

Chapin, Roger F., First Lieutenant 108 

Chatfield, Sterling Russell, First Lieutenant 341 

*Cheney, William Halsall, First Lieutenant 298 

Chevalier, Godfrey de Courcelles, Lieutenant Commander . . . 418 

Chevalier, John Bayard, First Lieutenant 416 

*Clark, Robert FitzGerald, Ensign 376 

*Clement, Frederic Percival, Jr., First Lieutenant ...... 321 

Cleveland, Robert L., Second Lieutenant 470 

Clowes, Lloyd Roberts, Second Lieutenant 446 

Codman, Charles R., First Lieutenant 136 

Coggeshall, James, Jr., Ensign 444 

Colton, Samuel H., First Lieutenant 74 

Constan, Peter K., Second Lieutenant 301 

*Coolidge, Hamilton, Captain 62 

Cormack, William Sinclair, Jr., Ensign 444 

Coward, Raymond S., Second Lieutenant 168 

*Cowles, Donald B., First Lieutenant 160 

Cowles, Francis W., First Lieutenant 158 

*Craigie, Victor Raleigh, Second Lieutenant 268 

Crocker, Charles T., Ill, First Lieutenant 84 

Crompton, George, Jr., Lieutenant 408 

Cunningham, Arthur Lawrence, First Lieutenant 80 

Curtis, Frazier, Private 26 

Cutler, Roger Wilson, Lieutenant 398 

Davis, Roswell Emory, Second Lieutenant 462 

*Davis, Philip Washburn, Second Lieutenant 78 

Delano, Merrill Potter, Lieutenant 426 

Dickinson, Melvin Story, Second Lieutenant ...... 266 

Dolan, Charles H., Jr., First Lieutenant 29 

Duke, Leslie B., Second Lieutenant 450 

Dunton, Gardner, Second Lieutenant 454 

Dwight, Henry William, Second Lieutenant 178 

[x] 



CONTENTS 



Eaton, Sherburne, Pilot . ....... .>, 238 

Edwards, John Winthrop, First Lieutenant 338 

Elliott, John Morse, Second Lieutenant 454 

*Ely, Dinsmore, Second Lieutenant ........ 225 

*Emerson, William Key Bond, Jr., Second Lieutenant .... 170 

Estill, Joe Garner, Jr., First Lieutenant 340 

Fiske, Gardiner Horsford, First Lieutenant 122 

Fitch, Willis Stetson, First Lieutenant 216 

Foster, William Wallace, First Lieutenant 198 

Freeman, Talbot Otis, First Lieutenant ....... 252 

*Frost, Henry Bradley, First Lieutenant 270 

*Gillett, Robert Swift, First Lieutenant 302 

Goodspeed, Morton, Lieutenant (j.g.) 406 

Greene, Paul Stevens, First Lieutenant 104 

Guilbert, Horace Moss, First Lieutenant 196 

*Hall, James Grantley, First Lieutenant 272 

Hall, James Norman, Captain 22 

Hall, Roy Wales, First Lieutenant 144 

Hartley, Francis, Jr., Ensign . 404 

Harwood, Robert Walker, Second Lieutenant 348 

Headle, Marshall, First Lieutenant 346 

*Hill, Arnold Whittier, Lieutenant 262 

Hinckley, Nelson C., Second Lieutenant 448 

Hinds, Horace Sargent, Ensign 440 

Hitchcock, Harry C., Second Lieutenant 448 

Hockert, Jenkin R., First Lieutenant 235 

Hodges, Charles E., Jr., Ensign 410 

*Hope, Martin Luther, Cadet 388 

*Hopkins, Stephen T., Second Lieutenant 133 

Horton, Charles Dabney, Sergent-Pilote 250 

Hoyt, Howard C, Second Lieutenant 364 

Hubbard, Gardiner Greene, Captain , . 264 

*Hubbard, John Lester, First Lieutenant 290 

Hughes, Gerard Hastings, First Lieutenant 206 

Hughes, George F., Captain 208 

*Hull, Howard B., Second Lieutenant 320 

*Hunt, Jason Solon, First Lieutenant 72 

Hurd, Volney Dalton, Second Lieutenant 356 

Hutchins, Hurd, Lieutenant 434 

* Jerome, Gilbert Nelson, First Lieutenant 212 

*Jones, Charles Edward, Cadet 296 

*Jones, Forrest Dean, Cadet 316 

Judd, Edward David, Lieutenant (j.g.) 248 

*Keep, Frederick Arthur, Second Lieutenant 330 

Kelton, Elihu Howard, First Lieutenant 82 

Kenney, George C, Captain 202 

[xi] 



CONTENTS 



King, William Trott, Jr., Second Lieutenant 450 

Kinsley, Willburt Edward, Second Lieutenant 185 

Knight, Arthur Raymond, Second Lieutenant 240 

Knowles, James, Jr., First Lieutenant 59 

Lambert, John Holme, Captain 194 

Lasell, John Whitin, Second LAeutenant 328 

Lavalle, John, Jr., First Lieutenant 280 

Little, Charles Gray, Lieutenant 426 

*Lochman, Dean Edmund, Jr., Lieutenant (j.g.) 396 

Locke, Bradford Brooks, First Lieutenant . . .. . . . 332 

Lockhart, W. Lawson, First Lieutenant 200 

Loomis, Ralph Lane, Ensign 230 

Loomis, William Pitch, First Lieutenant 228 

Lovell, Walter, Captain 34 

*Lufbery, Raoul, Major 2 

*Mandell, Samuel Pierce, Second, First Lieutenant 149 

McGrath, Michael Francis, Second Lieutenant 452 

McLennan, John Charles Earle, Second Lieutenant .... 142 

Means, Gardiner Coit, Second Lieutenant 436 

*Meeker, William Henry, Corporal 236 

Merrill, George Parker, Jr., Second Lieutenant 456 

*Messer, Raymond B., First Lieutenant 308 

*Metcalf, Harry Hubbard, Second Lieutenant 312 

Mitchell, John, Captain 56 

Moore, Robert Lowell, First Lieutenant 232 

Moore, Walter C, Cadet 472 

*Morse, Eugene Dorr, Second Lieutenant 310 

Morse, Thomas Robeson, Lieutenant (j.g.) 438 

Munn, Ector O., First Lieutenant . m 

Murchie, Harry Foster, Second Lieutenant 460 

*Nathan, Thomas Cushman, First Lieutenant 276 

*Nichols, Brayton, Second Lieutenant 162 

No yes, Stephen Henley, Major 182 

O'Brien, William B., First Lieutenant 242 

Osgood, Forrest C, Ensign 452 

*Parsons, Arthur Maxwell, Second Lieutenant 306 

Parsons, Edwin C, Sous-Lieutenant 14 

Payne, Karl C, First Lieutenant 116 

Peak, Lawrence I., First Lieutenant 222 

Perkins, Charles Kingman, First Lieutenant 366 

*Perkins, Roger Conant, Chief Quartermaster 368 

*Pero, Donald Cary, Ensign 394 

Perrin, John, Lieutenant (j.g.) 391 

Phelps, Ralph Maurice, First Lieutenant 352 

*Plummer, Charles W., Second Lieutenant 191 

Pollard, Fred Don, Jr., Second Lieutenant 365 

[xii ] 



CONTENTS 



Potter, Stanley B., Cadet 472 

Prince, Frederick Henry, Jr., Adjutant 20 

*Prince, Norman, Sous-Lieutenant 17 

Raymond, Robert Fulton, Jr., Captain 76 

*Rheno, Walter Davis, First Lieutenant 38 

Richmond, Arthur L., Captain . 370 

*Riley, Frank W., Ensign 386 

Robinson, Clark, Second Lieutenant 219 

Rollins, Carle E., Second Lieutenant . . . . . . . 184 

*Roosevelt, Quentin, First Lieutenant .70 

Ryan, Harold Lyman, Lieutenant (j.g.) 424 

Safford, Loyal R., Second Lieutenant 350 

*Sanger, Ralph, Captain 304 

Searle, Richard W., Second Lieutenant 372 

Sewall, Sumner, First Lieutenant 52 

Shedd, Paul W., Second Lieutenant 456 

*Smith, Winthrop Floyd, Ensign 378 

Sonnabend, A. Morris, Ensign 442 

Soule, Seymour, Cadet 362 

Spear, George Dana, First Lieutenant 110 

Sprague, George E., Chief Quartermaster 278 

Stanley, Clarence, Ensign 464 

Stanley, Gilbert, First Lieutenant 154 

Stanley, Leonard L., First Lieutenant 464 

Starkweather, Ralph, Second Lieutenant 462 

*Starrett, Frank Elmer, Jr., Cadet 42 

Stearns, Russell Falconer, Corporal 36 

*Stearns, William St. Agnan, First Lieutenant 354 

*Stewart, Gordon, Cadet 294 

*Swan, Willard Frederick, Sergeant 285 

*Talbot, Ralph, Lieutenant (j.g.) 383 

Talbot, Robert A., Lieutenant (j.g.) . . 422 

Taylor, Moseley, Lieutenant (j.g.) 420 

*Taylor, Raymond Clyde, First Lieutenant 146 

Thayer, Sigourney, First Lieutenant 68 

Thomas, Walter Frederic, Second Lieutenant 360 

Torrey, William Wheelwright, Second Lieutenant 432 

Trainer, H. Potter, First Lieutenant 342 

Trider, George H., Jr., Second Lieutenant 324 

Trowbridge, Charles E., First Lieutenant 156 

*Tutein, Chester Robinson, Second Lieutenant 87 

Vogel, Henry W., Second Lieutenant 466 

Ward, Charles Lakeman, Second Lieutenant 344 

Warner, Donald D., First Lieutenant 152 

*Wehner, Joseph F, First Lieutenant . . . 90 

Wellman, Arthur Ogden, Second Lieutenant 246 

[ xiii ] 



CONTENTS 



Wellman, William Augustus, First Lieutenant ...... 243 

Wells, Bennett, First Lieutenant . . . . . . . .96 

Wenz, Edward A., Lieutenant (j.g.) 430 

Wetherald, Royal Winter, Ensign ........ 260 

*Williams, Bertram, First Lieutenant ........ 138 

Willis, Harold Buckley, Sous-Lieutenant 44 

Wilson, Donald, Ensign 400 

*Winterton, Roland John, Second Lieutenant 314 

*Woodward, Le Roy Gates, First Lieutenant 288 

*Wright, Arthur Houstoun, First Lieutenant 380 



INTRODUCTION 



Modern warfare, with the vast number of men engaged, with its, 
organization and its efficiency, has tended to efface the individual 
as compared with the action of the mass; but in this war a new 
weapon developed which brought back the personal exploit of the 
individual warrior. 

The range and precision of modern guns had, at the time this 
war broke out, rendered inadequate the former methods of observ- 
ing operations on the field of battle. But just at that time aviation 
had been developed as a practical art to such a point that it could 
be used for observing the effects of artillery and the movements of 
the enemy. Airplanes became an essential means of information — 
the very eyes of the army. They could be used also to drop bombs 
upon the enemy's depots far to the rear. 

All this involved on the part of the other army the need of inter- 
ference with hostile observation and bombing planes; and as that 
could be done with very limited effect from the ground, armed 
planes were required that could attack and destroy the machines 
of the enemy. In accordance with the ordinary progress of warfare, 
the fighting planes of both sides became organized forces, trained 
to do battle with each other, manoeuvring in squadrons with regu- 
lar formations to give the greatest strength by mutual support. Al- 
though under the command of a leader of the squadron, the indi- 
vidual machines — like the separate ships in a fleet — were handled 
with a far greater independence than is possible with the small 
units of a land force; even more so, in fact, than is the case with 
warships; for in an encounter in the air the suddenness of the at- 
tack, the frequent surprises, the unexpected and rapid movements 
of the enemy, render necessary quick movements of attack and 
escape by single planes that leaves much to the personal skill, self- 
reliance, and decision of the aviator. He was the officer and crew of 
his own craft, for at most there were in ordinary fighting planes 
only two men, the pilot and the observer. 

Conditions like this appealed strongly to young men of enter- 
prise, initiative, and daring. The risk was, of course, exceedingly 
great; for to be beaten in an encounter meant almost certain death; 
and often that was true of a serious accident to the machine. Al- 
though death came quickly, it came in a form that to most people 

[ xv] 



INTRODUCTION 



is peculiarly terrifying; but no such dangers deterred these young 
men. As Philip Washburn Davis, who was afterwards killed, wrote 
in a letter quoted in the following pages, "Once I had determined 
to get into the army, I wanted to get into something where individ- 
uality counts; and it does in aviation more than anywhere else. 
Even if the danger is greater, the value of the service is greater, 
too." Were it not that the large number of aviators distracts at- 
tention from the individual exploit, these men would appear as 
paladins of romance; and their spirit, their adventures, and their 
feats would abundantly justify their being so treated. 

As compared with other arms, the proportion killed was large; 
the more so considering that a great part of the men were in active 
service only a few months, some only a few weeks. There are gold 
stars against 95 out of the 542 names. 

Some facts about the history of these aviators are interesting. A 
very large proportion of them were college men, some having grad- 
uated and others having left before their academic course was com- 
pleted. A number of them served with the British and French 
forces in the line or in the air before the United States entered the 
war; while others were members of one or other of the ambulance 
corps before that date. These were men who saw clearly from the 
early days of the war that it was a conflict for all that is most 
precious in civilization; and they felt keenly the longing to aid 
those who were fighting for moral standards in the world. 

To gather and publish the records of the aviators from New 
England who took an active part in the war was an excellent pro- 
ject, which one may hope will be followed in the rest of the country; 
for whether they be dead or living, their deeds are worthy of any 
commemoration and honor that can be given. 

A. Lawrence Lowell 

Harvard University 
November, 1919 



THE FACES OF THE AVIATORS 



By Joseph Edgar Chamberlin 

[This article, reproduced by the kind permission of the author, was written on 
the occasion of the opening of the exhibition of the Aviation pictures. 

Mr. Chamberlin's only son, Raymond Chamberlin, of the 102d Machine Gun 
Battalion, U.S.A., was killed in action in August, 1918.] 

Wonderful faces of bravest boys! In the whole world there is 
nothing more significant than these photographs. We are told 
that God sifted three kingdoms to find the wheat for the planting 
of our American Nation. If that is so, here is another sifting of our 
whole Nation (in this collection mostly a sifting of our New Eng- 
land corner of it) to find this golden grain of buoyant adventure, 
of skill, of matchless courage, of willing sacrifice for the greatest 
end, that we see on these walls. 

Faces and faces — faces of New England boys — faces all of 
boys, for the men of forty that we see among the French aviators 
are wanting here; faces, all of them, marked abundantly with that 
"sweet attractive kind of grace" that the old poet described as 
"continual comfort in a face"; not a hard face among them; faces 
of boys that look out on the world with that sort of expression that 
one would wear in opening a morning window on a sun-flooded 
world on a holiday; expectation of and confidence in a good world 
written in all these eager eyes, yet seriousness and devotion in 
every face. 

In many of these young flyers' faces one sees, indeed, the smile. 
It is the native smile of that same "attractive grace." But always 
underneath it there lies the serious, achieving purpose, the con- 
sciousness of a great duty instantly assumed and cheerily borne. 
It is (so noted the observer of the aviators' faces who now writes 
these words) very like the expression that one sees on the graduates' 
faces on Commencement Day. There is the confident smile, but 
there is also the look of one fronting a big world in which there is 
but one thing to do, and that to acquit one's self a man; it is joy in 
the duty, but the duty unforgotten. 

Certainly the Yankee race has never produced a handsomer 
type of young manhood than is shown by the photographs of these 
aviators. Old-time rolled velvet collars, purple broadcloth and 
brocaded waistcoats, with ambrosial locks to frame the faces, 
might have been more becoming than these stern khaki uniforms, 
[ xvii ] 



THE FACES OF THE AVIATORS 



reducing a man to his lowest terms, but the faces themselves were 
never, among our people, surpassed in beauty and expressiveness. 

As far as the photographs of these aviators reveal the facial type 
of the young American of to-day of the best race, one would say 
that our evolution has produced in us a rounder, gentler face than 
that of the New Englander of old. The Puritan, on the whole, 
fades away; our picked men verge toward the Cavalier. For in 
spite of the return of the Puritan type here and there, few stern 
and no forbidding lineaments are to be seen. Nor is the Roman 
nose at all preponderant. The nose seems to be rather oftener a 
little retroussS than otherwise. Foreheads are not unduly high, nor 
the pale cast of thought very much in evidence. 

No hollow cheeks, no sunken eyes; these are well-nourished sons 
of well-nourished parents, who for the most part have been shel- 
tered from any other hardships or hard knocks than those which 
they have themselves sought in their sports. These are the faces 
that peace and plenty and comfort produce. 

But what a vindication of our modern life, that it should pro- 
duce no weakness as the result of all this kindly shelter, but should 
actually advance the race in strength! Nathan Hale could not 
have offered his life with a purer or less ostentatious spirit than 
you will find written in every one of these countenances. 

Of those among the Missing who will never come back, and 
among those of the Golden Star, we should not, if they had ab- 
solutely known what was coming, have been fronted to-day with 
one smile the less, nor with a shadow on a single brow. Each one 
has the joyous look. He would have had it if he had known. He 
will wear it forever; it is always the same. 

Brave, good, and true, 
I see him stand before me now, 
And read again on that young brow, 

Where every hope was new, 
"How sweet were life!" Yet, by the mouth firm-set, 
And look made up for Duty's utmost debt. 

I could divine he knew 
That death within the sulphurous hostile lines, 
In the mere wreck of nobly-pitched designs, 

Plucks heart's-ease and not rue! 



NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 



*EAOUL LUFBERY 



Lafayette Escadrille; Major, A.S., U.S.A. 
Killed in action, May 19, 1918 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Edward Lufbery, of Wallingford, Conn.; was 
born in France in 1886; his father being an American and his 
mother a Frenchwoman. At the age of seventeen he ran away from 
his home, and began his career of travel and adventure. During 
the next four years he journeyed over France, Algiers, Tunis, 
Egypt, Turkey, and the Balkans, working at anything that came 
his way. In 1906 he returned to the U.S., and in 1907 entered the 
Regular Army; he spent the next two years in the Philippines, 
where he distinguished himself as a marksman (holding first 
place as rifleman in his regiment). 

Leaving the army at the end of his two years' service, he con- 
tinued his travels; he roamed over China and Japan, finally reaching 
India, where at Saignon, Cochin China, he saw his first aeroplane 
in 1910, and made the acquaintance of Marc Pourpe. This famous 
French trick-flyer, who was exhibiting in the Far East, engaged 
Lufbery as his mechanic, and soon found him an invaluable aid. 
For three years they travelled and worked together, and 1914 
found them in France at the outbreak of the war. Pourpe at once 
enlisted in the Air Service, with N 23, and Lufbery wished to do 
the same, but being an American was forced to join the Foreign 
Legion; following which he was allowed to accompany Pourpe to 
the front as his mechanic. 

On Dec. 2, 1914, Pourpe was killed, and Lufbery, longing to 
avenge his death, at once applied for permission to fly. After a few 
days he was given his brevet, and was enrolled in the celebrated 
Escadrille of Bombardment, the V 102. Six months later he was 
transferred to the newly organized Lafayette Escadrille, where he 
began those heroic exploits in the air that eventually won for him 
the title of "American Ace of Aces." 

From this time on his success was rapid. On July 30, 1916, he 
brought down his first plane, over Etain, and a week later van- 
quished another; these successes won him his first citation from 
the French Government, which read: 

Model of address, of coolness, and of courage. He has distinguished 
himself by numerous long-distance bombardments, and by daily combats 



RAOUL LUFBERY 



he has had with enemy aeroplanes. On July 30 he unhesitatingly attacked 
at close range a group of four enemy machines. He shot one of them down 
near our lines. Succeeded in bringing down a second on the 4th of Aug., 
1916. 

A third plane was brought down in flames a few days later, and 
shortly after, a fourth. Lufbery was promoted to Adjutant, and 
on Oct. 12, 1916, won his fifth victory over a huge three-seater 
Aviatik, shot down in flames during a bombing expedition against 
the munition factories at Karlsruhe. It was during this expedition 
that Norman Prince was mortally wounded. 

Lufbery was now an "Ace," and according to the French custom 
was given a citation for each subsequent victory. He continued his 
successes, and on Dec. 27 shot down two planes in one day, only 
one of which, however, was officially credited to him; in one of 
these combats he narrowly escaped death. For these and other 
exploits he was awarded the Croix de Guerre with ten Palms, the 
Medaille Militaire, and named a Chevalier in the Legion of Honor. 
He was the first American to receive from England the British 
Military Cross, which was bestowed upon him on June 12, 1917; 
he also received three other English medals. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in June, 1917. During this 
month he brought down his tenth enemy plane; on this occasion, 
when flying alone at 18,000 feet altitude, he saw seven Boches at 
a distance, but observing that one of them was cut off from the 
others, he dived upon him, firing as he approached; after twenty- 
five or thirty shots, his gun jammed, but he had already accom- 
plished his purpose, as his foe wavered and crashed into the 
German trenches. 

When the U.S. entered the war, and began to prepare her own 
Air Service, the experienced fighting pilots, who had been doing 
their part for France, were given charge of the new American es- 
cadrilles. Both Lufbery and William Thaw, who had been original 
members of N 124, were commissioned Majors in the A.S., U.S.A. 
Lufbery's commission was received Nov. 7, 1917, and he was made 
Commanding Officer of the Lafayette Escadrille. 

During the time of his service in France, Lufbery suffered much 
from severe attacks of rheumatism, which at times kept him in 
hospital, but although often enduring acute suffering, which was 

[ 4 ] 



RAOUL LUFBERY 



increased by the inclement weather, he continued to work with 
his Squadron, carrying on with unabated enthusiasm his active 
patrolling, and exposing himself to every risk. 

On Sunday, May 19, 1918, Lufbery went aloft over Toul with 
his fighting Squadron. Enemy machines were at this time hovering 
over the American line. Seeing a German Fokker (a great armored 
plane, a single-seater triplane, the first of its kind that had been 
used) deep enough within the Allied territory to be cut off before 
it could escape, Lufbery darted swiftly to the attack. The exact 
details of the combat will probably never be known, but the Amer- 
ican "Ace" was seen to fall in flames, and when 2000 feet from the 
ground, he was seen to jump from the blazing mass to instant 
death. When Lufbery's body was picked up, it was found to have 
been practically uninjured by enemy bullets, and it has been 
stated that had he been provided with a parachute attachment, 
his life might have been spared for further victories. Moreover, 
had his plane been equipped with a non-inflammable fuel tank, he 
would no doubt have scored his nineteenth victory. As it was, 
he stood officially credited with eighteen enemy planes, and was 
known to have brought down many more. 

At Lufbery's death the title of "American Ace" passed to Lieut. 
Frank L. Baylies, upon whose death it was accorded to Lieut. 
David Putnam, of Brookline. 

Lufbery's body was found where he fell, in a flower garden in 
the village of Maron. His machine crashed to earth in flames half 
a kilometre away and was burned to ashes. The American aviators 
who rushed to the spot where Lufbery lay, found him already 
covered with flowers by the peasants who had seen him fall. He 
was unwounded save by a bullet which had passed through the 
hand that held the control lever, and set his petrol tank on fire. 

Lufbery's funeral was held on May 20, 1918, and he was buried 
with full military honors on the hillside back of the American 
lines. Six of his fellow flyers dropped roses on the bier and an 
eloquent tribute was paid by the French General, who said that 
Lufbery's work was typical of the union of America and France in 
the common cause. He closed his address with the simple words, 
"Au revoir." 

[ 5 ] 



* FRANK LEAMAN BAYLIES 



Lafayette Flying Corps, "Stork" Escadrille 
Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA. 
Killed in action, June 17, 1918 

Son of Charles S. and Lydia Terry (Paige) Baylies; was born in 
New Bedford, Mass., Sept. 23, 1895. He was educated in the New 
Bedford Public Schools, and at the Moses Brown School, Provi- 
dence, He was always interested in sports, and was an expert 
swimmer; he was also an expert automobile driver, one of his quali- 
fications for the Ambulance Service. 

He volunteered in the Automobile Sanitary Section, U.S.A., in 
May, 1916, and was on duty at the French front, on the Somme, at 
Verdun, and in the Argonne; then for three months in the Monastir 
sector, Serbia; where, in an order of March 25, 1917, he was cited 
for "perfect devotion and fearlessness " in evacuating wounded 
under bombardment, and was given the French Croix de Guerre, 
with palm. He served with the American Ambulance Corps from 
May, 1916, to May 11, 1917, when he enlisted in the French Avia- 
tion Corps, and was trained as a flyer at Avord, Pau, and Lake 
Cazaux. In Nov., 1917, he was sent to the front as a member of the 
"Stork" Pursuit Squadron, and he became one of the most famous 
aces of that famous Escadrille. He served first at Dunkirk, later at 
Verdun, then in the Champagne sector. After his sixth official vic- 
tory he was cited by the French as a " chasing pilot of the highest 
class, who always seeks combat and leads marvellously the patrol 
of which he is chief. On April 12 he destroyed alone his fifth enemy 
aeroplane, and the following day he gained his sixth victory." He 
was then Sergeant of the Foreign Legion, pilot in Spad Squad- 
ron; and he refused a Captaincy in the American Aviation Service 
to keep the lower rank in his Escadrille. 

Following Feb., 1918, eleven German planes were officially cred- 
ited to Lieut. Baylies, and he was in reality a victor more than 
twenty times. 

On May 13, 1918, he was transferred to the U.S. Aviation Signal 
Service Reserve Corps, and commissioned 2d Lieut, in an order 
dated May 20, 1918. On June 17, 1918, he fell in combat behind 
the German lines, near Montdidier, and was instantly killed. He 
was at first reported missing; a note, however, was thrown over 

[ 6 ] 



FRANK LEAMAN BAYLIES 



the lines by a German aviator stating that Frank L. Baylies, an 
American aviator, fell at Rellet and was buried in a private tomb. 

Besides the Croix de Guerre with palms, the Military Medal, and 
the ribbons of the French Legion and of the Lafayette Flying Corps, 
Lieut. Baylies was given a medal by the Aero Club of America, and 
the French Legion of Honor. 

On May 30, 1919, a handsome bronze tablet, given by the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, Fort Phenix Chapter, New Bed- 
ford, was placed in the Josiah Swift School which Lieut. Baylies had 
attended. The inscription is as follows: 

In Memory of Frank Leaman Baylies, American Ace, Member of the 
Lafayette Flying Corps, killed in action June 17, 1918. "Greater love 
hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." 

A letter to Lieut. Baylies's mother from Major Gros, command- 
ing officer, A.S. Signal Reserve Corps, said in part: 

Your son met a glorious death. He was one of the shining lights of our 
Aviation. He was a soldier without fear and without reproach. You must 
apply to him the eloquent words spoken in the British Parliament with 
respect to aviators; you must not turn your mind on your sorrow, you 
must turn it towards all the glory which your son has won and the name 
which he will leave behind him when the story of this great war is written. 
He has taken his place by the side of all those heroes who gladly gave up 
that which is most precious of all, their lives, for the greatest ideal, the 
happiness of the human race. 

In a dispatch to the Chicago Daily News dated July 8, 1918, Paul 
Ayres Rockwell paid tribute to the recently fallen Ace, as follows : 

One of the finest and highest-spirited figures that was ever revealed has 
disappeared from among us. To know Baylies was to like and admire him. 
His outstanding qualities were those which real heroes possess. Quiet, 
modest, and reticent on the ground, dashing, fearless, and indomitable in 
the air, Baylies goes down into history as one of the exceptional characters 
in war aviation. 

Baylies's record after reaching the front as a chasing pilot was unique. 
No other flyer in any army gained at the beginning of his career so many 
official successes over opposing pilots in so short a space of time. Baylies 
destroyed his first German airplane Feb. 19, 1918. On March 7 and 16 he 
gained his second and third victories; and on April 11 and 12 he had two 
more official triumphs. May was a wonderful month for the superb air 
fighter, confirmed victories being won May 2, 9, 10, 28, 29, and 31, making 
eleven enemy airplanes officially destroyed. 

Mention after mention was awarded to Baylies in the Army orders, and 
[ 8 ] 



FRANK LEAMAN BAYLIES 



many palms were added to his war-cross, ribbon, and military medal. 
Lately he was proposed for the Cross of the Legion of Honor, and also for 
the rank of Under-Lieutenant. 

Citations 

Order 57, March 27, 1917 : "Frank Baylies, an American volunteer in the 
Automobile Sanitary Section No. 3, twice volunteered duty at the front 
and then for the Army of the Orient. He placed at the service of wounded 
men perfect devotion and fearlessness, being daily tested under bombard- 
ment. From Dec. 19, 1916, to March 27, 1917, during the evacuation of 
wounded from the Monastir sector, he exhibited contempt for the bom- 
bardment of cities, roads, and cantonments." 

From an order dated March 9, 1918: "Frank Baylies, an American 
citizen, enlisted in the French Army before the United States declared war. 
He passed at his own request into chasing aviation, in which he displayed 
the very finest enthusiasm. On Feb. 18 he shot down single-handed an 
enemy aeroplane which crashed within our lines." 

Order dated May 6, 1918: "An excellent chasing pilot; refused to enter 
American Aviation as an officer, not wishing to leave his French squadron; 
delivers daily combats; has destroyed alone his second enemy aeroplane." 

Order dated May 29, 1918: "Frank Baylies is a brilliant, high-class 
chasing pilot. On May 9 and 10 he destroyed his seventh and eighth Ger- 
man aeroplanes." 

Lieut. Baylies won four additional citations equally remarkable. 



* OLIVER MOULTON CHADWICK 



Corporal, Escadrille 73, Groupe de Combat 12 (Lafayette 
Flying Corps) 
Killed in action, Aug. 14, 1917 

Son of Austin Kilham and Julia M. (Moulton) Chadwick; was born 
at Lowell, Mass., Sept. 23, 1888. He prepared for college at Phillips 
Exeter Academy, 1907, where he was awarded the Yale cup for 
scholarship and athletics. He graduated from Harvard College in 
1911, and from the Harvard Law School in 1914. He was one of the 
most popular men in his class, proving a leader in many under- 
graduate departments; he was coach of the Harvard freshman 
track team in 1915; assistant of the 'Varsity track team, of which 
he was asked to become coach; he attained a wide reputation for 
his skill as goal tend on the hockey team. 

After graduation he entered the house of Stone & Webster as a 
member of the legal department, but at the outbreak of the war 
in Europe was filled with a desire to aid the Allied cause, and went 
to Canada to offer his services; finding that he could not enlist there 
as an American citizen, he decided to return and enter training. He 
attended the first and second Plattsburg camps, and in 1916 spent 
four months at the Mexican Border with Battery A, 1st Reg. Mass. 
F.A., N.G. On his return North he at once arranged for lessons in 
flying under Curtiss, at Newport News, and as soon as he had ac- 
quired proficiency in handling a plane he sailed for France, where 
he entered the French Foreign Legion, enlisting Jan. 22, 1917. He 
speedily obtained his license as pilot at the school of Pau, and hav- 
ing completed a course in aerial marksmanship at Cazaux, joined 
Squadron No. 12, under command of Major Brochard, July 29, 1917. 
After some practice flights on Spad aeroplanes, he took part in 
patrol flights and was particularly marked by his skill as a pilot. 
On Aug. 3 Corporal Chadwick wrote : 

I am now somewhere, and I can describe it no more definitely than by 
saying that I should rather be there than anywhere else. One of the first 
things I saw when arriving here was Capt. Guynemer. I saw him go up, 
and an hour later come back. In the meantime he got his 50th official, . . . 
and he must have dropped about as many more out of sight behind the 
German lines. 

One of the other things of interest which I saw here was a machine 
which had been hit by several explosive bullets. They do a thorough job. 

[ 10 ] 



OLIVER MOULTON CHAD WICK 



The men here are a splendid lot. It is the most famous group of escadrilles 
in the world and the finest commander. If I don't learn how to be a good 
Boche hunter, it will be my own fault. I am not at liberty to say where I 
am, or much about what is going on, but here is a generality drawn from 
the past, which will probably hold good for the future: Wherever the pot 
boils, there is to be found Groupe de Combat 12. 

On Aug. 14 he was not scheduled to fly until afternoon, but anx- 
ious to get all the practice possible, he went to the field in the morn- 
ing hoping that an extra man might be needed. A patrol was just 
going out, and being one man short, he was asked to fill the place. 
They set out at nine o'clock, and at 9.45, the patrol engaged in 
combat with an enemy squadron near the forest of Houthulst. An 
English patrol also took part in the fight, and seeing it attacked by 
an Albatross, Chadwick hastened to its assistance. At the same mo- 
ment he was attacked from the rear by two enemy Albatross pilots 
and his machine was seen to fall towards the earth. It landed 1200 
metres north of the village of Bischoff, exactly between the two 
lines. At the time of its fall, both French and Germans came out of 
the trenches and a skirmish took place about the machine without 
any definite result, the two parties shortly returning to their shel- 
ters. Two or three days later, a new French attack carried the lines 
forward to the exact place where the machine had fallen. The Spad 
was found with the body of a German beside it, but no trace of Pilot 
Chadwick. It was not until many weeks later that the certainty of 
his death was assured, and his burial place found marked with his 
name. 

Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, Senator of France, wrote to 
Nicholas Murray Butler, of Columbia University, concerning the 
devotion and loyalty of Chadwick. He said: 

He has literally flown to the defence of liberty, and might be likened to 
a young god. The letters which he wrote me filled me at the same timewith 
admiration and anxiety, for he had but one thought. He was intensely eager 
to devote himself to the service at the earliest possible hour. I have often 
thought that he was one of those whom we describe as too good for this 
earth. When I consider such a loss, the only consolation which I find is that 
self-sacrifice such as that of Chadwick bears more beautiful fruit perhaps 
after death than during life. Such beautiful generosity awakens in souls 
still undeveloped unexpected inspirations and a desire to emulate. The 
heroic devotion of a single person is sufficient to animate suddenly the in- 

[ 12 ] 



OLIVER MOULTON CHADWICK 



difference of a crowd, of an army, of a nation, of a world. And then all hu- 
manity profits by the death of these magnificent young people, apparently 
wasted, but in reality most fruitful. 

In July, 1919, the Croix de Guerre, awarded Chadwick by the 
French Minister of War, was personally presented to the aviator's 
father by Baron d'Estournelles de Constant. 

Corporal Chadwick was awarded a blue ribbon decked with stars 
and the insignia of the Lafayette Escadrille, in recognition of serv- 
ice rendered, accompanied by the announcement : 

The President of the Council, Minister of War, has decided to award a 
souvenir to the four directing officers and to the 214 pilots of the Lafayette 
Flying Corps, who in helping the cause of our people, fraternally joined 
the French ranks, sharing a great part of the perils and glories of war. 

A war medal was awarded Chadwick by the Aero Club of Amer- 
ica, "In recognition of Valor and Distinguished Service," in Jan., 
1918, with an accompanying certificate on which was inscribed: 

In recognition of the services rendered to France and her Allies for the 
cause of humanity.this certificate has been issued to Serg't Oliver M. Chad- 
wick who served during the European war in the capacity of pilot in the 
Lafayette Escadrille, killed on Aug. 14, 1917; thereby in a measure repay- 
ing the great debt which America owes France and contributing to the vic- 
tory of Liberty and Civilization over military autocracy. 

Croix de Guerre {with star) 1 

Le Colonel, Commandant la Division Aerienne 
Cite a l'Ordre de la Division 

Chadwick, Oliver Moulton 
Caporal, pilote, aviateur 

Jeune pilote, venu au front apres quelques mois d'Ecole, a fait preuve 
d'une haute bravoure, d'un noble caractere et, malgre l'inexperience des 
combats aeriens,a afforme, des son arrivee dans une unite francaise (Spa 73), 
l'ardente volonte de prendre part a la lutte. 

Au cours d'une mission a basse altitude, sur les lignes ennemis, a sou- 
tenu un dur combat au cours duquel il est mort en Heros. 
Copie certifiee conforme au G.Q.G. le 7 juin. 

Le GenSral Commandant l' aviation frangaise 

M. Duval 

1 The silver star is added to show that Corporal Chadwick was cited for bravery 
in the Army orders of his Squadron. 



[ 13 ] 



EDWIN C. PARSONS 



Sous-Lieutenant, Escadrille Lafayette, " Stork " Escadrille 

Son of Frederick D. and Grace M. (Steele) Parsons, of Springfield, 
Mass . ; was born Sept. 24, 1892, at Holyoke, IVIass. He was educated 
in the public schools of Springfield, and at Phillips Exeter Academy. 

In Dec, 1915, he sailed overseas to enter the Ambulance Service. 
While at his first ambulance work at Neuilly-sur-Seine, Jan., 1916, 
was made Sergeant, and was later given charge of a section of the 
Ambulance at Mrs. Whitney Warren's Hospital at Juilly, near the 
Soissons front. 

While there he made his application to enter the Aviation Serv- 
ice, and in April, 1916, his papers arrived. He served three days 
in the Foreign Legion (during which time he took the oath of alle- 
giance to France for the duration of the war). His first training was 
at Buc where he was made Corporal after three months' work. From 
there he was transferred to the school at Avord for training in "pur- 
suit flying"; then to Cazaux for machine-gun work; and to Pau for 
"group flying." About Dec. 8, 1916, he went to Plessis-Belleville 
for final training, and was there when "demanded" by the Esca- 
drille Lafayette which he joined Jan. 24, 1917. 

He was made Sergeant in Feb. and won his first honors — being 
cited with two others in the order of the day for having had three 
aerial combats the day previous. 

He brought down his first Hun in Sept., 1917, and was awarded 
the Croix de Guerre. 

From Nov., till Jan., 1918, he was at home on leave, and upon his 
return, the Lafayette (N 124) being taken over by America, he 
joined the French 124, but in April was assigned to the Cigognes 
or "Stork" Escadrille (Spad 3). He was commissioned Sous-Lieu- 
tenant in the fall of 1918. 

He got most of his enemy machines while with this organization, 
receiving the silver stork after his third. He has eight officially con- 
firmed enemy planes to his credit. 

He has the right to wear the Croix de Guerre with eight palms, 
the Medaille Militaire, and fourragere, the latter awarded the Es- 
cadrille as a group, after winning its 150th plane, and the silver 
stork. 

He also received the Cross of Leopold, the Belgium War Cross, 
[ 14 ] 



EDWIN C. PARSONS 



and Medal of the Aero Club of America. He was awarded the 
William Pynchon Medal by the Publicity Club of Springfield in 
1918. 

Citations 

Sept. 4, 1917 N 124 

Bon pilote de chasse qui execute avec entrain les missions qui lui sont 
confiees. Le 4 septembre a attaque et abattu un avion ennemi en pieces 
sur Neuilly (l er avion). 

Citoyen arnericain fait preuve depuis deux ans, deja comme pilote de 
chasse d'un devouement absolu, d'une joyeuse bravoure. Le 6 mai 1918 a 
abattu seul son 2 e avion ennemi. 

Excellent pilote de chasse a abattu seul le 17 mai 1918 son 3 e avion 
ennemi. 

Excellent pilote de chasse, execute avec intelligence toute mission; 
a abattu le 19 mai 1918 son 4 e avion ennemi. 

Pilote tres energique, plein de courage et d'entrain, le 20 mai 1918 a 
abattu son 5 e avion ennemi. 

Citoyen arnericain, pilote d'elite, executant avec gaiete les missions les 
plus ingrates, vient encore le 29 aout d'abattre seul son sixieme avion 
ennemi dans des conditions difficiles (dated 5 septembre 1918). 

Excellent pilote de chasse remarquable pour son audace bravoure et 
devouement, a abattu le 26 septembre 1918 son septieme ennemi. 

Pilote de chasse exceptionale pour son courage, un vrai modele pour ses 
camarades, le l er octobre 1918 a descendu tres bas dans les lignes ennemis 
et abattu son tantieme avion ennemi dans les tres durs conditions. 

On June 17, 1918, Lieut. Parsons accompanied Lieut. Baylies on 
his last flight. The latter's swift machine carried him far ahead of 
his companion, who saw him in combat with four enemy planes be- 
fore his machine went down over the enemy's lines. It was days 
before his comrades received the news of Baylies's fate. 

Lieut. Parsons avenged his late companion's death by bringing 
down a Hun machine which approached him camouflaged as a 
French plane. After a hot fight, Parsons gained a position above his 
adversary and after firing a burst of not over ten shots, the enemy 
dropped like a stone from a high altitude. 

During the month of Oct., 1918, being ill, he was given a per- 
mission and was at Biarritz when the Armistice was signed. He has 
since returned to America. 



[ 16 ] 



* NORMAN PRINCE 



Sous-Lieutenant, Lafayette Escadrille 

Killed in action, Oct. 15, 1916 

Norman Prince was the younger of the two sons of Frederick 
Henry and Abigail (Norman) Prince and the grandson of Frederick 
Q. Prince, a former Mayor of Boston, and of George H. Norman, 
of Newport, R.L Born Aug. 31, 1887, at Prides Crossing, Mass., he 
received his early education under private tutors in this country 
and in Europe and completed his preparation for college at Groton. 
He was graduated at Harvard College in the class of 1908, receiving 
a cum laude with his degree of Bachelor of Arts. He received a de- 
gree of Bachelor of Laws from the Harvard Law School three years 
later and was admitted to the bar, beginning the practice of his pro- 
fession in Chicago. He devoted much of his time to the study and 
practice of aviation at a time when flying was popularly regarded 
as a mere sport rather than a practical utility in this country. 

At the outbreak of the World War, in 1914, he offered his serv- 
ices to France as a volunteer aviator, taking passage abroad in 
Dec. of that year, and receiving his preliminary training at the Mili- 
tary Aviation School at Pau. Having won a certificate of proficiency 
in four months, he distinguished himself by his skill and bravery 
in many air raids against the enemy, winning at once the confidence 
and admiration of his commander and comrades. 

At the beginning of his active service he conceived the idea of 
bringing the American aviators, together with some of those of the 
Foreign Legion, into a single squadron, not only that the Ameri- 
cans might be associated in closer comradeship, but also that their 
achievements might become more distinctive and thus redound to 
the glory of their own country as well as to that of the Allies. With 
this end in view he was primarily and chiefly instrumental in or- 
ganizing the Lafayette Escadrille. Originally carrying the Tricolor, 
this famous squadron subsequently had the distinction of carrying 
the first American flag that appeared on any of the battle-fields of 
the World War, after the United States became a co-belligerent. 

The Lafayette Escadrille became famous for skill and daring in 
the battle-fronts and Prince soon achieved the ranks of Sergent, 
Adjudant, and Lieutenant successively, and was actively engaged 
in 122 aerial engagements in northern France. He was credited 

[ 17 ] 



NORMAN PRINCE 



officially with five Bodies brought down in battle, not to mention 
four others not officially recorded. 

On Oct. 12, 1916, while descending from an aerial raid on 
Oberndorff, his plane struck an aerial cable near Luxeuil, Alsace. 
In the collision his machine was overturned and wrecked, Prince 
receiving injuries from which he died at the neighboring Gerardmer 
Hospital three days subsequently. 

He was given all the honors of military funeral, which was held 
on the Luxeuil aviation field and was attended by a large represen- 
tation of the Allied military divisions. The body was borne to a 
neighboring chapel, there to rest until the end of the war in accord- 
ance with the military regulations regarding the temporary dispo- 
sition of those dying at the battle-fronts. 

Citations 

Croix de Guerre, with tivo stars, and four palms 

First Star, won for being cited in L'Ordre du Jour of his Division for 
having been the only one of twenty-five aviators to reach Douai in 1915. 

First Palm, won for being cited in L'Ordre du Jour of the French Army 
for having brought down an enemy avion. 

Second Palm, for having brought down two enemy avions on the same 
day — at the same time receiving the 

Third Palm, cited in L'Ordre du Jour for having brought down a fourth 
enemy avion, and for meritorious service in a raid on the Mauser Ammuni- 
tion Works at Oberndorff — at the same time receiving the Medaille Mili- 
taire. 

He was also awarded the Croix de la Legion d'Honneur. 

In writing of the founding of the Lafayette Escadrille, Elliot C. 
Cowdin, one of its original members, has said: 

Norman Prince had spent many years and made many friends in France, 
and felt it his privilege and duty to serve her in the hour of need. He con- 
ceived the idea of forming an aero squadron composed exclusively of 
Americans, to join the French Army. Prince arrived in Paris early in Jan- 
uary, 1915. He consulted with his French friends, of whom Lieut. Jacques 
de Lesseps was the most enthusiastic, and was instrumental in getting the 
French War Department to listen to Prince's ideas and plans. He solicited 
the aid of several prominent Americans then residing in Paris, but they 
all declined to be identified in any way with the scheme, so that Prince 
had to fight his own battle single-handed. The French Government told 
him they could not use his services, as Aviation was so popular among the 
soldiers that they had more aviators than they could use. 

[ 18 ] 



NORMAN PRINCE 



Prince was not to be denied, and kept plodding along on his own ac- 
count, calling on such of his French friends as might be influential, trying 
to convince them that it was essential and would be most beneficial to 
France if she would accept an American squadron. 

The only men upon whom he depended for pilots were Frazier Curtis, 
then flying in England, and Norman Read, then in Paris, and doing what 
he could to help Prince. The situation looked hopeless, but Prince was 
ever determined. . . . He finally obtained permission to form a squadron 
of six pilots, all to be Americans, with previous flying experience. 

Cowdin has described the various discouragements through 
which the founders of the Squadron passed before perfecting their 
organization. Accidents reduced their number after the quota was 
complete. Curtis had two bad smash-ups and was forced to 
withdraw; Andrew Ruel (another of the group) was injured; and 
after some months Prince and Cowdin found themselves alone, 
with their hopes sadly dimmed. At last, however, assisted by Dr. 
Gros, at Paris, with M. de Sillac and Mr. Frederick Allen cooper- 
ating, the project was carried through. Cowdin writes: 

Early in May (1916), we were all mobilized at the Alsatian front as the 
Lafayette Squadron, with French officers, Capt. Thenault and Lievit. 
de Laage, in command. The original members, besides those officers, 
were Norman Prince, William Thaw, Victor Chapman, and Kiffin Rock- 
well, of the Foreign Legion; James McConnell, who had already done 
good work in the American Ambulance before joining the French Aviation; 
Bert Hall, and myself. We remained but a short time in Alsace and were 
then transferred to the Verdun sector, where we were joined by such men 
as Lufbery, Masson, Clyde Balsley (who was severely wounded the first 
week), Dudley Hill, Lawrence Rumsey, and Chouteau Johnson. 

The Squadron increased steadily, so that at the end of the follow- 
ing year a total of 325 men had joined it, counting those training 
in various schools. Of this number more than twenty-five gave 
their lives, and there were a number wounded and taken prisoner. 

Norman Prince fortunately lived long enough to see his long- 
cherished ideas successfully carried out, and the Lafayette Squad- 
ron at the height of its success. 



[ 19 ] 



FREDERICK HENRY PRINCE, Jr. 

Lafayette Escadrille 
Son of Frederick Henry and Abigail (Norman) Prince; was born in 
Boston, on April 10, 1885. He was educated at Groton School and 
at Harvard College. 

With his younger brother Norman, he volunteered for service 
before the U.S. entered the war, and on the latter's return from his 
Christmas furlough at home in 1915, sailed with him for France 
early in 1916. He enlisted in the French Army, Jan. 29, 1916; 
brevetted a pilot, May 21, 1916, at Buc; returned to Pau for train- 
ing on Morane and Nieuport, was made a Brigadier; continued 
training at the Aerial Gunnery School at Cazaux, returning to Pau 
for the D.A.C. (Division d'Application de Combat); then to the 
G.D.E., where he waited for a place in Escadrille N 124 (Lafay- 
ette), joining on his brother's death Oct. 15, 1916. At the end of 
Feb. he was ordered to Pau as monitor, where he was made 
Marechal des Logis; after six weeks he was returned to the Esca- 
drille, then at Ham, where after a few days he was ordered back to 
Washington, D.C. In Sept., 1917, he was sent back to France to 
G.D.E. and from there ordered to report to the Chief of Liaison 
attached to the 26th Division, at Neuchateau. There he remained 
until the middle of Jan., 1918, having been promoted tb Adjudant. 
He was then sent to Le Bourget as convoyer, remaining until hon- 
orably discharged in April, 1918, to enter the U.S. Army. 

During his service he took part in 22 aerial engagements. 

Married, July 14, 1917, to Mary Elizabeth Harding, daughter of 
Hon. William P. G. Harding, of the Federal Reserve Board, 
Washington. 

Brother in Service — 

Norman Prince, Sous-Lieutenant, Lafayette Escadrille; killed 
in action, Oct. 15, 1916. 



[ 20 ] 



JAMES NORMAN HALL 



Captain, A.S.A., U.S.A.; Escadrille Lafayette (Spad 124); 
French Squadron, Spad 112; One Hundred Third Pursuit 
Squadron, U.S.A., Flight Commander, Ninety-Fourth Pur- 
suit Squadron 

Son of Arthur Wright and Ella (Young) Hall, of Colfax, la.; was 
born in Colfax, April 22, 1887. He attended the Colfax High School; 
Grinnell College, from which he graduated in 1908; and the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. For five years he made his home in Boston. 

In the spring of 1914 he went to England, intending to spend a 
year in traveling and cycling, but on the outbreak of the war he 
enlisted with the 9th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers (British), London, 
on Aug. 18, 1914. 

He spent the following winter in Aldershot and Folkestone 
drilling, and went on active duty in France with the 9th Royal 
Fusiliers on May 30, 1915. Throughout the summer he was in the 
trenches of Flanders, at Messines, Ploegsteert Wood, Loos, and 
Armentieres. In Sept., 1915, he narrowly escaped death by stepping 
into a dugout just a moment previous to the explosion of a large 
German shell which killed seven men in his squad. He was shortly 
promoted to be Lance Corporal in charge of a machine-gun section, 
and was starting for an officers' training camp on Dec. 1, 1915, when 
he was presented with his discharge from the British Army, which, 
unknown to him, his friends in Boston had been active in securing 
for him because of the illness of his father in Colfax, la. He returned 
to the United States immediately, visited Iowa, found his father 
much improved, and settled in Boston where he spent the winter 
lecturing and working on his book "Kitchener's Mob." In June, 
1916, he attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, N.Y. 

He returned to England in July, intending to continue literary 
work, but instead enlisted in the French Aviation Service on Oct. 
13, 1916. He trained in the French aviation schools at Buc (Seine- 
et-Oise), Avord (Cher), and Le Plessis-Belleville (Oise), and was 
assigned to the Lafayette Escadrille. On June 26, 1917, he had an 
encounter with seven German airplanes, was shot through the shoul- 
der and lungs, and fell 12,000 feet to what seemed certain death. 
But fortunately he was picked up alive and taken to a hospital 
near Paris, where he soon recovered. Reports of his death reached 

[ 22 ] 



JAMES NORMAN HALL 



America, but he wrote from the hospital at Neuilly to a friend 
that he was alive. 

When he left the hospital on Sept. 22, 1917, he returned to the 
front as a pilot in the French Squadron, Spad 112. A fortnight later 
he was transferred to his old unit, the Lafayette Escadrille, with 
which he served, with the rank of Sergeant, until his transfer to 
the United States Air Service. He was commissioned Captain, 
A.S.A., U.S.A., on Jan. 26, 1918, and was kept on active duty with 
the Escadrille Lafayette which had just become the 103d Pursuit 
Squadron, U.S.A.S. On March 29, 1918, he was assigned to the 94th 
Pursuit Squadron as Flight Commander. He was shot down in 
combat on May 7, 1918, near Pagny-sur-Moselle, back of the Ger- 
man lines. He tells the story of this encounter in his book, "High 
Adventure." 

Again it was reported that he was dead. But on May 8, a Ger- 
man airman flew over the Allied lines, and dropped a note saying 
that Hall was safe. 

Capt. Hall returned to America shortly after, and on March 10, 
1919, was discharged from the service at Garden City, N.Y. 

Citations 

Medaille Militaire 

Hall, James Norman (active de l'Escadrille N 124) 

Reforme, apres avoir ete mitrailleur dans une armee Alliee, s'est engage 
comme pilote a l'Escadrille La Fayette. Des son arrivee a montre un cour- 
age splendide et le plus pur esprit de sacrifice. Le 26 juin 1917 a fonce seul 
sus sept avions ennemis, faisant l'admiration des temoins du combat, blesse 
grievement dans la lutte a reussit a ramener son appareil dans nos lignes. 

(Pour prendre rang du 29 juin 1917) 
La presente nomination comporte l'attribution de la 
Croix de Guerre avec palme 

Signe: Maistre 

MMaille Militaire 

Monsieur Hall, James, Caporal pilote (active) a l'Escadrille N 124, 
est informe que par arrete ministeriel du 13 septembre, a 1917, rendu en 
application du decret du 13 aout 1914, la Medaille Militaire lui a ete 
concedee. 

II aura droit au port l'insigne de la decoration et aux arrerages attaches 
a. celle-ci a. compter du vingt-neuf juin 1917. 

[ 24 ] 



JAMES NORMAN HALL 



La presente concession sera regularises ulterieurement par une loi 
speciale. 

Paris, le 29 octobre 1917 

Pour le President du Conseil 

Ministre de la Guerre, et par son Ordre 
Le Lieut. Colonel, S/ Chef du Cabinet 

Signe": F. Jodinot 

Au G.Q. le 21 janvier 1918 
Le General Commandant la IV e Armee cite a l'Ordre de l'Armee: 
Excellent Pilote de chasse, deja, blesse en combat aerien, revenu au front, 
y fait preuve des plus belles qualites de hardiesse et d'allant. Le 1 janvier 
1918, a descendu un monoplace ennemi dont une aile s'est detachee et est 
tombee dans nos lignes. 

Le GSnSral Commandant le IV e ArmSe 
Signe: Gouraud 

le 4 avril 1918 

Le General Commandant la IV e Armee cite a l'Ordre de l'Armee, 
Capitaine Hall, James Norman, de l'Escadrille Lafayette 
Pilote d'une grande bravoure, qui livre journellement de nombreux 
combats. A abbatu deux avions ennemis. 

Le GSneral Commandant le IV e Armee 
Signe: Gotjraud 

D.S.C. 

G.H.Q. American Expeditionary Forces April 10, 1918 

The Commander-in-Chief has awarded the Distinguished Service Cross 
to James Norman Hall, Captain, Air Service, Flight Commander 103d 
Aero Squadron. On March 26, 1918, while leading a patrol of three, he at- 
tacked a group of five enemy fighters and three enemy two-seaters, himself 
destroying one and forcing down two others which were very probably 
destroyed, the fight lasting more than twenty minutes. 

By Command of General Pershing: 
Signed: Frank C. Burnett 

Adjutant General 

Capt. Hall has also been awarded the Croix de la Legion d'Honneur. 

le 9 mai 1918 

Le General Commandant la VIII e Armee, cite a l'Ordre de l'Armee 
Capitaine Hall, James Norman, a pilote a l'escadrille americaine, 94. 
Brilliant pilote de chasse, modele de courage et d'entrain qui a abattu 
recemment un avion ennemi, a trouve une mort glorieuse dans un com- 
bat contre quatre monoplaces dont un a ete descendu en flammes. 

Le GSnSral Commandant la VHP ArmSe 
[ 25 ] 



FRAZIER CURTIS 

Escadrille Americaine (Lafayette), Second Groupe 
d 'Aviation 

Son of Greely Stevenson and Harriet (Appleton) Curtis; was born 
in Boston, July 18, 1876. He attended Mrs. Shaw's, and J. P. 
Hopkinson's private schools, and graduated {cum laude) from 
Harvard College in the class of 1898 (A.M. '99). He played on 
his class football team and on the Harvard second eleven. He was 
married June 16, 1909, to Gladys Margaret Roper. 

In Sept., 1914, Curtis sailed for England, where he tried to enlist 
in the Air Service. Being rejected on account of his age and nation- 
ality, he returned to the U.S. hoping to take back to Europe a 
Burgess-Dunne seaplane, which might be of assistance in his next 
application. At Marblehead he met Norman Prince and discussed 
with him the idea of creating an American Escadrille in the French 
Army. Returning to England he tried again unsuccessfully to enter 
the British service. In Feb. he went to Paris, and with Prince 
organized the American Escadrille, later called the Lafayette. 

Curtis trained with the Escadrille at Pau, and later at the Camp 
d'Avord, until disabled by two accidents; his machine catching 
fire at about 2000 feet, followed five days later by an axle breaking 
in two places on landing. After a week in the hospital he was given 
45 days' sick-leave. At the end of his furlough he applied to be 
transferred from a bombing-machine, on which he had been hurt, 
to a fighting-machine. In answer to this request the French War 
Office gave him an honorable discharge as unfit for further flying, 
on Aug. 8, 1915. 

After four months' rest in England, he returned to the U.S. and 
in March, 1916, organized the Harvard Flying Corps, but his health 
again broke down and he had to give up his work and go to Cali- 
fornia to recuperate. 

It is believed that Curtis was the first American pilot to go over 
to Europe to offer his services to the Allied Air Force, having sailed 
from Boston on the Arabic, Sept. 2, 1914. 

Frazier Curtis's father, Greely S. Curtis, organized and com- 
manded the 1st Mass. Cavalry in the Civil War. His grandfather 
served aboard the U.S.S. Chesapeake and U.S.S. Constitution in the 
War of 1812, and his great-grandfather was one of the "Boston 
Tea Party." 

[ 26 ] 



FRAZIER CURTIS 



The following letter of appreciation was sent to Curtis by his 
French Commander: 

Mon cher Curtis: 

Vos deux lettres, ainsi que votre resiliation d'engagement me sont arri- 
vees, et j'ai fait part de cette derniere au ministere. Nous avons bien 
regrettes que votre etat de sante ne vous permette pas de continuer votre 
entrainement et vous empeche ainsi de devenir le hardi pilote que vous 
promettiez d'etre, d'apres vos excellents et rapides progres a l'ecole 
d'aviation d'Avord. 

Sans ce malencontreux accident, au cours de vos epreuves du Brevet 
Militaire, vous auriez en 48 heures, termine ce B.M. Vous auriez ainsi 
complete une brilliante escadrille avec vos camarades venus en meme que 
vous et qui se sont egalement fait remarquer pour leurs qualites de sang- 
froid et d'energie. 

Soyez certain, mon cher Curtis, que nous garderons le meilleur souvenir 
de vous et de vos charmants camarades, et croyez bien, je vous prie, a 
l'assurance de mes meilleurs sentiments. 

SignS: Hussigny 



[ 28 ] 



CHARLES H. DOLAN, Jr. 



Lafayette Escadrille, First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One 
Hundred Third Aero Squadron, Third Pursuit Group 

Son of Charles H. and Anne (Mainwaring) Dolan; was born at 
Boston, Mass., Jan. 29, 1895. He graduated from Mechanic Arts 
High School, where he was secretary and treasurer of his class; 
studied electrical engineering for one and a half years at Mass. 
Institute of Technology. Chief inspector of a munition works in 
England for one year. Installing engineer in France for Sperry 
Gyroscope Company, 1915-16. Joined French Air Service, Aug., 
1916, and assigned to Lafayette Escadrille. 

Lieut. Dolan has given the following summary of service, which 
contains an admirable outline of the activities of the Escadrille: 

I joined the French Foreign Legion as a 2d-class soldier in Aug., 1916. 
I immediately transferred to the Air Service, was sent to the old Bleriot 
School at Buc on the hills surrounding Versailles. I took preliminary in- 
struction, and on the moving of the school went with it to Avord. I got 
my license and went through the School of Perfection work on Nieuports 
there. From Avord I went to Pau, Basses Pyrenees, to the School of Acro- 
batics and Combat, where I took my final training before going into reserve 
at the front. I was in reserve about ten days at G.D.E. at Plessis-Belleville, 
near Paris, when I was ordered to join the Lafayette Escadrille N 124 at 
Ham. On the Somme, James MacConnell, Roland Hoskier, and Genet were 
killed. Our sector on this front was from Moy to Anizy-le-Chateau, during 
the great German retreat in 1916. 

From there we went to the Aisne, and from the Aisne to Dunkirk 
(St.-Pol). But because of very bad weather, we did very little flying in this 
sector which ran from the sea to Armentieres. We were then ordered to 
Verdun, where we lost Willis as a prisoner, and MacMonagle killed. The 
Squadron was here cited for the first time. After this attack the group of 
which the Squadron was a part was ordered to Chaudun to patrol the 
Chemin des Dames from Coranne to La Fere. The battle of Chemin des 
Dames was fought in a drizzle and fog and none of us flew over 200 feet. 
Campbell was killed in this battle. 

From here we were ordered, in the middle of winter on six hours' notice, 
to go to Champagne, and in anticipation of a German winter attack, 
which never occurred. We spent the winter practically on the same spot 
that Attila, "King of the Huns, " occupied in the year 451 when he overran 
the Franks, between the towns of Le Cheppe and La Noblette. Our sector 
which we patrolled here was from Reims to the Forest of Argonne. 

While here Edward Laughlin and Stuart Walcott, American boys in a 
French Squadron in our group, were killed. It was here in Champagne that 
we transferred to the American Expeditionary Forces and were taken over 

[ 29 ] 



CHARLES H. DOLAN, Jr. 



as an American unit known as the 103d Aero Pursuit Squadron, under 
command of Major William Thaw, Nov., 1918, and I was made Engi- 
neer Officer in addition to my flying duties. As such, we continued with 
American personnel to operate under the direction of the French, and 
moved shortly after to Fismes, where we were signally honored by the 
French by being given the sector from Reims to Noyon — the longest 
sector given to a pursuit squadron — to patrol, being the only pursuit 
squadron on a front of 65 miles; and at that we carried the fight into the 
enemy's country, because of the German concentration on the Somme 
where all the Allied Aviation was also concentrated. 

In the early part of June we were ordered north to Dunkirk, and had 
our aerodrome on the border of Belgium at Leffrinckoucke. While here we 
acted in unison with a French photo squadron, which did some of the most 
wonderful aerial photography of the war. We also acted with the French 
Army of the North and the Northeast, at the battle of Mont Kemmel. 

We were again cited in the Order of the Army and were granted the 
privilege of wearing the fourragere and the colors of the Croix de Guerre. 

Because of extensive bombing we had to move our field to another site 
southwest of Dunkirk near the town of Steene. The sector we patrolled 
was from the sea to the Forest of Nieppe, including the Ypres salient, 
and as far south, sometimes, as Bethune. 

The first of July we were ordered to join the American Army, 2d Pursuit 
Group, at Toul, in the St.-Mihiel sector, which we patrolled from St.-Mihiel 
to Bey. 

Just before the battle of St.-Mihiel, while in this sector, Major Thaw 
was given command of the 3d Pursuit Group, Capt. Robert Rockwell 
took command of the old Lafayette Squadron — now the 103d — and as 
the 3d Pursuit Group we participated in the battle of the First American 
Army. We were felicitated for our work and lost very few men. 

We moved with the First Army when they moved up in the Argonne, 
and between the Argonne and the Meuse patrolled the Verdun salient from 
St.-Mihiel to Argonne. 

Our aerodrome at this time was at Lisle-en-Barrois. It was on Oct. 
16, 1918, that I was ordered home to report to the Office of the Direc- 
tor of Military Aeronautics, Washington, D.C., to be used in an advis- 
ory capacity on pursuit work; and with my chum, Major David McK. 
Peterson, went to Carlstrom and Dorr Fields, Arcadia, Fla., where the 
most advanced pursuit and aerial gunnery schools in the country were. 
There I was put on the Control Board and also made Engineer Officer at 
Carlstrom Field. After Major Peterson's death, I was transferred to the 
O.D.A.S. Information Group, Washington, D.C., where I now am. 



[ 30] 



STEPHEN SOHIER BIGELOW 



Sergeant, Foreign Legion, and Escadrille Lafayette, N 124, 
Group 13 

Son of Joseph S. and Mary C. Bigelow; was born at Boston, 
March 18, 1894. He graduated from Groton in 1911, and from 
Harvard College in 1915. He attended the Plattsburg Training 
Camp in 1915, and April 13, 1916, enlisted in the Foreign 
Legion at Paris, France. In June he entered the Air Service and 
was trained at Dijon, Buc, Avord, Pau, Cazaux, and Plessis- 
Belleville; he received his Brevet as Military Aviator on Sept. 7, 

1916, and on Oct. 18, he was brevetted as Pilote Aviateur No. 4651. 
He was attached to the Escadrille Lafayette N 102, and later to 
N 124. On April 28, 1917, he was detailed with four others to 
act as garde d'honneur chosen to represent the Escadrille Lafay- 
ette, at the ceremonies performed at the monument of Lafayette. 
On June 21 he had a miraculous escape from five enemy planes 
which attacked while he was protecting French machines engaged 
in photographing the enemy's position. He landed safely, as did 
the photographers, a large hole in the wing of his machine being 
the only casualty. On June 24 and June 30 he had two success- 
ful engagements with enemy planes ; on June 25 he was mentioned 
in the official report on American flyers. On Aug. 22 he was at- 
tacked by several German planes, but escaped unhurt, and on 
Aug. 23, being attacked by eight German flyers, his machine was 
crippled and he was wounded about the head and face. On Sept. 14, 

1917, he was officially cited in Army orders and shortly after- 
wards decorated with the Croix de Guerre. 

Citation 

Sergeant Bigelow, an American volunteer pilot, engaged six Germans on 
Aug. 22, while protecting a bombing squadron. He was slightly wounded, 
but repelled the enemy. 

In Jan., 1918, he was honorably discharged from Hospital No. 6, 
being pronounced physically unfit for further active service. 
Brothers in Service — 

Joseph S. Bigelow, Jr., American Ambulance Field Service; 

1st Lieut., U.S.A., Aviation Signal Corps, A.E.F. 
Arthur G. Bigelow, American Ambulance Field Service; 
Private, U.S.A., A.E.F. 



[ 32 J 



WALTER LOVELL 



Captain, Lafayette Escadrille 

Son of Wallace D. and Josephine (Hastings) Lovell; was born at 
Newton, Mass., Sept. 9, 1884. He was educated at Milton Academy, 
Newton High School, the Stone School, Boston, and Harvard Col- 
lege, A.B. 1907. He was a member of the 1st Corps Cadets, M.V.M. 

In Feb., 1915, he enlisted with the American Ambulance Field 
Service in France, and was made second in command of Sec. 3, 
which did remarkable service in Alsace. He received the Croix de 
Guerre for his work there. In 1916 he transferred to Aviation, and 
joined the Lafayette Escadrille, with which he did such notable 
service as to win the Croix de Guerre of Aviation, and the Medaille 
d' Argent of the Aero Club of France. He was credited with two 
German planes officially and with four unofficially. While in the 
American Service he was in charge of assigning personnel for the 
Air Service Squadrons at Colombey-les-Belles. In Aug., 1918, he 
came to the United States for purposes of instruction. In Jan., 
1919, he resigned at Washington, D.C. 

Capt. Lovell was married to Helene du Bouchet on April 15, 
1918, and has taken up his residence in Paris. 

From Lieut. Lovell's Ambulance Service citation one reads: 

Has always given proof of a noteworthy spirit and constantly set the 
example of courage to the other drivers. 

Brothers in Service — 

Endicott Remington Lovell, Capt., U.S.A., 301st Reg't, F.A., 
76th Division. 

Philip Gray Lovell, 1st Lieut., U.S.A., 101st Reg't, F.A., 26th 
Division. 



[ 34 ] 



RUSSELL FALCONER STEARNS 



Corporal, Lafayette Flying Corps, Escadrille S 150, 
Groupe de Combat 16 
Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Flying Corps 

Son of Walter Henry and Abbie Harris (Razee) Stearns; was born 
at Pawtucket, R.I., Jan. 4, 1896. He was educated at Lake Placid 
School and at the University of Virginia, class of 1918. 

On Jan. 8, 1917, he enlisted in the American Ambulance Corps 
for two months. He then transferred through the Foreign Legion 
to the Aviation Service of the French Army. He was sent to Camp 
Avord, and presently became a member of the Lafayette Flying 
Corps. He was brevetted at Jevisy and had intensive flying at Pau, 
and Plessis-Belleville. 

During his training at Jevisy, Lieut. Stearns wrote to his family 
on June 23, 1917, as follows: 

We are a few miles out of Belfort which I like immensely and which gets 
bombed often. The German machines fly over our airdrome quite fre- 
quently, and then the anti-aircraft guns get busy and we have quite a time. 
My work consists of escorting bombing-planes, patrolling, and hunting. 
I am given my regular machine to-morrow, which I regret to say is a type 
out of vogue and which enables the crafty Hun to make circles around me. 
However, our entire escadrille changes to Spads in ten days, and there is 
no better machine out than that. . . . Aviation is a great game which re- 
quires perfection in all a man's faculties, and I am trying to keep myself 
in the best physical shape possible, one false step might mean the end. . . . 
I have become a fatalist as every aviator does, and am prepared to accept 
whatever awaits me. 

For two months and a half, late in 1917, he flew at the front, 
his first flight over the German lines being as a member of Esca- 
drille 150, Groupe de Combat 16. On one occasion while travelling 
over the lines alone, three German planes attacked him, but he 
eluded them and returned in safety. He was located in the Alsace- 
Lorraine section. In May, 1918, he received furlough from France, 
and then entered the U.S. Service, of the Marine Flying Corps. He 
was sent to Florida as 2d Lieut. He was honorably discharged on 
account of nervous breakdown. 



[ 36 ] 



* WALTER DAVIS RHENO 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Escadrille 80, Lafayette 
Squadron 
Died of pneumonia, Oct. 10, 1918 
Son of Simeon L. and Clara (Pratt) Rheno; was born in Vineyard 
Haven, Mass., on Feb. 26, 1895. He was educated in the public 
schools of Vineyard Haven. In the latter part of 1916, he aban- 
doned the automobile business in which he was engaged in New 
York City, sailed for France, and enlisted in the Foreign Legion, 
in Paris, on Dec. 19, 1916. In Jan., 1917, he applied for transfer 
to the Aviation Service, and in Feb. started his training at the 
Ecole d' Aviation Militaire at Buc, near Versailles, continuing at 
Pau and at Avord. On May 10, 1917, he received the French Mili- 
tary License. After perfection air work in the one-man combat 
machine known as the Fighting Chasse, the fastest of fighting 
machines in use at the front, he was ordered to the war zone on 
July 1, 1917. He was sent to Verdun on July 16 to join fighting 
Squadron N 80 of the Groupe de Combat. On his arrival at Ver- 
dun, he found awaiting him notice of 21 days' leave of absence in 
the United States, but did not accept it, because he did not wish to 
return home without having seen active service. It was at this time 
that he made the wager that he would down a German machine 
within a month. This he accomplished on Aug. 18, when in a fight- 
ing chasse with one gun, he downed a two-man German Albatross 
carrying four guns, after an 11-minute combat. For this engage- 
ment he was cited and decorated. On this occasion Rheno received 
the following letter from Dr. Edmond Gros, dated Aug. 23, 1917: 

Bravo! I think you hold the record for shortness of time you were at 
the front before bringing down your Boche. When you get your citation 
send me a certified copy and I '11 see if we can give you a money prize. 

The Associated Press has heard of your exploit and I have no doubt 
that you will be a hero in every aviation camp of America very shortly — 
all prospective aviators in the United States will envy you. 

Very truly yours 

{Signed) Edmond Gros 

On Sept. 6, he won his second combat, defeating a one-man 
German Albatross scout machine in a one-minute fight. For this 
exploit, when still a pilot, without higher title, he won the Croix de 

[ 38 ] 



WALTER DAVIS RHENO 

Guerre as a member of the Lafayette Squadron, French Aviation 
Corps. On Sept. 12, 1917, he defeated his third machine, a one-man 
German Albatross, for which he received official confirmation. He 
also brought down seven other machines which fell too far within 
German territory for confirmation by the French observation posts, 
but which were confirmed by comrades flying with him, a confirma- 
tion not considered official. 

On Sept. 18, 1917, he left for Paris to secure his passport for the 
leave granted him in America in the first days of his stay at the 
front. He received his passport Sept. 19, 1917, and revisited the 
United States the following Nov. wearing the second palm on his 
Croix de Guerre with a third on its way. On his return to the front, 
he was transferred to the American Forces with the commission 
of a 1st Lieut. 

He died at the American Hospital at Neuilly-sur-Seine, on Oct. 
10, 1918, of pneumonia, and was buried in the New Cemetery in 
Neuilly, France. 

Confirmations {Official) 

lith Fighting Group 

Escadrille N 80 Postal District, no. 8, August 31, 1917 

No. 4141. 

Captain Glaize, Commander of Escadrille N 80, certifies that Corporal 
Walter Davis Rheno, a Pilot in the Escadrille, brought down a German 
biplane "Albatross" after twice attacking it, on the 18th of August, 1917, 
at 7.40 p.m. Corporal Rheno was piloting the "Spad" No. 1298, Tvpe 
S VII, 140 H.P. Motor. 

The Captain Commanding the Escadrille 

lith Fighting Group 

Escadrille N 80 Postal District, no. 8, Sept. 16, 1917 

No. 487. 

Captain Glaize, Commander of Escadrille N 80, certifies that Corporal 
Walter Davis Rheno, a Pilot in the Escadrille, brought down a German 
monoplane "Albatross" after once attacking it, on the 6th day of Septem- 
ber at 10.10 a.m. Corporal Rheno was piloting the "Spad" No. 1776, 
Type S VII. 

The Captain Commanding the Escadrille 



[ 40 ] 



WALTER DAVIS RHENO 

Citation 
Croix de Guerre 

14 Groupe d' Escadrille 

de Combat S.P. 8 septembre 1917 

Extrait de VOrdre General No. 889 

Le General Commandant la IP Armee a l'ordre de l'Armee : 

Le Caporal Rheno, Walter Davis, pilote a l'Escadrille N 80 

Tres bon pilote americain montre de grandes qualites d'audace et 

d'entrain; le 18 aout a abattu un biplane ennemi qui s'est ecrase dans ses 

lignes. 

Signee: Le Commandant de G.C. 14 

Brother in Service — 

Winthrop C. Rheno, honorably discharged from the Army at 
Camp Devens, Oct. 28, 1918. 



[ 41 ] 



* FRANK ELMER STARRETT, Jr. 

Cadet, Lafayette Escadrille 
Killed in airplane accident, Dec. 1917 
Son of Frank Elmer and Lena Dora (Hoehm) Starrett; was born 
in Athol, Mass., on July 16, 1893. He graduated from the Athol 
High School, from Worcester Academy, Worcester, Mass., and 
from Brown University. He played football and baseball at Worces- 
ter Academy; at Brown, he was manager of the track team, mem- 
ber of the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, the Camarian and Sphinx 
Clubs. 

He entered the American Ambulance Field Service, Nov. 1, 1916, 
and served six months in France, in Red Cross Section 5-646, which 
won the Croix de Guerre, and green and yellow fourrageres. He 
afterward enlisted in the French Aviation Service, and was assigned 
to the Lafayette Escadrille. He was among the first 200 men to 
train at Tours, France, in Aug., 1917, a group called the "Stranger 
Legion," made up of American boys who had volunteered with the 
French before the United States entered the war. He was detained 
in the hospital for some time by illness so that he fell behind his 
class, but on his return from the hospital, he continued his train- 
ing (on the Caudron G-3 type). In Dec, 1917, as Starrett was 
making the first lap of the triangle from Tours to Pontleroy, which 
was part of the trial test, he was first seen by the mechanics at the 
field, about 500 metres from the ground, heading for the airdrome. 
Suddenly the plane peeked over and dived for the earth about two 
kilometres from the hangars, never redressing. Starrett died in- 
stantly. He was buried at Tours with full military honors by the 
French and American officials. Just at the time of his accident he 
had been planning to return home on a furlough. In a memorial dis- 
course delivered before the students of Brown University some 
time after his death, the Dean said that Frank Starrett was a man 
whom all Brown men might well emulate, and whose memory 
should be ever cherished by the university. 

Brother in Service — 

Arthur H. Starrett, Cadet, A.S.A., U.S.A.; Sergeant, 1st class, 
in 139th and 32d Aero Squadrons. In service in France for 
14 months. 



[ 42 ] 



HAROLD BUCKLEY WILLIS 



Sous-Lieutenant, Lafayette Escadrille 

Son of John B. and Myrta (Gale) Willis; was born at Boston, Mass., 
Feb. 9, 1890. He attended the Newton High School, and graduated 
from Harvard College, class of 1912. He served in Battery A, 
M.V.M., 1913-14. 

He enlisted in the American Ambulance Field Service in Feb., 
1915, and arrived at the western front, with Section 2, at Pont-a- 
Mousson, in April, 1915. From Feb. to May he served with the 
Ambulance at Verdun. He was cited, July 4, 1915, "for rescue of 
wounded under fire," offensive Bois-le-Pretre, "Croix de Guerre 
with Star." 

In June, 1915, he enlisted in the Foreign Legion of the French 
Army, and transferred to 2d Groupe d' Aviation. He was brevetted 
pilot on Bleriot, at Buc. He trained successively at Nieuport Per- 
fectionnement School, at Avord; Machine-Gun School, Cazaux; 
Combat and Acrobatics, at Pau; Spad, at Plessis-Belleville. 

He arrived on the Somme front with the Lafayette Escadrille 
(N 124), in March, 1917, under Capt. Theraul and Lieut. Thaw. 
Served during the Somme retreat to the Hindenburg line, March 
to April, 1917; the offensive of Aisne, April and May, 1917; the 
Ypres offensive, July and Aug., 1917; Verdun, 1917. 

He was awarded the silver medal of Ligue Aeronautique de 
France, in May, 1917, and recommended for Order of Leopold, by 
CO. 13th Groupe de Combat, July, 1917. Proposed for Sous- 
Lieut, in French Army, July, 1917, and cited for Croix de Guerre 
with palm, Aug., 1917; he was also recommended for Majority to 
U.S. Aviation, by Com. Fequant, CO. 13th Groupe de Combat, 
Aug., 1917. 

On Aug. 18, 1917, Lieut. Willis was shot down behind the enemy 
lines at Verdun, and was interned in the prison camps of Mont- 
medy, Carlsruhe, Landshut, Giitersloh, reprisal camp Eutin, Bad 
Stuer, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Magdenburg, Wurzburg, and Vil- 
lingen, during 14 months of captivity. 

After several attempts, Lieut. Willis, disguised as a German guard, 
made his escape from the American camp at Villingen on Oct. 4, 
1918, in company with Lieut. Isaacs, U.S.N., and Lieut. Puryear, 
U.S.A. This plan was accomplished by means of an intricate and 



[ 44 ] 



HAROLD BUCKLEY WILLIS 



coordinated plot of many American and Polish officers, electric 
lights being short-circuited, barbed-wire palisades and cordons of 
guards being pierced at several points simultaneously. Isaacs and 
Willis crossed the Black Forest mountains together, travelling at 
night by means of luminous compasses, and aided by the stars, 
hiding by day. After a week they arrived at the Rhine frontier of 
Switzerland, which was crossed by swimming. 

On arriving at Paris, Lieut. Willis was awarded the Medaille 
Militaire, and permitted to return to the Argonne front. Returning 
to the U.S. in 1919, he was honorably discharged. 

Citations 
Croix de Guerre 

Citation a l'Ordre du Service de Sante de la 73 me Division, N° 19. 

Par application du decret du 23 avril 1915, sur la Croix de Guerre, le 
Medecin Divisionnaire cite a l'ordre du jour du service de sante de la 73 me 
Division — 

Monsieur Willis, Harold, conducteur a la S.S.A.A. 

A toujours fait preuve d'un courage et d'une hardiesse dignes des plus 
grands eloges, notamment pendant l'attaque du 4 juillet; s'offrit pour aller 
chercher des blesses dans un endroit tres perilleux et eut sa voiture criblee 
d'eclats d'obus. 

En campagne le 5 octobre 1915 

Signe : D. W. Viele 

Le Medecin Chef 

A l'Ordre de 1' Armee 

Ordre du General Commandant la 2 me Armee, N° 889 du 10 sept. 1917. 

Le General Commandant la 2 me Armee cite a l'Ordre de l'Armee: 

Willis, Harold Buckley, sergent pilote a l'escadrille N 124 (G.C. 13) 
(mort en combat) : 

Citoyen americain engage au service de la France. Veritable modele pour 
ses camarades d'escadrille par son courage et sa haute conception du devoir. 

A fourni par des reconnaissances de nombreux et utiles renseignements. 

Est tombe 18 aout au cours d'un combat contre deux avions ennemis qui 
venaient attaquer des avions de bombardement qu'il escortait. 



[ 46 ] 



FIRST PURSUIT GROUP 



By Lieutenant James Knowles, American Ace, Ninety-Fifth 
Aero Squadron 

After the arrival of the 95th Squadron at the Gengoult airdrome, 
the 1st Pursuit Group was officially formed on May 5, 1918. The 
Group was composed of the 94th and 95th Squadrons. Although 
these Squadrons had been on the front since the middle of Feb. 
they had not operated over the front to any extent because the 
pilots of the 94th, although they had planes, had no machine guns, 
and the 95 th with machine guns had no planes. 

On May 31, 1918, the 27th and 147th Squadrons joined the 
Group, thus bringing it up to full strength. At that time the Group 
was operating with the 8th French Army at Toul, and up to June 
25 had shot down 58 Boche planes, 27 of which were confirmed. 
Toward the end of June, the Group moved to Touquin, in the 
Chateau-Thierry sector, and started operations there. The prepon- 
derance of German aviation on that sector necessarily caused very 
heavy losses, the Group losing 36 pilots in a period of about six 
weeks, although credited with 38 Hun machines destroyed. 

During all this time the Group was attached to the 6th French 
Army and did not operate with the American Army until the St.- 
Mihiel offensive in Sept. 

On Sept. 1, 1918, the Group moved to Enze-la-Petire, where it 
stayed until the Armistice. At Dumey, the St.-Mihiel attack, "low 
flying on the offensive " was the order. This was also done through 
the Argonne-Meuse attack, and at no time did any pilot in the 
Group fly at more than 600 metres, except as a voluntary patrol. 
Ground and balloon "strafing," and attacks on enemy reglages and 
observation machines constituted the day's work. 

On Oct. 7, 1918, the 185th, a night-flying Chasse Squadron, 
joined the Group. From Sept. 12 to Oct. 12 the Group shot down 
104 planes and balloons officially; an average of almost one victory 
for each Squadron. 

At the Armistice the Group was credited with 285 victories, 201 
of which were official, and had suffered 72 casualties. To show the 
calibre of the 1st Pursuit Group, one needs only mention Capt. 
Edward Ricken backer, Maj. Raoul Lufbery, Capt. James Norman 
Hall, and Capt. David Peterson. 

[ 47] 



RICHARD ASHLEY BLODGETT 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Fifth Aero Squadron 

Killed in action, May 17, 1918 
Son of Edward E. and Mabel (Fuller) Blodgett; was born in Brook- 
line, Mass., June 27, 1897. He attended the Newton High School, 
and Lawrenceville, N.J., where he was prominent in athletics. He 
entered Williams College in the class of 1919, and during his fresh- 
man year played on his class football team and was captain of the 
hockey team; the following year was on the 'Varsity football squad. 
He was an admirable musician and played on several instruments; 
he was a member of the Sigma Phi Fraternity. 

In 1916 he attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, 
and when war was declared he volunteered for six months' ambu- 
lance service abroad, leaving college in his sophomore year. He 
sailed for France May 5, 1917, and when on arrival he found the 
ambulance service overcrowded, he signed for six months' duty as a 
munitions truck-driver, during which time he won a commendation 
from the French Commander, for "courage and coolness displayed 
under violent bombardment July 28, 1917." 

Before the time of his camion service had expired, he was trans- 
ferred to Aviation, training at Tours, Issoudun, and graduating 
from the School of Acrobatics. He was an able and enthusiastic 
flyer, and it was believed he would surely become an ace. When 
the 95 th Pursuit Squadron was formed, he was assigned to it and 
accompanied it to the Toul sector; and about March 1 he was one 
of a famous trio that went over the lines patrolling without guns 
between Epernay and Reims at 5500 metres. 

As soon as the guns arrived he was eager to try them, and on 
May 9 he wrote : 

At last we've got guns on our planes. You know we were at the front 
for six weeks without them; my first trip over the lines with a gun, I got 
in a fight with two German biplanes. There were four of us (all in mono- 
plane fighters) and we -split up and two attacked each plane. 

There was a Major with me and first thing his gun jammed. That put 
it up to me; so I went in hell bent for election. I manoeuvred as much as 
possible so his machine-gunner could n't shoot at me, and let him have it. 
I shot two hundred and sixty rounds into him. I followed him all the way 
to his airdrome, killing his observer, and I think starting a fire, as he let 
out clouds of smoke. My comrades were all split up and the last time they 
saw me I was following the German right home. They thought surely the 

[ 48 ] 



RICHARD ASHLEY BLODGETT 



anti-aircraft would get me, as I was very low, but they did n't even shoot 
at me. I ran out of gas just after re-crossing the lines into France and they 
thought surely I had been brought down, until I telephoned in. It was a 
pretty exciting game. 

Most of our work is far back of the German lines, as they won't come to 
meet us usually. In the last two days, however, there have been two new 
German pursuit squadrons in our sector, supported by another squadron 
of Von Richthofen's circus, or all aces. They have brought down two of 
our men, one of them James Norman Hall, author of "Kitchener's Mob," 
and whom I saw shot down last summer while he was with the French 
on his second trip over the lines. This time in German territory; so we 
don't know whether he survived or not. The other fell in flames. 

We have caused so much damage here that they are out for revenge, 
and there 's going to be hell breaking loose. It 's a great game and you have 
to keep on the watch every second. Even when shooting one man, you have 
to watch another does n't drop on you. But, Dad, we're giving them hell. 
We're winning. We're showing fight and ability and we're fighting cleanly 
and cleverly. The cost is awful, but it's far worse for them. This sector is 
going to see some terrible casualties, but we've got to do it. 

If I go out, you can know that I went game; that before I went I brought 
one down; that we're beginning to get up against the best, but that we 
make him pay heavily for his victory. 

On May 17 Blodgett and Lieut. Sewall went out in the morning 
to protect an observation plane; during an attack by hostile pursuit 
planes, Blodgett engaged one German and drove him down behind 
the enemy lines. When the two pursuit planes started back with the 
observation plane, Blodgett was flying very high. When on the 
return of the other planes he failed to appear, it was supposed that 
he had gone off by himself to look for another German; when he 
finally appeared, his flying in coming down attracted some atten- 
tion, as he seemed to be trying to land some distance from the air- 
drome. Suddenly his machine crashed to the ground, and though 
help arrived promptly the fall had proved fatal. There were two 
bullet holes through the bottom of the machine, and the conclu- 
sion was that Blodgett had been in a fight, was wounded in the 
head, but had been able to get almost back when he lost control 
of his machine. 

He was buried with full military honors, at Sebastopol, France, 
and lies next to Major Lufbery, who was killed the following day. 
He was known as a daring and efficient flyer and acted as instructor 
while still a cadet. He received his commission as 1st Lieut. Dec, 

[ 50 ] 



RICHARD ASHLEY BLODGETT 

1917, and was leader of the first American patrol to patrol the front 
in aviation; he was, in the absence of his ranking officer, Flight 
Commander, and he drove a fast fighting monoplace, capable of 
making 140 miles an hour. 

Major Davenport Johnson, of the 95th Aero Squadron wrote of 
Blodgett: 

We had become very fond of Dick and deeply feel his loss, and the one 
idea is to avenge him, which we have done to date, by bringing down four 
enemy planes (official), and six others which were too far in the German 
lines for the infantry to see from the ground. His memory is always fresh 
in our minds, as he was the first of our number to give all for his country. 

Lieut. Alden Bradford Sherry, who had been with Blodgett both 
in training and in the Ambulance Service, wrote: 

His kindness and cheerfulness towards others, his sunny nature and his 
simplicity of character, all endeared him to us. Out here on the front it was 
his ability as a flyer, his quick perception of his duty, and his great zeal in 
carrying out his work, without any thought of the risk involved, which 
made our admiration for him almost as great as our affection. He was flying 
all the time and was almost unhappy when he was not in the air. His im- 
petuosity and his enthusiasm had a most marked influence on his entire 
squadron, which was most apparent to my squadron which was working 
with his. . . . The first day he flew over the lines he attacked a two-man 
German plane and brought it down single handed. The combat took place 
so far behind the lines that none of the French and American observers 
saw the German fall, or he would have received official recognition of his 
victory. 

Citation 
American Field Service in France 
Lettre de Felicitations 

Le Chef d'Escadron, Directeur des Services Automobiles aux Armees, 
adresse ses felicitations au Personnel du 3 e Peloton de la Section-Groupe 
Americaine Genin, place sous les orders du Chef de Peloton H. E. Cox, 
pour le sang-froid et le courage dont il a fait preuve dans la nuit du 28 
juillet 1917, au cours d'un dechargement dans un depot soumis a un 
violent bombardement. 

Signe: Dotjmenc 



[ 51 ] 



SUMNER SEWALL 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Ninety-Fifth Aero 
Squadron, First Pursuit Group 

Son of William D. and Mary L. (Sumner) Sewall of Bath, Me.; 
was born in Bath, June 17, 1897. He fitted for college at the West- 
minster School, Simsbury, Conn., and entered Harvard College 
with the class of 1920. He attended the Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg, N.Y., in July, 1916. In the second half of his freshman 
year he left college to sail with the American Ambulance Field Serv- 
ice, with which he served in France from Feb. 17 to Aug. 20, 1917. 

He enlisted in the American Air Service in Paris on Aug. 23, 1917, 
and was assigned to Tours for preliminary training with the 3d 
Platoon on Sept. 2. He was transferred to the 3d Aviation Instruc- 
tion Centre at Issoudun. He subsequently took a course in aerial 
gunnery at Cazaux, and was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Dec. 8, 
1917. In Feb., 1918, the 95th Pursuit Squadron was formed at 
Issoudun, and Lieut. Sewall was assigned to it. On March 1, with 
Lieuts. Blodgett and Wooley, he went over the line on the first 
patrol without machine guns at 5500 metres, in a type 28-metre 
Nieuport between Epernay and Reims. Later, the Squadron was 
sent to Chateau-Thierry, where Lieut. Sewall succeeded in bringing 
down several Bodies. In Sept. the 95th Squadron moved to Rem- 
bercourt, took part in the St.-Mihiel drive, and continued on 
through the Argonne offensive until the Armistice was signed. 
During these two drives, Lieut. Sewall was officially credited with 
7 Bodies, and became an Ace in Oct., 1918. He was recommended 
for promotion at the close of the war. The French Government 
awarded to him the Legion of Honor, and the Croix de Guerre with 
a palm. From his own Government he received the Distinguished 
Service Cross with one oak leaf. He was made a member of the Order 
of Leopold, by King Albert I of Belgium. In Jan., 1919, the Aero 
Club of America awarded him its medal. He was honorably dis- 
charged at Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 20, 1919. 

Recommendation for Promotion 

On Nov. 27, 1918, Lieut. Sewall received this letter from the 
Chief of the Air Service, A.E.F.: 

The exceptionally meritorious service which you have rendered with 
[ 52 ] 



SUMNER SEWALL 



the American Expeditionary Forces resulted in a recommendation for 
promotion in grade submitted by your superior officers. The Chief of Air 
Service approved the recommendation, but unfortunately instructions 
from the War Department discontinued all promotions of officers on the 
11th inst. making it impossible to confer the reward which you have so 
well earned. 

While communicating the above information, the undersigned takes this 
opportunity of thanking you personally for the assistance contributed 
toward the American air successes in the great war now drawing to a close. 

(Signed) Mason M. Patrick 

Major General, N.A. 

Chief of Air Service 

Order of the Crown 

On Feb. 12, 1919, Lieut. Sewall received from the Chief of the 
Belgian Mission in France, the letter which follows: 
My dear Lieidenant: 

The King, Albert I of Belgium, has given me instructions to inform you 
that He has bestowed upon you the 

Ordre de la Couronne 
with the rank of "Chevalier." 

His Majesty desires that this honorary distinction be conveyed to you 
as a token of His esteem and in recognition of the valuable services you 
have rendered the common cause. 

The medal will be handed over to you by the Adjutant General. 
Please accept my most cordial greetings. 
I am, my dear Lieutenant, 

Very truly yours 

(Signed) J. M. Cinaut 

Chief of the Belgian Mission 

Citations 
D.S.C. 

First Lieutenant Sumner Sewall, Air Service, 95th Aero Squadron 
For repeated acts of extraordinary heroism in action near Menil-la-Tour, 
France, June 3, 1918, and near Landres St.-Georges, France, Oct. 13, 1918. 
On June 3 Lieut. Sewall with two other pilots attacked a formation of six 
hostile planes. Though his comrades were forced to withdraw because of 
jammed guns, he continued to fight for fifteen minutes and succeeded in 
sending one of his adversaries down in flames. On Oct. 18, while on volun- 
tary patrol this officer saw an American observation plane being attacked 
by a German machine (Fokker type) , accompanied by eight other hostile 
planes. He immediately attacked and destroyed the Fokker and was in 

[ 54 ] 



SUMNER SEWALL 



turn attacked by the other eight planes. By skilful manoeuvring he evaded 
them and escorted the observation plane back to our lines. 

(Signed) Pershing 

An oak leaf to be worn with the D.S.C. was awarded to Lieut. 
Sewall on Dec. 28, 1918. 

First Lieutenant Sumner Sewall, Air Service, 95th Aero Squadron 
For the following act of extraordinary heroism in action near Rocourt, 
France, July 7, 1918, Lieutenant Sumner Sewall is awarded an oak leaf 
to be worn with the Distinguished Service Cross awarded him 10 Dec. 1918. 
Lieutenant Sewall fearlessly attacked a formation of five enemy planes 
(Type K Fokker) and separating one from the group, pursued it far behind 
the enemy's lines and sent it down in crash, following it within 30 metres 
of the ground in spite of severe fire from a machine gun, rifles, and anti- 
aircraft guns, bullets from which passed through his clothing. 

(Signed) Pershing 

Legion of Honor and Croix de Guerre (awarded Nov. 30, 1918) 
I er Lieutenant Sumner Sewall, a l'Escadrille americaine 95 : 

Pilote ardent en combat, ayant une haute conception de son devoir, 
le 3 juin, a attaque, avec sa patrouille, une formation ennemie de 6 avions, 
a poursuivi l'un d'entre eux jusqu'a 200 metres du sol et l'a abattu. Au 
cours des operations Marne-Aisne, s'est depense sans compter, descendant 
un avion ennemi en flammes et forcant un deuxieme adversaire a atterir. 
Au Grand Quartier General, le 30 novembre 1918. 

Le Marechal de France 
Commandant en Chef les Armies Frangaises de I'Est 



[ 55 ] 



JOHN MITCHELL 



Captain, A.S.A., U.S.A., Ninety-Fifth Aero Squadron 
First Pursuit Group 

Son of Walter J. and Eva B. (Sherlock) Mitchell; was born at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Oct. 15, 1895. He attended the Fay School, South- 
boro, Mass., and St. Mark's School, Concord, N.H., and graduated 
from Harvard College. 

He enlisted (from Manchester, Mass.) at Key West, Fla., on 
March 1, 1917; was trained at Miami, Fla., Essington, Pa., and at 
M.I.T. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. June 27, 1917, and went 
overseas Sept. 1, 1917, continuing his training at Issoudun and 
Cazaux, France, and joined the 95th Squadron. 

At Toul he was credited with helping members of his squadron 
to bring down two Bodies, and at Chateau-Thierry he did excellent 
work in patrolling and strafing infantry formations. During a "dog 
fight" with Richthofen's circus, he divided the honors with Lieut. 
Heinrichs in bringing down one of the circus. 

The following are official confirmations of several combats in 
which he was engaged : 

I, Captain David McK. "Peterson, A.S., Sig. R.C., certify that First 
Lieutenant John Mitchell, of the 95th Squadron, has been engaged in the 
following mentioned combats with the enemy, the results of which have 
been officially confirmed by the French and zVmerican military authorities : 

(a) On M-ay 27, 1918, Lieutenant Mitchell encountered three enemy 
airplanes over Apremont. He dove on the last airplane in the formation, 
and after firing a burst of forty shots, it crashed to the ground. (Confirmed 
in Operations Report No. 18, Hdqrs. 1st Pursuit Group, June 16, 1918.) 

(6) On May 30, 1918, Lieutenant Mitchell at 8.15 a.m. encountered two 
enemy airplanes in the vicinity of Apremont, who turned and headed to- 
ward the lines. He caught up with the rear German airplane, and fired 
185 rounds from above. The German dove into a nose-dive and crashed to 
the ground in flames. (Confirmed in Operations Report No. 18, Hdqrs. 1st 
Pursuit Group, June 1G, 1918.) 

(c) On July 5, 1918, Lieutenant Mitchell, near Priez, encountered six 
enemy Albatross monoplanes. He attacked the highest one and engaged 
in a running fight, lasting twenty minutes, which terminated by the Ger- 
man bursting into' flames. (Confirmed in Operations Report, Hdqrs. 1st 
Pursuit Group, Order No. 59.) Attest: David McK. Peterson 

On Aug. 1, 1918, Lieut. Mitchell was commissioned Captain, 
and on Oct. 13, 1918, he was placed in command of the 95th 
Squadron. 

r 56 ] 



JOHN MITCHELL 



Citations 

D.S.C. (awarded Dec. 31, 1919) 

John Mitchell, Captain, Air Service, 95th Aero Squadron. For extra- 
ordinary heroism in action near Beaumont, France, May 27, 1918. Seeing 
three enemy planes flying east over Apremont, at 2500 metres, Captain 
Mitchell unhesitatingly attacked the three machines, which were in close 
formation, despite the fact that a fourth, hovering above, threatened to 
close in and join the enemy formation. He succeeded in shooting down the 
enemy machine, which proved to be a biplane returning from an important 
mission. 

(Signed) Pershing 

Croix de Guerre, with Palm (awarded Nov. 29, 1918) 
Lieutenant-Pilote John Mitchell, a l'Escadrille americaine, 95 : 

Excellent pilote de chasse, possedant les plus belles qualites militaires. 
Le 27 mai 1918 a attaque et descendu un biplane ennemi dans ses lignes. 
A attaque, le meme jour, une formation ennemie et a force un appareil a 
atterir. Le 5 juillet a attaque six monoplanes et en a abattu un en flammes. 

SignS: Petain 



I 58 ] 



JAMES KNOWLES, Jr. 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. Ninety-Fifth Aero Squadron 
First Pursuit Group 

Son of James and Laura (King) Knowles, of Cambridge, Mass.; 
was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 27, 1896. He was educated at 
the Peabody School, Cambridge, and at Phillips Andover Academy. 
He entered Harvard College in the class of 1918. He was a member 
of the 'Varsity baseball team for two years and won several prizes 
on both school and college track teams. 

He was examined and accepted for aviation at Washington on 
April 7, 1917, and trained at the Ground School, Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Columbus, Ohio, till July, 1917. He was then ordered over- 
seas, sailing July 23. He had his preliminary flying training at 
Tours, France, being among the first American Army Aviators to 
be trained in France. He was sent to the 3d Aviation Instruction 
Centre, Issoudun, France, received his advanced training there, 
and was commissioned 1st Lieut. Nov. 20. After three months' 
work he was ordered to Cazaux, where he rapidly completed the 
course in aerial gunnery. Later he was sent to the front and attached 
to the 95th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, with which he re- 
mained until the Armistice, seeing active service in the Toul, Ver- 
dun, Chateau-Thierry, St.-Mihiel, and Argonne offensives. He was 
awarded the Croix de Guerre with one palm, the Distinguished 
Service Cross with one oak leaf, the Aero Club of America Medal, 
and was officially credited with five Boches destroyed in combat. 

Following Jan., 1919, Lieut. Knowles was stationed at Tours, 
France, in the office of the Assistant Chief of Staff of the Air Service, 
working on Historical Records Data and the Official Government 
Records of the Air Service. He returned to the United States, 
March 13, 1919. 

D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Montfaucon, France, 9 Octo- 
ber, 1918. While on a voluntary patrol over the enemy's lines, Lieutenant 
Knowles observed three enemy Fokkers attacking one of our balloons. He 
unhesitatingly attacked, and in a bitter combat that lasted for five min- 
utes, he succeeded in bringing one of the enemy planes down in flames 
and driving off the others. 

(Signed) T. D. Milling. 

Colonel, A.S., U.S.A. 

[ 59 ] 



JAMES KNOWLES, Jr. 



Croix de Guerre 

[Translation] Lieut. Pilot James Knowles, Jr., of the American 95th 
Squadron. Excellent chasse pilot, very aggressive, who never loses oppor- 
tunity to engage in combat. On July 25, 1918, he brought down an enemy 
biplane protected by six monoplanes. 

(Signed) Petain, Marshal of France 

Commander-in-Chief of the French Army of the East 

Military Record of Lieut. Knowles' s Family 

Lieut. James Knowles, Jr., is a direct descendant of Richard Knowles, 
Plymouth (1630), William Munroe (1640), of Lexington, and Captain 
Jonathan Parker, the minute man of Lexington. 

Capt. Richard Knowles the first was a sea-captain, owner of the ship 
in which he came to America in 1630; and his descendants took part in all 
the Colonial wars, the Revolution, and the War of 1812. Capt. John 
Knowles, his son, of the Militia, was killed by the Indians near Taunton 
in 1675. His son, Colonel Samuel Knowles, was of the Militia. His son, 
Samuel Knowles, Colonel in the French Wars, commanded a company at 
the storming of Crown Point. Col. Willard Knowles, of the Revolutionary 
War, died in 1786. Next, Capt. Winslow Knowles, captured in Cape Cod 
Bay by the British, was taken to Provincetown to the frigate Spencer, 
Capt. Raggett, and released to obtain ransom. Instead, he fitted out a 
privateer manned by his fellow townsmen, and met with considerable 
success. 



[ 60 ] 



* HAMILTON COOLIDGE 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Fourth Aero Squadron 
First Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, Oct. 27, 1918 
Son of J. Randolph, Jr., and Mary (Hill) Coolidge; was born at 
Brookline, Mass., Sept. 1, 1895. He prepared for college at Groton 
School, where he was senior prefect, captain of the school eleven, 
and pitcher of the nine. He entered Harvard College in the class 
of 1919; was vice-president of his freshman class and played on 
the freshman baseball team, and was in the 'Varsity football 
squad in 1916. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in the summer of 

1915, and the Curtiss Flying School at Buffalo in the summer of 

1916. In March, 1917, he entered the U.S. Service at Key West, 
Fla., enlisting in the Aviation Section, Signal Corps, training at 
Miami, Fla.; graduating from there June 5, 1917, he was sent to 
the 1st Ground School at M.I.T. In July, 1917, he sailed for France 
and was stationed at Headquarters Office in Paris, where he was 
engaged in organization work. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Sept. 29, 1917, and on Oct. 
12 was assigned to the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre at Issoudun, 
where he helped to organize and develop the great flying school. 
Graduating from there second in his class he was for a time Com- 
mander of a Squadron of 150 men, later becoming tester of 
planes, from Dec, 1917, to June, 1918, averaging from 15 to 20 
flights a day. On June 16, with his friend, Quentin Roosevelt, he 
joined the 94th Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, at the front at Toul. 

On July 7 he wrote : 

I got a Boche to-day, or rather Jim Meissner and I together got one. . . . 
Four of us attacked a single biplace Rumpler and we all peppered away 
without result for several minutes. He was fighting for his life and gave us 
all a good fight! Suddenly it occurred to me that it would be much more to 
the point to get under his tail where I should be out of range from his rear 
gun and at the same time have a chance to soak some of the shots into 
him at close range; as I did so, Jim Meissner appeared. The other two of 
our group had jammed and left the scrap. We both shot at the Boche, and 
a scond later, great hot, red flames burst out from beneath his fuselage. 
I shall never forget the sensation of seeing a stream of flaming tracer bul- 
lets from my guns sink into its body and almost instantly flames bursting 
out as we dove at great speed through the air. 

[ 62 J 



HAMILTON COOLIDGE 



On Sept. 27 he shot up a German supply train, himself flying- 
alone four times up and down the hapless column. Then came four 
victories together. He wrote: 

On Oct. 2 1 picked up a Halberstadt biplace fighter over the lines. My guns 
jammed after about 50 rounds, but I kept manoeuvring with him to keep 
him occupied till help arrived. Help did arrive in the form of seven more of 
my companions ! We cut the old boy off from their lines and started driving 
him home. But one of the boys growing impatient, put a few incendiaries 
into him and brought him down in flames. . . . The next day, Oct. 3, two 
of us attacked enemy balloons ten kilometres behind their lines at 4.35 
p.m. I hardly had time to think of Archie-fire and streams of machine-gun 
bullets that flew by, as I dove on my balloon. I could see my incendiaries 
pour into the old gas-bag and the observer jump out in his parachute. A 
few seconds later the flames burst out and down it went. . . . My com- 
panion, a boy from another squadron, was ahead of me and about to 
attack another balloon, when I suddenly saw a formation of seven Fokkers 
above. He never saw them. My shriek of "Look out, Walter ! " never got be- 
yond my mouth because of the roaring exhaust; it was hideous; in a second 
they were upon him. Just a glimpse of the poor boy in the midst of these 
devils was all I could catch before the whole mess went circling to the 
ground. When I reached the spot they were careering around like a flock of 
buzzards over a freshly killed prey. I was so mad I saw red and dove upon 
the nearest of them. He did n't see me, so I waited till I was close upon 
him, then I riddled him with bullets. Then I was completely surrounded, 
but my situation was so futile that I was strangely calm. I tried to keep 
head on to the attackers. In a few more seconds they would have had me 
in such an unequal combat, when a Spad flashed down from the sky, and 
then another and another! The protection, five Spads, had arrived. For 
fifteen minutes, we milled together, rolling and tumbling, Spad, Fokker, 
Fokker, Spad. Gradually we edged towards the lines, and finally crossed 
them with the Fokkers in hot pursuit. The day was not over yet, however. 
After the main bunch had gone home a few of us were still out on the lines. 
The Bodies evidently thought we had all gone, for they sent an observation 
plane sneaking over to do some quick reconnaissance work. Three of us 
spotted him almost simultaneously a few kilometres in our lines. We raced 
at him together and ten seconds later he was in flames. He sailed on a 
little, about 200 feet above the ground, then tottered and crashed in a 
final burst of flames. If all my victories are officially confirmed I shall be 
an "ace," five victories. 

Two planes and a balloon were added to his record in the ensuing- 
fortnight, and on Oct. 3, 1918, he was promoted to a Captaincy, 
and offered the command of another squadron. He wrote: 

By some queer arrangement I have become a Captain. Here's the way 
it strikes me. I don't want anv position higher than the one I hold now, 

[ 64 ] 



HAMILTON COOLIDGE 



that of Flight Commander, where I lead in person my little band of 6 or 8 
on their stunts. I am afraid they are going to make me a Squadron Com- 
mander, when I shall have to tell my men to do things, instead of being 
able to lead them personally. I don't want a position of authority or respon- 
sibility where one sits in a chair. If they will leave me alone, a simple pilot 
and flight leader, I won't mind being a Captain — voila! 

On Oct. 27, while leading a protective patrol over Grand Pre, 
Capt. Coolidge was struck by anti-aircraft fire and instantly killed. 
He lies buried where he fell at Chevieres. He was an ace, having 
brought down 12 planes or balloons. He was officially credited with 8. 

He has been awarded the Croix de Guerre with palm, a citation 
by General Pershing, and the Distinguished Service Cross. 

Arthur Woods, Colonel in the Air Service, who saw Capt. Coolidge 
at the front three weeks before his death, wrote to his parents : 

Ham was his own splendid self, genuine and modest and confident. He 
had a score then of 4 Hun balloons and 2 planes. He was proud of the work 
of his Group, which since the 1st of Sept., with only 8 casualties, had offi- 
cially been credited with 92 balloons and planes. Like American boys they 
had devised new ways of doing things, and some of their balloon tactics 
had come from Hamilton and had results that as far as I could find had 
not been equalled at all by other American or British Groups. 

Hamilton gave far more to his country than simply the results of his 
own work as pilot in patrolling his sector and fighting the German. He was 
a sunny and steadying power among boys who were living in cold and wet 
and cheerlessness, who were high-strung by nature, and were growing more 
taut every day, for they were flying those little Spads in all weathers, were 
hunting out the enemy and engaging him even if he were vastly superior 
in number, and the battle was so continuous they could get no proper 
leave for rest. 

Citations 

Croix de Guerre, with palm 

Apres approbation du General Commandant en Chef les forces expedi- 
tionnaires americaines en France, le Marechal de France, Commandant 
en Chef les Armees Frangaises de 1'Est, cite a l'Ordre de l'Armee: 



Lieutenant-pilote Hamilton Coolidge, a l'Escadrille 94 : 
Pilote de grand courage. A abattu en flammes, le 7 juillet 1918 un 
biplace ennemi dans la Region de Grisolles. 

Le MarScIial de France 
Commandant en Chef les Armies Frangaise 

Petain 

[ 65 J 



HAMILTON COOLIDGE 



D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Grand Pre, France, Oct. 27, 
1918. Leading a protection patrol, Capt. Coolidge went to the assistance 
of two observation planes which were being attacked by 6 German ma- 
chines: Observing this manoeuvre, the enemy sent up a terrific barrage 
from anti-aircraft guns on the ground. Disregarding the extreme danger 
Capt. Coolidge dived straight into the barrage and his plane was struck 
and sent down in flames. 

First Lieutenant Hamilton Coolidge, A.S., 94th Aero Squadron, for 
distinguished and exceptional gallantry at Bonnes, France, on 7 July, 1918, 
in the operation of the American Expeditionary Forces. 

In testimony thereof, and as an expression of appreciation of his valor, 
I award him this citation. 

John J. Pershing 
Commander-in-Chief 

Awarded on 27 March, 1919 



[ 66 j 



HAROLD R. BUCKLEY 



Capt., A.S., U.S.A., 95th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group 

Son of Daniel H. and Mary A. Buckley of Springfield, Mass.; was 
born at Westfield, Mass., on April 4, 1896. He was educated at 
Phillips Andover Academy, where he was a member of the track 
team, the football squad, and captain of the swimming team. 

In March, 1917, he entered the American Ambulance Service 
and served for 4 months in France; enlisting in the U.S. Air Service, 
in Paris, Aug., 1917. He trained at Tours, during Sept. and Oct.; 
at Issoudun, Nov., 1917, to Feb., 1918; and at Cazaux in March, 
1918. He joined the 95th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, and 
served at the front from March, 1918, until the signing of the 
Armistice. During this period he was in the Champagne sector in 
March; Toul sector, May and June; Chateau-Thierry drive, July 
and Aug. ; St.-Mihiel drive, first part of Sept. ; Argonne drive, Sept., 
Oct., and Nov., 1918. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Dec. 12, 
1917; and on Nov. 1, 1918, he was commissioned Captain. He was 
awarded the Croix de Guerre; D.S.C. with oak leaf; medal of Aero 
Club of America; and officially credited with five Boches. 

Croix de Guerre 
Citation a l'ordre du Corps d'Armee. 

Le Lieutenant-Pilote Harold B. Buckley, 95th Escadrille americaine, 
chef de patrouille, calme et determine. A attaque les avions et les saucis- 
ses, et mitraille les troupes sur la terre d'un hauteur faible. Le 30 mai 1918, 
avec sa patrouille, est livre combat a deux avions ennemis, dont Fun a ete 
descendu, l'autre a ete force de descendre desempare. Petain 

D.S.C. 

Awarded for extraordinary heroism in action at Perles, France, Aug. 10, 
to Lieut. Harold B. Buckley, 95th Aero Squadron. 

Lieut. Buckley was on a patrol protecting a French photographing ma- 
chine when they were suddenly set upon by six enemy planes. Lieut. 
Buckley attacked and destroyed the nearest and the remainder fled into 
their own territory. He then carried on with his mission until he had safely 
escorted the photographing machine back to its own aerodrome. 

A bronze oak leaf for extraordinary heroism in action near Bemonville, 
France, Sept. 25-26, 1918. 

Lieut. Buckley dove through a violent and heavy machine-gun and anti- 
aircraft barrage and set on fire an enemy balloon, as it was being lowered 
into its nest. The next day, while leading a patrol he sent down in flames 
an enemy reglage machine, which was engaged in work over our lines. 

[ 67 ] 



SIGOURNEY THAYER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Fifth Aero Squadron 

First Pursuit Group 
Son of Rev. William G. Thayer, D.D., and Violet (Otis) Thayer; 
was born at Southboro, Mass., March 24, 1896. He was educated 
at St. Mark's School, 1908-14, and at Amherst College, 1914-17, 
A.B. causa honoris, 1918. At St. Mark's he was on the school foot- 
ball and track teams; at Amherst he was captain of the track 
team, and won his "A" in track. 

He enlisted in June, 1916, in Battery A, 1st Mass. Regt., F.A., 
N.G., and went to the Mexican Border. Returning from Mexico, 
he was transferred to Aviation, and trained at M.I.T. Ground 
School from April to Aug., 1917. From Aug. to Oct. he trained at 
Mt. Clemens, Mich., Aviation Camp. From Oct. to Dec. he was 
stationed at Mineola, N.Y., and was commissioned 1st Lieut, on 
Dec. 10, 1917. From Dec, 1917, to March, 1918, he was at Lake 
Charles, La.; and at Mineola, N.Y., in March, 1918. Receiving 
overseas orders, Lieut. Thayer sailed for England on March 4, and 
went from England to Issoudun, France, and from there to Haus- 
siment-sur-Marne. He was first attached to the 99th Aero Squad- 
ron, then to the 12th Squadron, with which he went through the 
St.-Mihiel and Argonne-Meuse offensives, acting as Flight Com- 
mander from the end of Aug. until early in Oct., 1918. He was then 
transferred to the 95th Pursuit Squadron, as chasse pilot, and 
served until the Armistice, when he was attached to Aviation Head- 
quarters, at Paris, going as courier to England. He returned to the 
U.S. in April, 1919. 

Lieut. Thayer was cited in General Orders Sept. 13, 1918: "For 
gallantry in action near St.-Mihiel, France." 

Brothers in Service — ■ 

William G. Thayer, Jr., 2d Lieut. U.S. Infantry. 
James Appleton Thayer, 2d Lieut. U.S. Infantry. 



[ 68 ] 



QUENTIN ROOSEVELT 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Fifth Aero Squadron 
First Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, July 14, 1918 
Son of Theodore and Edith Kermit (Carow) Roosevelt; was born 
at Washington, D.C., Nov. 19, 1898. He was educated at Groton 
School, Groton, Mass., the Episcopal High School, Alexandria, 
Va., and at Harvard College, class of 1919. Prior to enlistment he 
attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg. 

He enlisted about April 30, 1917, at Oyster Bay, N.Y., and 
trained for the Air Service at Mineola, N.Y. He was commissioned 
1st Lieut, in April, 1917, and sailed overseas on July 23, 1917, on 
the S.S. Orduna, landing at Liverpool. From there he was sent to 
Paris, where he remained at Aviation Headquarters until Oct., 
when he was sent to Issoudun in command of the flying cadets and 
served as Instructor. On finishing there he went to Cazaux, Aerial 
Gunnery School, Feb. 28, 1918, and remained there for three weeks, 
returning to Issoudun to stay until the first of June in charge of one 
of the fields. About the first week in June he was sent to the Amer- 
ican Acceptance Park at Orly, near Paris, and from there was as- 
signed as tester of planes at Villacoublay, a French field near Orly. 

He received orders to go to the front and joined the 95th Aero 
Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, on June 15, 1918. On July 14, 1918, 
he was killed in action, falling near Chamery, about 3 or 4 kilo- 
metres southeast of Fere-en-Tardenois. 

Brothers in Service — 

Theodore Roosevelt, Lieut.-Col. 26th Infantry, 1st Division, 
U.S.A. (20 months with A.E.F.; gassed and wounded). 

Kermit Roosevelt, Capt. B.E.F., Light Armored Motor Bat- 
tery, Mesopotamia; Capt. U.S.A., Field Artillery (20 months 
with A.E.F.). 

Archibald Roosevelt, Capt. U.S.A., 26th Infantry (14 months 
with A.E.F.; invalided home). 



[ 70 ] 



JASON SOLON HUNT 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Seventh Aero 
Squadron, First Pursuit Group 
Killed inaction, Aug. 1, 1918 
Son of Bertron A. and Nettie B. Hunt; was born at Johnson, Vt., 
Jan. 24, 1894. He prepared for college at the High School in 
Johnson, Vt., and graduated from the University of Vermont in 
1915. He entered the Harvard Law School in the fall of 1915, leav- 
ing there at the end of the second year to attend the 1st Officers' 
Training Camp at Plattsburg in May, 1917. At the time of his grad- 
uation from the University of Vermont, he was captain of the 
University Battalion and the following Nov. he was commissioned 
1st Lieut, in the State Guard. 

In July, 1917, he was one of 25 men sent from Plattsburg to 
Toronto to take up Aviation. From Canada he was sent to Texas 
to continue his training, where he was commissioned 1st Lieut, in 
Feb., 1918, and sent overseas attached to the 27th Squadron, 1st 
Pursuit Group. 

With this Squadron he did excellent work, and on Aug. 1, while 
in the Chateau-Thierry sector, he was sent out on a mission 
with five other planes to protect an observation machine. When 
the formation was well within the enemy territory they were at- 
tacked by some 20 German planes; the protection planes did their 
best to shield the observation machine, which started for home 
with the photographs that had been taken. In the fight that fol- 
lowed, all but one of the American machines were shot down. Two 
of the aviators, although wounded, afterwards recovered in German 
hospitals, but Lieut. Hunt was probably instantly killed, although 
his family have been unable to obtain the exact details regarding 
his death, or to ascertain the place of his burial. 

The observation machine which Lieut. Hunt was helping to 
protect was able to reach its own side of the line, carrying the 
photographs, which proved to be of great value although the pilot, 
who was fatally wounded, lost control of his plane before he could 
make a landing and it fell killing him and his observer. 

Brother in Service — 

Bertron A. Hunt, Jr.; served in Co. E, 101st Ammunition 
Train, in the 26th Division, A.E.F. 

[ 72] 



SAMUEL H. COLTON 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Seventh Aero 
Squadron, First Pursuit Group 

Son of Samuel H. and Elizabeth (Slater) Colton; was born at 
Worcester, Mass., Feb. % 1895. He attended Worcester Academy 
and graduated from Bowdoin College in 1917. During the summer 
of 1915 he served for six months with the American Ambulance 
Field Service in Belgium. 

He enlisted at Boston on July 16, 1917, and trained at the 
Princeton Ground School, Princeton, N.J. He completed his course 
there on Sept. 14, 1917, and sailed within the week for England. 
His first six months abroad were spent in training at Foggia, 
Italy. He trained for two months at Tours; three months at 
Issoudun, and one at Orly. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. May 
13, 1918. 

On Sept. 1, 1918, he was transferred from Orly to Eembercourt 
and attached to the 27th Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group. From this 
time until the signing of the Armistice he flew over the front with 
this Squadron, participating in the splendid work done by the 1st 
Pursuit Group, especially during the St.-Mihiel and Argonne- 
Meuse attacks. 

Lieut. Colton was officially credited with bringing down two 
enemy planes. Among the many exciting encounters in which he 
took part was one north of Grand Pre, where he was attacked dur- 
ing the early morning patrol by a number of Fokkers. Other Ameri- 
cans came to his assistance and during the fighting Colton managed 
to separate one of the enemy planes from its group and downed 
it after five minutes of combat. 

Lieut. Colton was honorably discharged at Camp Mills, Mineola, 
N.Y., Feb. 10, 1919. 

Brothers in Service — 

James H. Colton, Temporary Ensign, U.S. Navy. 
John B. Colton, U.S. Naval Reserve. 
Sydney Colton, U.S. Medical Corps. 



[ 74 ] 



ROBERT FULTON RAYMOND, Jr. 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Seventh Aero Squadron 
First Pursuit Group 

Son of Judge Robert Fulton and Mary E. (Walker) Raymond, of 
Newton Centre, Mass. ; was born in New Bedford, Mass., on March 
15, 1895. He was educated in the public schools of New Bedford 
and Newton, and at Tilton Academy, Tilton, N.H. He graduated 
from Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., in 1917, receiving 
the degree A.B. in absentia, because of attendance at Plattsburg. 

In 1915, and again in 1917, he attended the Plattsburg Camp, 
enlisting there in the Air Service in May, 1917; he trained with the 
Royal Flying Corps at Toronto, and at Camps Mohawk and Bor- 
den, in Canada, in the autumn of 1917. He was then assigned to 
Hicks Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he remained throughout 
Dec, 1917, and Jan., 1918. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in 
Jan., 1918, and sailed from New York in Feb. with the 27th Aero 
Squadron. He saw service with this Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, 
in the Toul, St.-Mihiel, and Chateau-Thierry sectors. On June 24, 

1918, he brought down his first plane, a German two-seater, and 
was awarded the D.S.C. by General Pershing. He was commis- 
sioned Capt. June 24, 1918. On July 16, 1918, he was shot down 
over the enemy lines at Chateau-Thierry, but was uninjured. For 
the next five months he was a prisoner in German prison camps, 
at Rastadt, Landshut, and Fiirstenfeldsbruk. He was released on 
Dec. 5, sailed for America, and was honorably discharged in Feb., 

1919, at New York. 

D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Chateau-Thierry, France, 
June 24, 1918. Lieut. Raymond piloted one machine in a formation of 
three which were escorting three reconnaissance planes over enemy terri- 
tory. On account of motor trouble, he was unable to keep up with his com- 
panions, and while thus detached, was attacked by an enemy machine. 
In spite of the condition of his engine and his presence far within the 
German lines, Lieut. Raymond vigorously attacked the German plane and 
destroyed it, after which he succeeded in rejoining his patrol. 

Capt. Raymond was also awarded the Croix de Guerre with the palm, 
by the French Government. 

Brother in Service: Allen S. Raymond, Corporal, U.S.A., 
306th Brigade, Heavy Tank Corps, A.E.F. 

[ 76 ] 



PHILIP WASHBURN DAVIS 



Brevet, Lafayette Corps, Second Lieutenant, Ninety-Fourth 
Aero Squadron, First Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, June 2, 1918 
Son of S. Warren and Maria E. (Washburn) Davis; was born at 
West Newton, Mass., March 10, 1888. He was educated at the 
Newton High School, class of 1904, and at Harvard College, A.B. 
1908. He made records in hurdling and tennis at college, and later 
in tennis clubs. After leaving college he entered the office of Lee 
Hi gginson & Co., where he remained for two years. Subsequently 
he went into business for himself, as partner in the firm of Cham- 
berlain & Davis, investment securities. 

Previous to the war he was a member of the 1st Corps of Cadets, 
M.V.M. In May, 1917, he sailed overseas determined to do his 
part in the Ambulance Service; he reached Paris, June 2, 1917, and 
three days later wrote : 

I have enlisted in the Aviation Squadron, the Lafayette Escadrille. I 
decided that it was the only right thing to do. You cannot imagine at 
home — of course, I could n't — what this war really is. How everybody 
has got to do his share to save the world from the Boches . . . they need 
aviators badly and they are very important in the conduct of the war. . . . 
Now that the U.S. is in the war I think our men should be at the front. . . . 
Once I had determined to get into the Army, I wanted to get into some- 
thing where individuality counts and it does in Aviation more than any- 
where else. Even if the danger is greater the value of the service is greater 
too. 

He trained at Avord, Pau, and Cazaux, receiving his Brevet 
Oct. 26, 1917. He was transferred to the U.S. Service, was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut, on Jan. 6, 1918, and was assigned to the 94th 
Squadron (Major Lufbery's). With this Squadron he took part 
in several actions. On June 2, 1918, Lieut. Davis made his last 
flight. Capt. Douglas Campbell was leading the patrol when 
four of the American planes were attacked by five or six Germans. 
After a hot fight the Germans were driven off, but Lieut. Davis 
was seen to fall in flames. 

He was buried near Burly Wood (Richecourt), north of Seiche- 
prey. (See record of Lieut. Arthur Lawrence Cunningham.) 

Sister in Service ■ — 

Amelia W. Davis, in Y.M.C.A. canteen and library work 
abroad, from Oct., 1917, until the Armistice. 

[ 78] 



ARTHUR LAWRENCE CUNNINGHAM 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Fourth Aero 
Squadron, First Pursuit Group 
Son of John F. and Mary Elizabeth (Ryan) Cunningham; was born 
at Everett, Mass., Dec. 15, 1895. He prepared for college at the 
Medford High School, where he was valedictorian, and Major of 
High School Battalion; he entered Harvard College in the class of 
1918, and was winner of Price-Greenleaf, and three other scholar- 
ships. 

On May 26, 1917, he went overseas with the Harvard Ambulance 
Unit, and after a month in Paris with that organization, enlisted 
July, 1917, in the Foreign Legion, Lafayette Escadrille. He trained 
for some months at Avord, Pau, and Cazaux, and in Jan., 1918, 
was commissioned 2d Lieut, and assigned in Feb. to the 94th 
Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, and participated in all the great 
drives. 

On May 7, 1918, he took the air in answer to a challenge from a 
German aviator and found five others in hiding behind clouds. 
Attacked by six Germans, he fought until his machine gun jammed, 
then succeeded in reaching the American lines with his plane rid- 
dled with bullets. 

On June 2, 1918, while returning from escorting a British Bomb- 
ing Squadron along the Rhine Valley, Lieut. Cunningham and 
Lieut. Philip Davis, of Newton, were cut off from their seven other 
companion flyers, and attacked by a squadron of German planes. 
Lieut. Davis's machine burst into flames and he fell five miles back 
of the enemy lines. Lieut. Cunningham circled around, but could 
do nothing, as his machine was riddled with bullets, but he suc- 
ceeded in reaching the American lines unharmed. He was convinced 
that they had brought down two enemy planes, but he was too far 
over the German lines for official verification. On Aug. 1, 1918, he 
was commissioned 1st Lieut, and in Sept. made Assistant Opera- 
tions Officer, and later Operations Officer, on Major Hartney's 
staff, for the 1st Pursuit Group. 

After the signing of the Armistice, he rejoined the 94th Squadron 
and was transferred to Coblenz, Germany, with the Army of Occu- 
pation. 

Brother in Service — 

John P. Cunningham, Ensign U.S. Navy. 

[ 80 ] 



ELIHU HOWARD KELTON 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., One Hundred Eighty- 
Fifth Aero Squadron, First Pursuit Group 

Son of George Howard and Ruth (Coolidge) Kelton, of Hubbards- 
ton, Mass.; was born in Waltham, Mass., on Jan. 4, 1897. He was 
educated at the Boston Latin School, at the Gardner High School, 
and at Harvard College. 

He enlisted in Cambridge, Mass., on Aug. 20, 1917, and was 
immediately assigned to the Ground School, M.I.T., where he re- 
mained until Oct. 13. He sailed for France on Nov. 1, 1917. He 
was trained at Issoudun, France, from Nov. 16, 1917, to Feb. 10, 
1918, and was subsequently student and instructor at the School 
of Aerial Gunnery at Cazaux, from Feb. 10 to May 1, 1918. He was 
then given preliminary work in flying at Tours from May 1 to June 
20, and advanced work in flying at Issoudun from June 20 to Aug. 
18, 1918. He later took a Pilot's Gunnery Course at Cazaux from 
Aug. 18 to Sept. 1, and acted as Ferry Pilot at Orly from Sept. 1 
to Sept. 8. He was assigned to the 185th Squadron on Sept. 9, 
transferred to the 27th Squadron on Oct. 1, and transferred back 
to the 185th Squadron for night pursuit work on Oct. 18, 1918. 
He was shot down and taken prisoner on Oct. 30. He was confined 
in the Karlsruhe Prison Camp, from which he escaped on Nov. 20, 
1918, and reached Strasbourg by walking all night. He was attached 
to the 41st Aero Squadron, 5th Pursuit Group, on duty with the 
Army of Occupation in Coblenz, Germany. He was commissioned 
1st Lieut, on June 9, 1918. 

Citation 

For distinguished and exceptional gallantry, Oct. 24-30, 1918. 



[ 82 ] 



CHARLES T. CROCKER, III 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Ninety-Fourth Aero 
Squadron, First Pursuit Group 

Son of Charles T. and Fay (Bigelow) Crocker; was born in Fitch- 
burg, Mass., in 1896. He was educated at Fay School, Southboro, 
Mass., and at St. George's School, Newport, R.I. At the latter 
school he was on the football and hockey teams. 

In 1913 he enlisted in Battery A, M.V.M., at Boston, Mass. 
In 1915 he joined the American Ambulance Service in France, 
sailing on the U.S.S. Sussex which was torpedoed in the English 
Channel. The Ambulance Unit with which Lieut. Crocker served 
received the Croix de Guerre for its excellent work. In 1915 he was 
recalled from France, to go to the Mexican Border with Battery A, 
then 1st Mass. Reg't, FA., N.G. 

He was transferred to the Aviation Service in 1918, and after 
10 weeks' technical training at the M.I.T. Ground School, was 
sent abroad, and stationed at Issoudun, France, for practical flying. 
In July, 1918, he was sent to the front, attached to the 94th Aero 
Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group. Just previous to the Argonne drive, 
Lieut. Crocker was one of two pilots to volunteer for a low flight 
far beyond the German lines over Stenay, to ascertain the move- 
ments of the German troops. He performed the mission success- 
fully, and was recommended for the D.S.C. 

At last accounts Lieut. Crocker was with the Army of Occupa- 
tion at Coblenz, Germany. 

Citations 

Recommendation for D.S.C. October 29, 1918 

On Sept. 27, 1918, a call for volunteers to fly at a very low altitude 
to Stenay-sur-Meuse was made. Lieut. Crocker was one of the first to 
volunteer. To successfully fulfil this mission, it was necessary for Lieut. 
Crocker to pass twice through a very intense barrage and on account of 
atmospheric conditions at such a low altitude that his plane was in easy 
range of machine guns on the ground. In fact, the visibility was so poor 
that it was impossible for other planes to work. During the entire trip, he 
was under continual and intense shell and machine-gun fire, but in spite of 
this, and the fact that he was well within the lines of hostile country, he, 
by skill, courage, and determination, brought to a successful conclusion 
a mission, the hazardous nature of which made his safe return almost 
impossible. The information he was able to furnish our forces was of a 

[ 84 ] 



CHARLES T. CROCKER, III 



most valuable nature, especially at that particular time, and aided materi- 
ally in the success of our operations. 

Lieut. Crocker has been on active service at the front with this 
Squadron since Sept. 5, 1918, during which time he has displayed a 
marked desire for work of the more arduous and dangerous nature. On 
numerous occasions, he has voluntarily performed missions which called 
for the highest courage and devotion to duty. He has made many valuable 
reports on the condition of enemy bridges, roads, and movement of troops. 
This information has been obtained by him under the most perilous condi- 
tions and which often necessitated penetrating the German lines from 
thirty to fifty kilometres while flying at an extremely low altitude. 

E. V. RlCKENBACKER 

Captain, Air Service, U.S.A. 
Belgian Legion of Honor Cross 

France, 12th February, 1919. 

My dear Lieutenant, — 

The King, Albert I, of Belgium, has given me instructions to inform 
you that He has bestowed upon you the 

Ordre de la Couronne 

with rank of "Chevalier." 

His Majesty desires that this honorary distinction be conveyed to you 
as a token of His esteem and in recognition of the valuable services you 
have rendered the common cause. 

The medal will be handed over to you by the Adjutant General. 

Please accept my most cordial greetings. 

I am, my dear Lieutenant, 

Very truly yours 

J. M. ClNAUT 

Chief of the Belgian Mission 



I 86 ] 



* CHESTER ROBINSON TUTEIN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Eighty-Fifth 
Aero Squadron, First Pursuit Group 
Killed in accident, Nov. 17, 1918 

Son of E. Arthur and Edith (Robinson) Tutein; was born at 
Revere, Mass., May 17, 1895. He attended the Revere and Win- 
chester public schools and graduated from the Winchester High 
School. He was finishing the third year at M.I.T. at the time 
of his enlistment with the American Ambulance Field Service in 
May, 1917. He was prominent in athletics, being on the High 
School football team and captain of the boat crew. At Tech he 
continued his interest in athletics; he was a member of the Athletic 
Committee, entered the school meets and was prominent on the 
hockey team, of which he was elected captain just before enlist- 
ment. 

He left New York on June 20, 1917, with the American Ambu- 
lance Field Service, staying in that service until Nov. 19, 1917. 
On arriving in France he was assigned to the Section Groupe 
Americaine, Convois Automobiles, T.M. 526, Peloton C, serving as 
conductor of camions in the region of the Aisne and the Chemin des 
Dames. 

On Dec. 4, 1917, he enlisted in the Air Service, in Paris, but 
was not called until early in the new year; in the meantime he 
found employment in the A.E.F. Post-Office in Paris. 

About Jan. 1, 1918, he left Paris for the Cadet Flying Camp at 
St.-Maixent. He received his commission as 2d Lieut, on May 
17, 1918. 

About May 29 he was transferred to the 2d Aviation Instruc- 
tion Centre at Tours. He left Tours for the 3d Aviation Instruction 
Centre at Issoudun, where he finished Sept. 30, and awaited orders 
to go to the Gunnery School at St.-Jean-des-Monts, where he 
arrived Oct. 21. He left there Nov. 10, arriving at the front near 
Bar-le-Duc on the morning of Nov. 11, just after the Armistice 
was signed. "Well," he wrote, "Roy Youmans and I are assigned 
to the First Pursuit Group (the best) and we go out this afternoon. 
We may fly to-morrow, but we are all pretty low. The Armistice is 
signed and we will not be able to get any Bodies." 



[ 87] 



CHESTER ROBINSON TUTEIN 



On Nov. 20, the Commanding Officer of the 185th Squadron wrote 
to the parents of Lieut. Tutein of his death on Nov. 17: 

Chester had been flying over the field for some time. I had been watch- 
ing him and admiring his flying which was of the best. Suddenly he seemed 
to lose control of his plane on a turn and spun straight to the ground. 
Death was of course instantaneous, so that there was absolutely no pain 
or suffering. I had not known your son very long, as he came to my squadron 
Nov. 12. 1 really knew him much better than some of the pilots who have 
been with me much longer. He was always willing and cheerful about his 
work. . . . 

Chester was buried at 3 p.m. Nov. 18, at Base Hospital No. 6, at Suilly 
(France). We held a military service. I obtained as many flowers as was 
possible and left a permanent wreath on the grave. 

The 185th Squadron, of which Lieut. Tutein was a member, was 
trained in Texas under English tables of organization, and subse- 
quently was sent to England, where it saw duty before going to 
France. On Oct. 7, 1918, it was assigned to the First Pursuit Group, 
being equipped with Sopwith Camel machines with Monosoupape 
motors. Its duties were to establish a barrage over the American 
line of searchlights against enemy night-bombing machines. This 
was the first attempt at night-flying chasse made in the American 
Air Service. A schedule of night patrols was maintained over the 
searchlight positions and all along the lines where it was known 
that enemy bombers were apt to cross. Extremely bad weather 
during Oct. and the early part of Nov. prevented the Squadron 
from doing much work. The Squadron engaged in five combats, 
but because of lack of searchlights did not bring down any enemy 
planes. 

Brother in Service — 

Dexter A. Tutein, Ensign, U.S. Navy. 



JOSEPH F. WEHNER 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Twenty-Seventh Aero 
Squadron, First Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, Sept. 20, 1918 

Son of Frank W. and Johanna (Nelson) Wehner; was born in 
Boston, Sept. 20, 1895. He attended the Everett High School and 
Exeter Academy. At both institutions was captain of the football 
team; at Exeter, he was stroke on the crew. 

Prior to the entrance of the U.S. into the war, he did Y.M.C.A. 
work in prison camps in Germany, leaving when diplomatic rela- 
tions were severed. In June, 1917, he enlisted in the Air Service in 
New York City. He trained at Austin, Texas, and after graduating 
at the head of his class was sent to Scott Field, Belleville, 111. Here 
he also did exceptionally fine work. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. 
Jan. 9, 1918, and about Feb. 1 sailed for England, where he was 
two weeks in training. He was then assigned to the 3d Aviation 
Instruction Centre at Issoudun, France. In June, 1918, he was at 
the front, taking part in the big drive. On Sept. 15 he found an 
enemy patrol of eight machines attacking a single American obser- 
vation plane; he attacked promptly, and succeeded in destroying 
one of the enemy machines, and forcing another down. He con- 
voyed the American plane to safety. For this exploit he received 
the D.S.C. On Sept. 16, 1918, he destroyed two enemy balloons, 
and was awarded a bronze oak leaf. He was reported missing 
in action on Sept. 18, and on Sept. 20 his death in action inside 
the German lines near Serronville, was officially given out. He 
was buried at Serronville France. 

D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Rouvres, France, Sept. 15, 
1918. "While on a mission Lient. Wehner found an enemy patrol of eight 
machines attacking a single American observation machine. He immedi- 
ately attacked, destroying one and forcing another down out of control, 
his own plane being badly damaged by enemy machine-gun fire. He man- 
aged to convoy the American plane to safety. A bronze Oak Leaf is 
awarded to Lieutenant Wehner for the following act of heroism in action 
near Mangiennes and Reville, France, Sept. 16, 1918. Amid terrific anti- 
aircraft and machine-gun fire, Lieut. Wehner descended, attacked, and 
destroyed two enemy balloons. One of these balloons was destroyed in 
flames after it had been hauled to the ground and was resting in its bed. 

[ 90 ] 



WILLIAM WALLACE CHALMERS 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U S.A., Ninety-Fourth Aero 
Squadron, First Pursuit Group 

Son of Dr. and Mrs. James Chalmers, of Framingham, Mass.; was 
born in Columbus, 0., May 23, 1891, and is now living in Hartford, 
Conn. He graduated from the Fitchburg High School in 1909, and 
from Middlebury College, B.S. 1913. He played on the 'Varsity 
football team four years. 

He enlisted in S.E.R.C., on May 21, 1917, at Columbus, O., and 
trained at the Ohio State University Ground School from May 21 
to July 14, 1917. On July 23 he sailed overseas, and was trained 
at Tours, Issoudun, and Cazaux. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, 
on Nov. 20, 1917. 

From March to May, 1918, Lieut. Chalmers acted as ferry pilot 
at Paris, and saw active service with the 94th Aero Squadron at 
Toul and Chateau-Thierry. At Chateau-Thierry he was captured 
by the enemy, being shot down 15 kilometres behind the German 
lines. He was held prisoner for the remainder of the war, but was 
released after the Armistice, on Nov. 29, 1918. 

Lieut. Chalmers sailed from Brest for America on Jan. 29, 1919, 
and was discharged at Garden City on Feb. 18, 1919. 

Married, May 14, 1919, Katherine Williamson. 

Brother in Service — 

Robert Burns Chalmers, Ambulance Section 511, now with 
the French Army of Occupation. 



[ 92] 



* ALEXANDER BERN BRUCE 



First Lieutenant, Ninety-Fourth Aero Squadron, First 
Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, Aug. 17, 1918 

Son of David and Carrie E. (Wainwright) Bruce, of Lawrence, 
Mass.; was born at Seattle, Wash., May 3, 1894. He graduated 
from Phillips Andover Academy in the class of 1911; a member of 
the Cum Laude Society, and was on the honor-roll for four suc- 
cessive years. He graduated from Harvard College in 1915; a mem- 
ber of the Phi Beta Kappa, with highest honors in scholarship. He 
was a member of the Harvard Gymnasium athletic team, and of 
the Harvard chess team. 

On graduation from college he taught mathematics and chem- 
istry at Phillips Andover Academy, until his entry into the Service. 
He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in 1916. 
In March, 1917, he helped to organize the Andover Ambulance 
Unit, and sailed with its 23 members to France, April 28, 1917. 
Soon after arriving in Paris, he and his Unit volunteered for 
camion service with the French Army, where he remained until 
allowed to enter the U.S. Air Service, in Sept., 1917. He was trained 
at Issoudun, Cazaux, and elsewhere; and was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, on Jan. 22, 1918. After the big German drive was turned, 
he was assigned to the 94th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group. 

Lieut. Bruce met his death in combat at Les Cruaux, on Aug. 17, 
1918. In an engagement with the enemy, his patrol was attacked 
from above, and when their gas was almost exhausted the Ameri- 
cans retreated; but Lieut. Bruce and another pilot of his patrol 
brushed wings. Lieut. Bruce, losing control of his machine, started 
to fall. But after falling 1000 metres, he regained partial control, 
and made a tight spiral during the remaining 2500 metres. The 
pilots above noticed that he was trying to spiral into an open field, 
but he missed that and landed in a forest. His machine struck some 
tall trees, nose first, at an angle of about 30 degrees, and Bruce's 
neck was broken by the fall of nearly two miles. 

Lieut. Bruce was buried where he fell, in the Commune of 
Chery-Chartreuve, Aisne, France. 



[ 94 ] 



BENNETT WELLS 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., One Hundred Forty- 
Seventh Aero Squadron, First Pursuit Group 

Son of Herbert Clifford and Amy C. (Bullard) Wells, of Wayland, 
Mass.; was born in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 16, 1894. He was edu- 
cated at Cambridge Latin School and at Harvard College, class of 
1918; leaving college during his sophomore year to go to France. He 
sailed on May 5, 1917, to join the American Field Service in France, 
driving an ammunition truck to and from the front for six months. 
He then transferred to Aviation, in Sept., 1917, enlisting in U.S.A.S. 
He was trained in the American Aviation School in France, and 
was then sent as chasseur to the front. He was commissioned 
1st Lieut, about Feb. 1, 1918, and was assigned to the 147th Aero 
Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, Zone of Advance. 

While in active service Lieut. Wells took part in the great battle 
of Chateau-Thierry. 



[ 96 ] 



FIRST DAY BOMBARDMENT GROUP 

As its name implied, the 1st Day Bombardment Group was 
America's first attempt at such work and mistakes were naturally to 
be expected. Unfortunately no adequate use was made of the exper- 
ience of the Allies, and both in tactics and equipment much was 
learned only by a needless sacrifice of many lives. Two of the Squad- 
rons, the 20th and the 12th, were the first to be equipped wholly with 
American machines — De Haviland 4's, with Liberty motors. These 
machines quickly earned the soubriquet of "flaming coffins," from 
the vulnerability of the gasoline tank. In the De H. 4's these tanks 
were directly between the two men. They thus not only made a third 
distinct vital spot as target for the enemy — the engine, the pilot, 
and the gas tank — but separated the pilot from his observer, so 
that all communication had to be indirect, a tremendous handicap 
not only against cooperative work, but to that moral support which 
direct contact of one person with another can give. 

These tanks were not protected with the usual cork or rubber 
lining which, in case they were punctured by a bullet, closed up 
after it and prevented the fatal leakage which means "flames." 
The gas, too, was fed to the engine by pressure, which was thus 
simultaneously stopped by the unchecked puncture and could only 
thereafter be supplied by hand pumping. Already the type of ma- 
chine had been discarded by the Allies as superannuated. Some idea 
of how far it fell short of expectations can be formed when it is 
known that the bomb racks were constructed to hold 10 bombs, and 
though at first it was attempted to fly with 4, it was subsequently 
necessary to cut the number to 2. The machines were also without 
the armored seats then in fairly frequent use, and because of the 
relative position of the gasoline tank and the wings, the pilot's view 
was much more circumscribed than in the machines whose tanks 
were forward. In such antiquated machines these boys were asked 
daily to face death. They knew the weaknesses, for they had been 
trained in Allied "ships" of the best type. 

In tactics there was a similar lack of understanding. Before the 
formation of the American Bombing Group late in Aug., but 
little attention had been paid by the Germans to the flyers in the 
American sector. It was thus taken for granted that even a single 
bomber might be sent out alone. But immediately upon the advent 
of the 1st Day Bombing Group the Germans moved several of their 



[ 98] 



TWENTIETH AERO SQUADRON 

crack circuses down to oppose them. Thus in pitiable small groups 
these American boys were called upon to meet tremendously pre- 
dominating forces. The Allies had long abandoned small formations 
and sent their bombers only in large numbers. 

The first flight over the enemy lines which the 20th Squadron was 
called upon to make was an example of the fearful odds they had 
to meet. That they met this crisis successfully is recorded in the 
following citations accorded their Group. 

Citations 

Commendation of work of First Day Bombardment Group 

September 19, 1918 

1. The work of the 1st Day Bombardment Group during the battle of 
St.-Mihiel, and in the operations after it, has been such as to bring out the 
praise and appreciation of all the troops of the Allied Service participating 
in the operations. 

This Group, under most difficult conditions, with new equipment, and 
Pilots and Observers, who had recently come up on the front, has shown 
a devotion to duty and initiative which has not been exceeded by any 
troops on the front. 

2. The work of the 1st Bombardment Group has materially aided in 
hindering hostile concentration troops, troop movement along the roads, 
and in sweeping the enemy back, thereby making lighter the work of our 
own pursuit aviation along the immediate front. 

3. I desire that all members of the Group be informed of the high regard 
in which their work is held throughout the Army. 

(Signed) W. S. Mitchell 

Colonel, A.S., First Army 

Telegram 

Headquarters A.E.F. 
Chief of Air Service 

First Day Bombardment Group — 

Excellent work done by the officers and men of your Group during the 
recent offensive deserves and has received hearty commendation; con- 
gratulations to you and your command on the record you have made for 
yourselves and for the Air Service. It is good to know that we can rely upon 
you to keep up this fine work which counts for so much in bringing about 
the results desired. 

(Signed) General Patrick 



[ 99] 



ELEVENTH AERO SQUADRON 

By First Lieutenant Paul S. Greene 

Some light may be shed on the fortunes of the 11th Squadron by 
the fact that most of its members started operations on Friday the 
13th of September, 1918. On account of the tremendous speed — 
on paper — of the American de Haviland, the Squadron, together 
with the 20th, was detailed to protect the Spad patrols of the 1st 
Pursuit Group operating from Toul in the St.-Mihiel drive. 

When it was demonstrated that the D.H. 4's could not keep up 
to pursuit planes, let alone protect them, the Squadron was sent 
back to its proper work of day bombing, making its maiden raid 
the 14th. On that day two teams were lost, 1st Lieut. Edward T. 
Comegys and his observer being killed, and 1st Lieut. Fred T. 
Shoemaker, and his observer, 2d Lieut. Robert R. Groner, wounded 
and taken prisoner. 

Hard luck only waited until the very next day before following 
up his first blow with one plainly labelled knockout. Out of a for- 
mation of six planes which crossed the lines, only one succeeded in 
staggering back in a riddled condition. The extent of this calamity 
was very much intensified when taking into account who the miss- 
ing men were. 

We started out with four pilots and one observer who had seen 
service over the lines. These officers were 1st Lieut. Thornton D. 
Hooper, our Commanding Officer; 1st Lieuts. John C. Tyler, Roger 
F. Chapin, and Cyrus G. Gatton, flight-leading pilots; and 1st 
Lieut. Harry H. Strauch, flight-leading observer. Of these, all, 
except Gatton, whose motor fortunately refused to carry him over 
the lines, were lost. 

This catastrophe left the Squadron with only one man capable 
of leading a flight, and not enough machines to make one in any 
case, so, as the St.-Mihiel drive was already quieting down, the 
Squadron was given a few days in which to get new planes and 
reorganize. 

In that time a new Commanding Officer, Capt. Charles L. 
Heater, D.F.C., arrived with experience gained on the British front, 
and 1st Lieut. Vincent P. Oatis was trained as flight leader, so that 
when the group left Amanty for Maulan to commence the Argonne 
battle, the 11th was again in condition to do its share in the opera- 
tions. 

[ 100 1 



ELEVENTH AERO SQUADRON 



With the ranks again filled up to normal, the 11th was able to 
lend half a dozen teams to the 96th in order to fill up their depleted 
roster and these flew the French Breguets with some success after 
their own so-called "flaming coffins" or D.H. 4's. 

During the month of Oct. the 11th was quite fortunate. We 
succeeded in dropping more bombs than any Squadron except the 
96th, whose machines carried twice as many as ours, and most of 
the casualties of the group were borne by the 20th and 96th. Also 
the dog belonging to Adj. Joe Molten died. 

At this time there was a shortage of observers and a call made 
for volunteers among the enlisted men of the Squadron. They 
responded almost to a man and three were picked for training. 
Among them one was wounded, and another made half a dozen 
successful raids. Neither was given any reward, not even an ob- 
server's wing. Nothing could speak higher for the spirit of the 
men than going with eyes open into such a forlorn adventure, 
more especially as at the time they were sleeping in the hangars 
under the planes and standing in a foot of mud in the rain to eat 
their meals. 

In the last raid that weather permitted, on Nov. 6, we lost two 
of our best teams, including the ever-faithful Gatton, than whom 
no man ever more deserved decoration by his Government. The 
other men lost were 1st Lieuts. Dana E. Coates and George Bures, 
and 2d Lieut. Loren S. Thrall. 

On the day following the signing of the Armistice, 2d Lieut. 
Lawrence J. Bauer was fatally injured in obeying an order to make 
a practice flight in weather in which it was almost impossible to 
get off the ground. This was the last casualty in the Squadron and 
one of the most unnecessary. 

From that time practically no flights were made, and the pilots 
began to be sent in small groups in the general direction of home, 
to separate and probably never again have the chance to meet and 
discuss the grievances and misadventures which made the "Be- 
wilderment Group" famous throughout the Allied Flying Corps. 



[ 101 ] 



ELEVENTH AERO SQUADRON 



Copy of Roll of Officers of the Eleventh Aero Squadron 

(Taken from the Thanksgiving 1918 Dinner Programme) 



Captain Charles L. Heater, A.S. 
1st Lieut. Jos. G. B. Molten, A.S. 
1st Lieut. Charles F. Netzel, M.C. 
2d Lieut. Sigbert A. G. Norris, A.S. 
2d Lieut. George T. King, A.S. 
2d Lieut. Warren N. Cromley, O.C. 
2d Lieut. Frank Katlinsky, A.S. 
2d Lieut. Henry W. Ulmo, A.S. 



Commanding 

Adjutant 

Surgeon 

Operations Officer 
Engineering Officer 
Armament Officer 
Asst. Arm. Officer 
Supply Officer 



PILOTS 

1st Lieut. Thomas M. Ring 
1st Lieut. Walter A. Stahl 
1st Lieut. Clifford Allsopp 
1st Lieut. Charles G. Slauson 
1st Lieut. W. F. Halley 
1st Lieut. P. W. Louden 
1st Lieut. Vincent P. Oatis 
1st Lieut. Paul D. Nelson 
1st Lieut. Robert B. Porter 
1st Lieut. Alfred C. Cooper 
1st Lieut. Ralf A. Crookston 
1st Lieut. Sydney E. Brewster 
1st Lieut. Uel T. McCurry 
1st Lieut. Guy H. Gale 
1st Lieut. Donald T. Malcolm 
2d Lieut. John L. Garlough 
2d Lieut. John E. Osmun 
2d Lieut. Harlan L. Shrader 
1st Lieut. F. L. Koons 
1st Lieut. George Spear 



OBSERVERS 

1st Lieut. Paul S. Greene 
2d Lieut. Hasell D. Archer 
2d Lieut. George W. Perry 
2d Lieut. James S. Yates 
1st Lieut. C. J. Griff en 
2d Lieut. Sheldon C. Crane 
2d Lieut. Ramon H. Guthrie 
1st Lieut. Ernest G. Noring 
2d Lieut. James L. Patton 
2d Lieut. John A. Richards 
2d Lieut. Henry D. Lawrence 
1st Lieut. Horace N. Jones, Jr. 
2d Lieut. William T. Parrish 
2d Lieut. Morton F. Bird 
2d Lieut. James G. Curtin 
2d Lieut. William J. Kelly 
2d Lieut. Robert C. Payton 
2d Lieut. Philip J. Edwards 
2d Lieut. R. S. Williams 
2d Lieut. E. W. Atwood 



EXTRA OBSERVERS 

2d Lieut. W. C. Craig 
2d Lieut. R. H. Williams 
2d Lieut. C. W. Reading 
2d Lieut. E. N. Kinsley 
Corporal Jacobs 



[ 102 ] 



ELEVENTH AERO SQUADRON 



fritz's guests 
1st Lieut. Thornton D. Hooper 
1st Lieut. Fred T. Shoemaker 
1st Lieut. Roger F. Chapin 
1st Lieut. Ralph R. Root 
2d Lieut. Clair B. Laird 
2d Lieut. Robert R. Groner 
2d Lieut. Horace Shidler 



MISSING 

1st Lieut. Dana E. Coates 
1st Lieut. Cyrus G. Gatton 
1st Lieut. George Bures 
2d Lieut. Lorin R. Thrall 

IN MEMORIAM 

1st Lieut. Harry H. Strauch 
1st Lieut. Lester S. Harter 
1st Lieut. Edward T. Comegys 
1st Lieut. McCrea Stephenson 
2d Lieut. Arthur S. Carter 
2d Lieut. Lawrence J. Bauer 
2d Lieut. Harold Sayre 
1st Lieut. John C. Tyler 



[ 103 ] 



PAUL STEVENS GREENE 



First Lieutenant, A.S. U.S. A., Eleventh Aero Squadron 
First Bombardment Group 

Son of Henry Brooks and Amy B. (Stevens) Greene, of Reed's 
Ferry, N.H.; was born in Boston, Mass. on Oct. 28, 1892. He was 
educated at the Methuen High School, and at Amherst College, 
class of 1916. In Feb., 1916, he left college to join the Norton-Harjes 
Ambulance Unit, Section 5, with which he served at Verdun, 
Vosges, Oise, Aisne, and Chemin des Dames; the Unit being cited 
for bravery in the month of March. He returned to the U.S. in 
Sept. to finish his senior year at Amherst, but when war was de- 
clared, was released from college, and on April 28, 1917, sailed 
again overseas, and rejoined the Harjes Unit. 

On Sept. 5, 1917, he enlisted in the Air Service, U.S.A., at Paris, 
and trained at Tours, Issoudun, Clermont-Ferrand, Gondrecourt, 
Chartres, Chateaudun, and Orly. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, 
on Dec. 27, 1917. On March 20, 1918, he was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, and in Aug. was assigned to the 11th Aero Squadron, serving 
as bomber, at St.-Mihiel and in the Argonne, and remaining with 
the Squadron at the front until the Armistice was signed. On Oct. 
4, 1918, he brought down a Hun plane; when flying at a low alti- 
tude, he and his pilot, Lieut. Theo. M. Ring, were attacked by a 
large number of enemy machines. He wrote the following day: 

I had the narrowest escape anybody could have. We were attacked by 
Boches variously estimated from 15 to 40, and my pilot did n't know it! 
We sailed along way behind, and they all hopped on. I did n't know which 
one to shoot at. 

One devil got right behind my rudder and I had to shoot part of our 
tail to get him out of it. Then one got real nasty and loomed up nice and 
close and I knocked him off. He emitted a lot of smoke and went into a 
vrille, or spinning nose-dive, and fell to earth. Two other men saw this, 
and I expect it to be confirmed. My first Boche! May there be many happy 
returns. I went on fighting a lot more, when both my guns jammed. I 
thought then we were done, but at the critical moment our chasse planes 
came along in a multitude and Mr. Boche beat it. 

Lieut. Greene was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., 
on Feb. 7, 1919. He has written a short account of the 11th 
Squadron which is included in this volume. (See pages 99 to 102). 



[ 104 ] 



EDWARD WILSON ATWOOD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Eleventh Aero Squadron, 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Thomas West Wilson and Grace Eveleth (Tobie) At wood; 
was born at Portland, Me., June 27, 1897. He fitted for college at 
the Portland High School, and entered Bowdoin College in the 
class of 1920; he was a member of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. 

He joined the R.O.T.C. at Bowdoin in the spring of 1917, and 
was among those chosen to attend the Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg, but being under age was not admitted. 

He enlisted at Portland, Me., Aug. 23, 1917, and was assigned to 
the School of Military Aeronautics, M.I.T. from which he gradu- 
ated with the 18th Army Aviation Squadron, Nov. 10, 1917. He 
sailed for France Nov. 23, 1917, and continued his training at the 
1st Corps School at Gondrecourt, March 9-25, 1918, and at the 
Ecole de Bombardement Aerien, Le Crotoy, Somme, March 29 to 
May 29, 1918. He attended the 7th Aviation Instruction Centre, 
Clermont-Ferrand, as student for two months. He joined the 11th 
Aero Squadron, 1st Day Bombardment Group, Nov. 2, 1918, and 
was with them until Dec. 4, 1918. 

He was commissioned 2d Lieut. May 18, 1918, and was honor- 
ably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Feb. 19, 1919. 



[ 106 ] 



ROGER F. CHAPIN 



First Lieutenant A.S.A., U.SA., Eleventh Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Charles Taft and Annie W. Chapin of Ashmont, Mass.; 
was born in Boston, Mass., on Aug. 23, 1892. He graduated from 
the Dorchester High School, where he played on the football team 
for two years. For three years he belonged to the 1st Squadron, 
Mass. Cavalry. He enlisted at the Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg, on May 14, 1917, was transferred to the Air Service in 
June and assigned to M.I.T. for ground work. On completing the 
course there, July 30, 1917, he was sent to Mineola, N.Y., for pre- 
liminary flying. He completed the R.M.A. flying tests on Sept. 17, 
and was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Nov. 14, the date on which he 
sailed overseas. He completed his advanced training at the 3d Avia- 
tion Instruction Centre at Issoudun, France, in March, 1918, and 
proceeded to Clermont-Ferrand for a two months' course in Day 
Bombardment. He was ordered out with a French Day Bombing 
Squadron, Escadrille Breguet No. 127 (Groupe de Bombardement 
5), about the middle of June. While attached to this Escadrille, 
Lieut. Chapin took part in the Chateau-Thierry offensive on July 
15, and during Aug. was at the Fismes-Soissons-Mondidier front. 
At the end of Aug., he was recalled to go out with the new Ameri- 
can Day Bombing Squadron, No. 11, and took part in a number of 
raids through the St.-Mihiel offensive. On Sept. 18, Lieut. Chapin 
and his observer, Clair B. Laird, of Algona, Iowa, were brought 
down back of the enemy lines north of the Chambley-Toul sector 
by enemy machines. The observer had been wounded by the fire of 
machine guns. Both men were captured, and kept as prisoners of 
war until Nov. 28, 1918, when they were exchanged through Swit- 
zerland. Lieut. Chapin received the Croix de Guerre for his services 
with the French. He was honorably discharged at Mineola, N.Y., 
in April, 1919. 

Croix de Guerre 

Le Chef d'Escadron, Vuillemin, Commandant FEscadre, cite a Fordre 
de FEscadre 12: 

Chapin, Roger, 1° Lieutenant Pilote, americain, de l'escadrille Br. 127: 
Excellent pilote, toujours volontaire pour les missions perilleuses. A pris 

part aux bombardements des 15 et 28 juillet et des 10 et 11 aout, 1918, qui 

not causes a l'ennemi des pertes considerables. 

Signs: Vuillemin 

[ 108 ] 



GEORGE DANA SPEAR 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Eleventh Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Frank N. and Julia (Smith) Spear, of Walpole, Mass.; was 
born in Walpole, on Nov. 18, 1895. He was educated in the public 
schools of Walpole and graduated from M.I.T. in 1917. He enlisted 
in the Aviation Service in Boston, on July 2, 1917. After a ground 
course at M.I.T. he sailed overseas in August to finish his training 
in England. 

He attended the School of Military Aeronautics in Oxford, Eng., 
and was soon after sent to Grantham, Eng., for an instructor's 
course in machine guns. He was then ordered to Scampton, in 
Lincolnshire, to learn the working and managing of a squadron. 
On Feb. 1, 1918, he was sent to Waddington, Lincolnshire, for 
actual flying training, and thence to Bircham-Newton, Norfolk, 
for work in fighting. He was then ordered to London, and there 
assigned to the Central Despatch Pool in London for ferry duty. 
On Sept. 10 he proceeded to France with the A.E.F. After three 
days at Tours, he was sent to the First Air Depot at Colombey-les- 
Belles. Hewas there fortunatelyable to join the 11th Aero Squadron 
which was made up of a number of men with whom he had trained. 
He reached Amanty, the Squadron Headquarters, in time for the 
last of the St.-Mihiel drive, and was with the Squadron throughout 
the entire Argonne offensive, and until the middle of Dec, 1918. 
Passing through the casual camps at Colombey-les-Belles, Tours, 
and Angers, he arrived at Brest on Jan. 30, 1919, and sailed for the 
United States on Feb. 2. On his arrival, Feb. 9, he was ordered to 
Garden City, N.Y. 



[ no ] 



ECTOR O. MUNN 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Eleventh Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Munn, of Manchester, Mass. ; was 
born at Washington, D.C., April 11, 1891. He attended the West- 
minster School, Simsbury, Conn., and graduated from Harvard 
College, class of 1914. 

He served for three years in the Mass. National Guard, and on 
June 11, 1917, enlisted in the Aviation Service, at Manchester, 
Mass. He attended the Ground School at M.I.T. and was sent from 
there to Mineola, N.Y., for further training. 

He sailed overseas for France, attached to the 98th Squadron, 
and trained at Tours, and later at Clermont-Ferrand for day 
bombing. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut. Oct. 4, 1917. 

Lieut. Munn joined the 11th Aero Squadron, 1st Day Bombard- 
ment Group, at the front, and with them saw active service until 
the signing of the Armistice. He returned to the U.S. and on July 
16, 1919, resigned from the Service at Washington, D.C. 

He had two brothers in the Service; one acted as Assistant Mili- 
tary Attache at the Army Embassy at Paris, and the other as 
Assistant Naval Attache at the American Embassy, Paris. 



[ HI ] 



TWENTIETH AERO SQUADRON, FIRST DAY BOM- 
BARDMENT GROUP 



By Lieutenant Karl C. Payne 

On Sept. 7, 1918, the 20th Aero Squadron was ordered to Amanty, 
Meuse, to join the 1st Day Bombardment Group which at that 
time consisted of one Squadron, the 96th. 

Operations began Sept. 12, 1918, the opening day of the St.- 
Mihiel push. Three of the Squadron were sent to do Army recon- 
naissance. 1st Lieut. G. M. Crawford, our first casualty, was taken 
prisoner Sept. 12, while attempting a reconnaissance mission in 
the rain. The other officers were sent to Toul to operate with the 
2d Pursuit Group. At this time it was believed that our planes, 
the Liberty D.H. 4's, could be used as biplace fighters. However, 
this proved impractical and the Squadron was assigned to daylight 
bombing. 

The morning of Sept. 13 we made our first bombing raid, and 
since the 20th was the first off the ground, it achieved the distinction 
of being the first Squadron of American-built machines to drop 
bombs on the enemy. In spite of adverse conditions due to lack of 
familiarity with planes and work, the Squadron made eight raids 
in three days. 

Capt. Cecil G. Sellers and Lieut. K. C. Payne were fortunate in 
being the first to receive Distinguished Service Crosses, the official 
citation being as follows: 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Longuyon, France, Sept. 
16, 1918. Starting on a very important daylight bombing mission with 
five other planes, Capt. Cecil G. Sellers, Pilot, and Lieut. Karl C. Payne, 
Observer, went on along when the other five planes were forced to turn 
back. On crossing the German lines they were attacked by three enemy 
planes. Keeping the enemy at bay they went on, reached the objective, 
and dropped their bombs on the railroad junction, cutting the line. On the 
way back four more planes joined the attack, but they kept them off and 
reached the Allied lines. 

Other decorations were soon to follow, however. Lieut. J. Y. 
Stokes, Observer, and Lieut. A. F. Seaver, Pilot, started on an 
early morning raid which had Etain as its objective. All the planes 
in the formation with them dropped out before the lines were 
crossed. They sighted another American formation headed for the 
same objective and followed. Before the objective was reached, 

[ H2] 



TWENTIETH AERO SQUADRON 



their plane was struck by anti-aircraft fire and thrown into a vrille. 
They straightened out and followed the formation, which was, by 
this time, far ahead of them. After dropping their bombs on the 
objective, their motor stopped entirely and they were attacked by 
an enemy plane. Lieut. Stokes held him off while his pilot managed 
to glide to our lines. The action brought both the D.S.C. 

During the time the Squadron operated from Amanty, it lost but 
one man over the lines while one man was killed and one injured, in 
a crash in the field. Among the objectives were Dommery-Baron- 
court, Gorze, Bayonville, Longuyon, and Mars-le-Tour. Nine suc- 
cessful raids were made. The Squadron — with the Group — was 
cited for devotion to duty during the St.-Mihiel offensive, and four 
Distinguished Service Crosses were won. 

On Sept. 23, 1918, we moved from Amanty to Maulon, near 
Ligny-en-Barrois. It was from the latter field that we did the major 
part of our work and suffered virtually all of our casualties. 

Our most disastrous raid was the operation of Sept. 26, 1918. 
Out of a formation of seven planes, five were lost over the lines and 
one returned with a dead observer. A portion of a letter written by 
1st Lieut. >JE. C. Leonard, one of the observers who was wounded 
and taken prisoner, gives an idea of the fight: 

The flight leader made a very sharp turn to the right after we dropped 
our bombs on Dun-sur-Meuse. Phil [1st Lieut. P. H. Rhinelander] and 
Harry [1st Lieut. H. C. Preston] slipped below the formation to avoid a 
collision. We were attacked by five Fokkers. "Coop" [1st Lieut. M. C. 
Cooper] and I dropped below the others to help Phil and Harry, when 
twelve Fokkers came at us from above, diving through the formation. 
I could n't swing my guns fast enough, for they were on all sides at once — 
about a million lines of tracer smoke coming the wrong way. 

It was always the aim of the German flyers to break up a forma- 
tion, for they could then attack each plane separately. The plane 
thus attacked would be without the efficient protection of the other 
members of the formation. 

In this raid, 1st Lieut. W. Clarkson Potter stuck to the leader, 
1st Lieut. Sidney Howard, after the leading observer, 1st Lieut. 
E. A. Parrott, had been killed, and thus protected the rear of the 
leading plane. Lieut. Potter was awarded the D.S.C. for this act, 
but was himself shot down and killed a few days later. 

The officers lost on this raid were : Lieut. P. H. Rhinelander and 
[ H3 ] 



TWENTIETH AERO SQUADRON 



Lieut. H. C. Preston (killed); Lieut. Harris and Lieut. E. Forbes 
(killed); Lieut. H. P. Matthews and Lieut. E. A. Taylor (killed); 
Lieut. G. B. Wiser and Lieut. Glen Richardson (prisoners) ; Lieut. 
M. C. Cooper and Lieut. E. C. Leonard (prisoners); Lieut. E. A. 
Parrott was brought back dead. 

Probably the Squadron's most successful raid was over Mont- 
medy on Nov. 4, 1918. Montmedy at that time was the headquar- 
ters of the German army. It was also a most important railroad 
centre and directly in the main line of communications. We were 
over the town at 2.20 p.m. Sixteen 155 mm. penetration bombs 
were dropped, all of which found their mark. We left the town in 
flames. On the return to our lines we were attacked by seven 
Fokkers, two of which were shot down. All our planes returned 
safely. (The "Montmedy cocktail" is very well known to the New 
England members of the 20th.) 

On Nov. 5 was the last and one of the most disastrous operations 
in our history. We were, after we had dropped our bombs, attacked 
by three patrols of Fokkers. The first patrol was driven off. During 
the fight with the second, 1st Lieut. K. G. West, Pilot, and 1st 
Lieut. Wm. Frank, Observer, were shot down in flames. Both flyers 
were of the original quota. Lieut. Frank had been wounded and 
recommended for the D.S.C. Lieut. West was one of the best pilots 
in the Squadron and a veteran of many raids. A lull in the fight 
made it possible for all to observe the red ball of flame as it tumbled 
to the earth, 13,000 feet below. 

The third German patrol shot down two planes. Lieut. Brooke 
Edwards and Lieut. Karl C. Payne, with the motor riddled, the gas 
tank punctured, the controls shot away on one side, and out of 
ammunition, were fortunate enough to make a landing even be- 
hind the German lines. The third American plane to fall was driven 
by 1st Lieut. Samuel Mandell. Lieut. R. W. Fulton was the ob- 
server. The plane went down partially out of control. A few hun- 
dred feet off the ground "Sam" straightened it out, and then side- 
slipped and smashed. Mandell was killed; Fulton came through 
without a scratch. (See Lieut. Mandell's record, pp. 149-51. — Ed.) 

On the day that the Armistice was signed, there was a picture 
taken on the field at Maulon. The survivors of the original flyers 
in the 20th stood together. There were six: Capt. C. G. Sellers, 

[ 114 ] 



TWENTIETH AERO SQUADRON 



Lieut. Gardiner Fiske, Lieut. A. F. Seaver, Lieut. Sidney Howard, 
Lieut. J. Y. Stokes, and Lieut. W. S. Holt. These officers, either due 
to skill or good fortune, but probably a share of both, managed to 
get back from every raid. They were all flight leaders and three 
were winners of the D.S.C. 

At one time during the operations north of the Argonne Forest, 
it was necessary to call for volunteers among the enlisted men to 
fly over as machine-gunners. Sgt. 1st class Fred C. Graveline, Corp. 
Raymond C. Alexander, and Pvt. 1st class Hoyt M. Fleming came 
forward and carried on with the work. 

The 20th lost 20 officers over the lines, had 2 men killed on the 
field, and 1 observer brought back dead, during the time we ope- 
rated from Maulon. Some of the objectives were Montmedy, Grand 
Pre, Tailly, and Buzancy. The original members of the Squadron 
were given personal citations for devotion to duty. 



[ H5] 



KARL C. PAYNE 



First Lieutenant, A.S.S.C., Chief Observer, Twentieth 
Aero Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Edward F. and Mae (Chatwin) Payne, of Belmont, Mass. ; 
was born in Cambridge, Mass., on June 18, 1896. He was educated 
at the Belmont High School, the Browne and Nichols School in 
Cambridge, and M.I.T. At the Browne and Nichols School he was 
prominent in athletics, and was captain of the football and hockey 
teams. He attended military classes at Norwich University, North- 
field, Vt., in the spring of 1917, and in the summer trained with the 
Harvard R.O.T.C. 

He enlisted in Cambridge, Mass., on July 20, 1917, and was as- 
signed to the Ground School at M.I.T. in the fall of 1917. He was 
sent overseas in Nov. and was trained at French flying schools at 
Issoudun, Clermont-Ferrand, Chateaudun, and Chartres. He was 
commissioned 1st Lieut, about June 18, 1918, and spent the follow- 
ing summer at the front in the St.-Mihiel and Argonne sectors. He 
was made Chief Observer of the 20th Aero Squadron, and made over 
16 successful bombing raids during the great offensives. He was 
awarded the D.S.C. on Sept. 16. On Nov. 5 he went over the lines 
on a bombing expedition, and when the formation returned, his plane 
was missing. This is the account of the experience which Lieut. 
Payne sent to his family in a letter dated Nov. 24 : 

The next day I went over with Brooke Edwards. We were flying protec- 
tion in the rear. We bombed Mouzon, north of Stenay, and turned right 
going east. The leader made a great turn and took us away over Mont- 
medy. The Bodies were waiting for us there and about forty of them 
jumped us. We were only eight. It was a real fight. We got the first one to 
come up, but there were a lot behind him. I was running short of ammuni- 
tion and the bullets were snapping close to my ears. Then the gas tank 
was hit low and the gas ran out. At the same time I was shooting at a 
devil that had come up rather too close. My left arm was across my chest, 
the wrist being about over my heart, when I felt a bump and saw my glove 
torn just above the wrist. I lost the use of that arm, but I could n't help 
but smile to have my arm over my chest just at that moment. I turned to 
tell Brooke that I was hit and out of ammunition and the gas tank was 
punctured. As I turned I saw him put his hand up to his head. Naturally 
I thought he had got a load of lead. I sat down and took control of the 
plane from the rear seat. I put the plane into a steep nose-dive. We out- 
dared the Huns by going down nearly vertically. Finally, having dropped 

[ H6 ] 



KARL C. PAYNE 



from about 14,000 to 2000 feet, we could see the infantry below us — and it 
was German infantry. Brooke took control of the plane and levelled out, 
trying to glide without motor to our own lines. However, as soon as we 
levelled out, the Huns — three of them — caught up with us and the bul- 
lets snapped close again. They shot the fur off my collar and I saw it flying 
up as the bullet passed through. Then they shot through my sleeve up near 
my shoulder. I had about ten bullets left and feel pretty sure that I got one 
of the Huns with these. But the game was up, they drove us to the ground 
in the German infantry. 

They were round us the minute we landed. And I really believe that, 
but for a German non-com who ran up, I would not be writing this now. 
But the non-com came and they dressed my arm. Then they marched us 
back, to the artillery and the artillery took us back to Loupy. 

Lieut. Payne was later taken to Virton and finally to Karlsruhe 
Prison. He escaped from Karlsruhe on Nov. 20 with several other 
officers, and reached Strasbourg, Lorraine, on Nov. 22. 

Citation 

For extraordinary heroism in action, near Longuyon, France, Sept. 16, 
1918. Starting on a very important daylight bombing mission with five 
other planes, Lieut. Payne, observer, went on alone when the other five 
planes were forced to turn back. On crossing the German lines, he was 
attacked by three enemy planes. Using his guns to keep the enemy at 
bay, he went on, reached his objective, and dropped his bombs on the 
railroad junction, cutting the line. On the way back four more planes 
joined in the attack, but keeping them at bay with his guns, he reached 
the Allied lines. 

(Signed) Pershing 



[ H8 ] 



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A SAMPLE OF THE STUFF WE DROPPED OVER THE LINES 



A BIT OF UNINTENTIONAL "ACROBATICS" 



By Lieut. Samuel P. Mandell 

(Account of how his observer, Lieut. Fiske, was thrown from his plane 
when two thousand feet in the air.) 

I had the thrill of my life yesterday. We were flying formation 
in these great big busses and the machine I had had, two camera 

guns on it, one for the pilot and one for the observer. Old F 

was standing up on the seat in back shooting away with his camera 
gun at a scout machine that was flying around us. At the same time 
I dove to get a shot at him with my gun. I heard sort of a crash 
behind, and after I had straightened out looked around to see what 
it was. Lo and behold, a man in a leather coat holding onto the tail 

of my machine. I could hardly believe my eyes, but F had 

fallen out of his cockpit when his gun broke loose from its fasten- 
ings and I had nosed over. The first thought that came to me was : 
Will he have strength enough to hold on till I get down to the 
ground? I put the machine in the gentlest glide I could and started 
for home, as I could not land where I was up on the mountain-tops. 
All this happened at about 700 metres. God help him if he had 

fallen. F all this time was lying with his body across the fuselage 

right next to the vertical stabilizer on the tail. As I watched him 
over my shoulder, he gradually wound his way up the fuselage. 
He got a-straddle of it and gradually slid up, caught hold of the 
tourelle, and dove head first into his seat. About ten years' weight 
came off my shoulders by this time. It was the funniest sight in the 
world to see the expression on that face as he scrambled up the fusel- 
age and fell face first into the cockpit with only his heels sticking 
out. All that saved him was the little wooden spars that hold the 
covering of the fuselage breaking and making a sort of a hole in 
which his body stuck as it struck. As we were in formation, some of 

the other men saw it. They said that F left the fuselage bodily 

and flew through the air for a space of five feet till he struck the 
vertical stabilizer that knocked him back on to the fuselage. Of 
course, it is hard to believe, but it is Gospel truth. All the time it was 
happening we were going at the rate of 100 miles per hour at least. 

F to-day is reposing in bed, having been excused from all 

formations. He will never come any nearer death at the front, and 
nothing can ever scare me any more than this did. 



[ 120 ] 



A Bit of Unintentional "Acrobatics 




GARDINER HORSFORD FISKE 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twentieth Aero Squadron 
First Bombardment Group 

Son of Andrew and Gertrude (Horsford) Fiske, of Weston, Mass. ; 
was born in Boston on Sept. 14, 1892. He was educated at the Noble 
and Greenough School, and at Harvard College, A.B., class of 
1914. Before entering the U.S. Service he was for two and a half 
years a member of the 1st Corps of Cadets, M.V.M. 

He enlisted May 30, 1917, at Weston, Mass., trained at M.I.T. 
from May 1 to June 23, and was transferred to Essington, Pa., 
June 24, 1917. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Oct. 31, 1917, 
and ordered overseas Nov. 1, continuing his training at Issoudun 
and Clermont-Ferrand, France, throughout the winter and spring 
of 1918. He was attached to the French School at Chateaudun and 
Chartres, G.D.E., during the summer of 1918. On Aug. 31 he was 
assigned to the 20th Aero Squadron, 1st Bombardment Group, and 
took part in 14 bombing-raids over the lines, and two patrols as 
biplace pursuit. Stationed at Toul and Amanty during the St.- 
Mihiel drive; at Maulan during the Meuse-Argonne drives. 

Lieut. Fiske's account of the Squadron's "Last Raid," is em- 
bodied elsewhere in this work, as well as a description of his remark- 
able experience in being hurled from his plane when at an altitude 
of 2000 feet. Officially credited with the destruction in combat of 
one enemy aircraft. Acted as flight leader in five bombing raids. 

He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N. Y., on Feb. 14, 
1919. 

Citation 

France, 21st Nov., 1918 
The Army Air Service Commander, First Army, cites the following of- 
ficers and men for exceptional devotion to duty : 

45. First Lieutenant G. H. Fiske, A.S., U.S.A., as observer of the 20th 
Aero Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group, participated in every 
raid made by the Squadron in the Argonne-Meuse sector during Oct., 1918. 

By order of Colonel Milling 
W. C. Sherman 

Lt. Col, A.S., U.S.A. 

Chief of Staff 

Married, Oct. 15, 1919, Constance Morss. 



[ 122 ] 



THE LAST RAID 



By Lieutenant Gardiner Fiske 

Thirty of our bombing planes executed a successful raid on Mouzon and Raucourt 
this morning, dropping over two tons of bombs with good effect. — American 
Communique of Nov. 6. 

To the Headquarters of the 1st Day Bombardment Group at 
Maulan, south of Bar-le-Duc on the evening of Nov. 4, came the 
daily telephonic order from General Headquarters. It was as usual 
a very simple order, giving nothing beyond the bare facts of the 
work the Squadrons were to do the following day. This time the 
order said, "Stand by to bomb Mouzon at 9.45 a.m." 

On receiving this order the flight leaders and deputy leaders 
went to their maps to locate the new objective and study photo- 
graphs of the town to pick out the points of military value. In 
studying Mouzon it was not difficult to see what we were to do. 
The town lay on the east bank of the Meuse with a suburb on the 
west bank where the railroad station and warehouses were situ- 
ated. We decided to try to cut the railroad and destroy the ware- 
houses. 

The next morning our orderlies called us early enough to see a 
low-lying mist over the camp. It was just dawn. We dressed amidst 
shouts from the barracks of "Come on, rain." This appeal to the 
rain god was heard every morning whatever the weather, as rain 
was sure preventive of bombing raids. Nevertheless, we felt that 
thrill which came only when we were on the alert to go over. 

At 7.15 the flight leaders held their meeting in the office of the 
Group Commander, where the Colonel outlined the plan of the 
formation to be used. This morning, if the weather cleared up, we 
were to go over in three " V's," the 166th Squadron first, then the 
20th, and lastly the 11th. We were to meet over our own field at 
8000 feet, fall in behind one another in order, and climb to the final 
height of 13,000 to 14,000 feet during the final run to the lines. We 
were to bomb with the wind, which the weather report showed 
to be blowing toward Germany at a speed of about 30 miles an 
hour. This was rather a stiff wind, difficult but not impossible to 
operate in. 

The sun appeared quickly, drying up the mist as if anxious to 
see us get on our way. We dressed carefully in our flying clothes, 

[ 124 ] 



THE LAST RAID 



climbing into the De Havilands, and tested out our sights, machine 
guns, and Verys pistols. Soon the signal "all set" was given. A 
Verys pistol was fired showing one green ball, giving the signal to 
start the Libertys. With a roar the long line of engines started 
almost all at once as the mechanics swung the propellers and the 
process of warming up began. Then we — we were flight leaders that 
day in our Squadron, the 20th — began taxiing to the starting- line; 
number 2 followed, then number 3, and so on until the whole flight 
were ready in formation on the ground — all the powerful engines 
throbbing and the propellers turning over. Suddenly the Operations 
Officer, noting the Squadron ahead of us had left the field, fired 
a single red Verys light from the line. We opened our throttle and 
moved forward, taking off into the air. As we took off, numbers 2 
and 3 started forward and in their turn leapt into the air, num- 
bers 4 and 5 followed, then the next two and finally the 9th, until 
all the planes were in sight. 

Our next difficulty was to gather the Squadron into formation. 
After getting up to 1000 feet altitude, we throttled down until 2 
and 3 caught up and climbed a little above and behind us. We 
three then continued climbing slowly until the rest gathered to- 
gether and formed our " V " in a wide, loose formation. 

The flight climbed together until we reached our desired alti- 
tude over the field. Taking one hour, this part of the trip is always 
very tiresome. One sits gazing at the altimeter, wondering if one 
will ever get up, the time passing so slowly. Down below the coun- 
try gradually get§ more and more spread out, until the forests blend 
into a patch of green and the rivers show only as nickled lines. 

We returned over the field, looking meanwhile for the other two 
Squadrons. Finally down below us we saw the leaders, the 166th, 
starting for the lines. We fell in line behind them, passing over 
Bar-le-Duc and flying up the valley with the Argonne Forest on our 
left and Verdun on the right. As we neared the lines I signalled 
the planes into close formation so that by the time we crossed we 
were prepared to withstand an attack, the planes being stepped up 
and back with the "V" much smaller. One plane here firing a red 
light fell out with motor trouble, not being able to keep up with our 
speed. We all had orders to return in this contingency. 

The clouds were numerous and heavy, but we could see the lead- 
[ 125 ] 



THE LAST RAID 



ing Squadron ahead as well as patches of ground in spots showing 
us our position. We were travelling at a terrific rate, the wind being 
apparently much stronger than the weather report showed. Stenay 
was plainly visible on our right. I thought of turning and dropping 
our bombs there, but as the leaders still went on I followed, think- 
ing that they could see the objective from their position, though 
I could not see it from ours. As they reached the place where 
Mouzon was situated, they turned to the left over Raucourt, be- 
cause, as we learned later, Mouzon was covered with clouds when 
they passed it. All this time the anti-aircraft shells were bursting 
around us, but our speed compared with the ground was so great 
that they were very inaccurate at our height of 14,000 feet. They 
showed, however, that we were discovered by the enemy and we 
could expect an attack by their planes. 

As we reached Mouzon luck caused a sudden rift to appear in the 
clouds and the town was plainly visible. I steered the pilot, by the 
reins attached to his arms, for the town, swinging the formation to 
the right. Getting the edge of the town in the sight I gave the "all 
set" signal by firing off a Verys light with seven green balls. At 
this point always comes a tense moment. The town passed back 
along the bar of the sight, reached the cross-bar and passed it. I 
pulled back the lever and let go our bombs. Waiting a few seconds 
to be sure all the Squadron had dropped theirs, I signalled to the 
pilot that all was well and to go home. Leaning over the side of the 
plane as far as possible, I tried to see the effects of the bursts, no- 
ticing one on a barracks and some flames near the railroad. 

We turned now down the Meuse toward home against the wind, 
feeling that all was well. It had been a successful raid, and we were 
feeling happy about it. 

Without warning a blue body with a white cross flashed up in 
front of us. Grasping a Verys light, always kept prepared, I gave 
the "Enemy Aircraft" signal — seven red balls — and stood up at 
the guns ready for the attack. The first Boche passed from under our 
wing and came up under our tail. I gave him one volley as he passed 
and continued as he hung on his propeller not twenty feet from us, 
just behind our horizontal stabilizer. In this volley I shot away our 
right flipper wires so that I had to be careful in the future in shoot- 
ing on the other side, as if both sides were shot away we should be 

[ 126 ] 



THE LAST RAID 



forced to land. This blue fellow went down some distance, but 
climbed up behind us again and reopened fire, his tracers flashing 
all around us, but never hitting any vital part. 

The other planes in the formation were having their troubles 
too. From the leader's place I could see one Boche in flames above 
the rear of the formation and one Liberty going down below for 
protection. This plane was smoking, but not yet in flames. Then 
the fight stopped just as suddenly as it began. I counted the Squad- 
ron, and slacking speed to gather the planes back into the "V," 
found there were seven left. We seemed to have got at least two 
Boches and had lost one of ours. 

At this point two more German Squadrons appeared from the 
rear. The first thing I saw was one of our rear planes dive down 
suddenly into the middle of the "V" with two black-and-white- 
checked Fokkers after him. One of these fell out of control into a 
vrille; the other fell back and satisfied itself with long-distance 
firing; the Liberty went back to its old position. The tracers were 
flying by in the rear of the formation in all directions, but it was 
impossible to see exactly how many Boches were in the attack. 
One started crawling up on us from behind about twenty -five feet 
below. I fired bursts at him steadily, but he still came on. Having 
made a habit of always keeping one magazine in reserve on the gun 
fully loaded, I felt in the cockpit for a fresh one to replace the one 
just used up. There were none left. The reserve I had on the gun was 
now the last shot I had in the plane. As the German came nearer 
I fired in bursts of ten my last magazine. He turned back, luckily, 
as we were now helpless in case he persisted. I swung the useless 
tourelle back and forth pretending to point the guns at him as he 
hung back 400 yards behind. Finally, we seemed to crawl by Stenay 
and got over our lines at Dun-sur-Meuse. Here again I counted the 
flight. There were five left. 

We arrived back at the field to await the hardest part of the 
whole raid. After making our report we watched the sky for the 
missing planes to come in. One hour passed; then two; finally we 
heard a month later that one plane had gone down in flames and 
two others had been forced to land in German territory. This was 
our last raid, as the rain god answered our daily supplications from 
Nov. 6 to Nov. 11. 

[ 127 ] 



NINETY-SIXTH AERO SQUADRON 
FIRST DAY BOMBARDMENT GROUP 



By Lieut. Arthur Hadden Alexander 

The 96th had one of the most unique and checkered histories of 
any American Squadron at the front. The enlisted personnel, com- 
manded by Capt. George C. Thomas, was one of the first to get to 
France; it was trained in French factories and airdromes, and when 
the American Bombing School was started at Clermont-Ferrand, 
in Jan., 1918, it was detailed there, and there its history really be- 
gins. 

When the first group of bombing pilots had finished their training 
and were ready for the front, they had no planes of any kind — 
French, British, or American — fit to take to the front. As a result 
of the prospecting advertising which bombing had been given, 
much pressure was brought to bear in this direction, and it became 
necessary to get some kind of a bombing squadron to the front. 
After delays and changes in plan, ten planes of the Breguet (French) 
type, which had been used in school for some time, went forward 
about the last of May. 

Ten lucky (or unlucky) pilots, and ten observers, climbed into 
their old machines, already partly worn out, for a 200-mile trip 
from Clermont-Ferrand to x\manty, where the field from which 
they were to operate was located. At Amanty, they were joined by 
other pilots and observers, who had been sent out earlier to do ob- 
servation work, and the great American aerial bombing offensive, 
which was to have had thousands of American planes at that time, 
according to the schedule, was launched the first part of June, with 
ten second-rate and partly worn-out French planes and ineffective 
French bombs. 

After a few trips over the lines, Major Brown, then in command 
of the Squadron, took off on his well-known trip, famous through- 
out the Army. About July 10, the weather looked uncertain, but 
he had had orders to raid whenever it was possible. Seeing an open- 
ing in the clouds, he called out his flight, and in spite of the adverse 
advice of the French and British, started for Germany. The flight 
of six planes had no sooner gone through the opening than the clouds 
closed in solidly beneath them. They continued, with a high wind 



[ 128 ] 



NINETY-SIXTH AERO SQUADRON 



at their backs, until they saw an opening, through which was seen 
a city which they did not recognize. Turning for home, they flew 
for nearly two hours, but the wind against them was so strong 
that they made practically no progress, and finally, one by one, 
were forced to come down, out of gasoline, somewhere in the vicinity 
of the Rhine. Some tried to get away, but they were all captured, 
and a few days later, so the story goes, the Germans dropped a note 
saying — "Thanks for the six planes, but what shall we do with 
the Major? " 

After this episode the Army operations reports read: "Army 
bombardment, First Day Bombardment Group, 96th Aero Squad- 
ron, planes on hand, -2; available for duty, -1." This was the stand- 
ing of American aerial bombing until the latter part of July, when 
new planes were received from the French, and operations recom- 
menced. During the month of Aug. the 96th operated continuously, 
with from one to three raids a day, whenever it was at all possi- 
ble to get over, with only a few minor casualties. In Sept., how 
ever, came casualties that were exceeded by those in no squadron at 
the front. The Richthoffen circus was sent down to wipe out Ameri- 
can bombing before it could get properly started, and they nearly 
succeeded in doing it. On Sept. 4, four men were badly wounded and 
only escaped with their lives through clever leadership on the part 
of the Flight Commander, who kept the formation in the sun. This 
was merely a start, for on Sept. 12, with the St.-Mihiel offensive, in 
rain and impossible weather, doing low altitude bombing, the Flight 
Commander was lost on one trip; four men lost from another flight; 
and as the days went on, one more was killed while landing in the 
dark. Following this a flight of four planes was completely wiped out, 
with eight men gone; later an observer was killed, and there were 
any number of flights from which the men returned only through 
remarkable flying and leadership. Not only were men killed and 
wounded, but the strain of the work and conditions in the Squad- 
ron were such that many men were unable to stand it, and when 
the Armistice was signed there was only one pilot who had remained 
with the Squadron from the time of its transference to the front in 
June. 



[ 129 ] 



ARTHUR HADDEN ALEXANDER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of iVrthur Bengough and Stella Hadden Alexander; was born 
in Decatur, 111., on Oct. 27, 1892; descendant of Henry Lewis, of the 
Revolutionary Army. In 1910 he graduated from Phillips Exeter 
Academy, where he played on the football team; and from the Univ. 
of Wisconsin, B.S. 1914, where he played on the 'Varsity Football 
team for three years, on the tennis team, and was captain of the 
hockey team; of Harvard University, Graduate School of Land- 
scape Architecture, M.L.A. 1917. 

He enlisted in the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps on June 
13, 1917, and entered the 4th class of the Army Aviation Ground 
School at M.I.T. on that date. After six weeks' ground- work he was 
selected among ten from that class to be sent to France for flying 
training, and sailed on Aug. 22, 1917. He entered the French 
"Eeole d'aviation militaire" at Tours, Oct. 1, where he received 
his preliminary flying training under the French; then was sent to 
the American School at Issoudun for advanced training and was 
commissioned 1st Lieut. Feb. 20. Upon completion of the course at 
Issoudun, he was returned to Tours in March as an instructor for 
two months and a half. On June 1, he went to the Bombing School 
at Clermont-Ferrand (7th Aviation Instruction Centre) and was 
ordered to the front, July 14, 1918, where he was detailed to the 
96th Squadron, the first American Bombing Squadron to be or- 
ganized, and participated in daylight bombing raids over enemy 
territory until wounded. On Sept. 4, while returning from a raid, 
and still 25 miles beyond the lines, his Squadron of 8 planes was 
attacked by 15 or more enemy planes and badly shot up. All man- 
aged to return safely, however, and two German planes were shot 
down. Lieut. Alexander was severely wounded, a bullet passing 
through his abdomen, but he succeeded in landing safely on his 
own field after fainting several times during the descent. He was 
awarded the D.S.C. by General Pershing with the following cita- 
tion: 

For extraordinary heroism in action on Sept. 4, 1918. While on a bomb- 
ing expedition with other planes of his squadron, Lieut. Alexander en- 
gaged in a running fight over hostile territory with a superior number of 

[ 130 ] 



ARTHUR HADDEN ALEXANDER 



enemy battle planes, from Friauville to Lamorville, France. He was 
seriously wounded in the abdomen by a machine-gun bullet and his ob- 
server was shot through both legs. Although weak from pain and loss of 
blood, Lieut. Alexander piloted his plane back to his own airdrome and 
concealed the fact of his injury until after his observer had been cared 
for. 

After partial recovery from his wound he was called back to duty 
at General Headquarters to represent the Air Service on the Board 
of Awards, which was composed of a man from every branch of the 
Service who had been wounded, decorated, and seen a year's serv- 
ice. This board passed on recommendations for the Congressional 
Medal and D.S.C. Lieut. Alexander was returned to the U.S. in 
Feb., 1919, and honorably discharged at Garden City, N. Y., Feb. 7, 
1919. 

Lieut. Alexander has described the raid of Sept. 4, over Germany, 
in the following extract: 

We had just dropped our bombs on the railroad tracks when Boche 
machines began to appear from every side. The wind was such that we 
had to stay over there much longer than usual, which gave them a chance 
to come up at us. At first it was a fairly even scrap, but more and more of 
them kept coming on until you saw them wherever you looked. Once I 
looked down, and there was a gang more on the way up. We were in the 
back of the formation and things got hotter and hotter. They kept closing 
in and we gave them all we had, but it finally got to be almost impossible 
to keep them off because they were so many. 

They closed in on us as close as 30 to 50 yards at times, and you have 
no idea what a sensation it is to hold to your formation and hear the Boche 
machine guns, from four to five planes, cracking at you, and see their 
tracer bullets flashing by your head and hear and feel them hitting the 
wings and fuselage. McLennan, my observer, kept after them all the time, 
tapping me on the shoulder as he wanted me to tip up to give him shots, 
until he finally collapsed with two bullets in one leg and one in the other. 
Almost at the same time a bullet went into my side. From then on the only 
thought I had was to get back. . . . How I got there I don't know, but we 
finally got back to our own field and a safe landing before I went com- 
pletely under, once more proving that the power of God is more powerful 
than that of evil. 



[ 132 ] 



* STEPHEN T. HOPKINS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 
Killed in action, Sept. 13, 1918 

Son of Dr. Edward E. and Louise (Tullock) Hopkins; was born in 
Newtonville, Mass., March 19, 1892. He was a direct descendant 
of the signer of the Declaration of Independence whose name he 
bore. He prepared for college in the Newton schools, and graduated 
from Harvard College in 1914. During his high school and college 
career, he was prominent in athletics; he played on the 'Varsity 
hockey team for three years, and later on the Boston Athletic As- 
sociation hockey team. He was a member of the Hasty Pudding, 
Institute of 1770, D.K.E., 'Varsity, Iroquois, and Porcellian clubs. 

After graduation from college, he spent a year at the Harvard 
Business School, and then went into the Lancaster Mills, at Clinton, 
to learn the cotton business, where he remained two years. He 
was then made assistant treasurer of the Becker Milling Machine 
Company at Hyde Park, which position he held at the time of 
his enlistment. 

He entered the Army Aviation School of the M.I.T. in Sept., 1917, 
and the following month was sent to Foggia, Italy, sailing Oct. 28; 
there, after seven months' training, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., 
May 13, 1918. 

From Foggia, he went to Vendome, France, for further training, 
and later to Clermont-Ferrand for practice in bombing and forma- 
tion flying. At the completion of his training he was sent as a bomb- 
ing pilot to the 96th Aero Squadron. 

He entered active service at the front in Aug., 1918, and during 
the great offensive at St.-Mihiel, his plane was shot down in flames, 
and both he and his observer, Lieut. Bertram Williams, were killed. 
News that these two aviators were missing in action was received 
by their relations some three months before it was ascertained that 
they had been killed. They were buried at Charey, France. 

Just before starting upon his last flight over the enemy lines Lieut. 
Hopkins wrote to his father: 

We have been all ready to take a trip into Germany several times only 
to have it called off just at the last moment. Yesterday we repeated this 
several times. We got up early in the morning ready to start, but the 

[ 133 ] 



STEPHEN T. HOPKINS 



weather was so bad that you could n't get off the ground. As you have 
probably read, the much heralded U.S. drive started, and we were partic- 
ularly anxious to contribute our share. At last, under the most unfavor- 
able weather conditions, our squadron leader started out alone. He did not 
return. We then got our formation ready and had our motors tuned up, 
bombs on, machine guns tested, etc. Just then a plane which was landing 
on our field crashed into my machine, thereby wrecking it. Thus I was de- 
prived of my first trip over the lines. This formation returned with the 
exception of one machine, which, however, is safe at another aerdrome. 
Finally I procured a machine and was to go in the next formation. We 
waited around and attempted to make several starts, but each time such 
a storm would hit the field that we simply could n't get away. At last 
we started, just before dark. We went to our objective and dropped our 
bombs; it was dark then. I have never seen such a sight in my life. The 
whole country was one mass of flames, where the Germans were in re- 
treat. You could see the flashes of the guns, and anti-aircraft occasionally 
broke around us. However, as it was dark, the anti-aircraft and Hun ma- 
chines were scarce. It was a most remarkable day, as every time we were 
given an objective during the day, we would proceed there and find that 
the Americans had it. . . . If they can only keep it up! After we dropped 
our bombs, our work really only started, so far as getting on to terra- 
firma safely was concerned. It was pitch dark and we flew for a long time 
on a straight course that we knew would ultimately take us over the 
lines. We finally recognized a river that we knew was in France. So far so 
good. The next question was how to find a good field or our own field 
to land on. Of course, all lights are out in this country and consequently 
there were very few landmarks. The moon finally came out, and by the 
aid of this we were able to follow rivers and the shapes of certain forests, 
and finally, in the direction of our field, we saw some flares. Perhaps we 
weren't pleased! Three of the machines smashed in landing, but the 
teams were not hurt. I was the only one who did not damage a machine. 
One team did not return and I have just heard that the pilot was killed 
in trying to land. It was too bad as he was a fine chap from Princeton. 

This letter was prefaced by the words: "Just a note before I 
start out for a hard day's work." From this flight Lieut. Hopkins 
did not return. 



[ 134 ] 



CHARLES R. CODMAN 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Russell S. and Anna K. (Crafts) Codman; was born in 
Boston, Mass., Feb. 22, 1893. He was educated at Groton School, 
Mass., and Harvard College, A.B. 1915. Prior to the declaration 
of war, he served with Battery A, M.V.M., one year; and with 
the American Ambulance Field Service for nine months. 

He enlisted in April, 1917, attended the M.I.T. Ground School, 
and the Flying School at Essington, Pa. He was commissioned 
1st Lieut, on Oct. 31, 1917, and sailed for France with the A.E.F. 
about Nov. 1. He trained at the U.S. Flying Schools at Issoudun 
and Clermont-Ferrand, France, and on the completion of his courses 
was assigned to the 96th Aero Squadron. 

Lieut. Codman was in active service at the front from June 3 to 
Sept. 16, 1918. While bombing Conflans, on Sept. 16, 1918, he was 
in a flight of four machines attacked by 24 Fokkers. The other three 
machines in the formation were brought down in flames and the 
occupants killed. Lieut. Codman and his observer, Lieut. S. A. 
McDowell, of Philadelphia, were the only survivors of the flight, 
and McDowell was severely wounded, but not before he had 
brought down three enemy planes. Lieut. Codman's machine was 
shot down, and he being wounded was made prisoner near Con- 
flans. He remained a prisoner in Germany until the Armistice. 
He escaped from Landshut prison about Nov. 8, together with 
James Norman Hall, Henry Lewis, and Robert Browning, all of 
the U.S. Air Service. They arrived in Berne, Switzerland, Nov. 19; 
sailed for America; and on Jan. 3, 1919, Lieut. Codman was honor- 
ably discharged at Garden City, N.Y. 

Brother in Service: — Russell S. Codman, Jr., 1st Lieut.. 
U.S.A., Depot Brigade, Camp Devens. 

Citation 

Received from the French Army Citation and Croix de Guerre with 
Palm; also, cited in Citation Orders No. 1, by General Headquarters, 
American Expeditionary Forces, for Gallantry in Action Sept. 16, 1918, 
while engaged in Bombing Expedition near Conflans, France. 



[ 136 ] 



* BERTRAM WILLIAMS 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 
Killed in action, Sept. 13, 1918 

Son of John Bertram and Olive (Swan) Williams; was born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., on Sept. 11, 1896. He was educated at the Browne 
and Nichols School, Cambridge; at the Middlesex School, Concord, 
Mass. ; and at Harvard College. At the Middlesex School, he made 
the second school crew in 1913, and rowed bow in the first crew in 
1914. He was also a member of the dramatic and debating clubs, 
managed the baseball team in 1912, and the crew in 1913. He en- 
tered Harvard with honors, belonged to the Phoenix, the D.K.E., 
and the Owl clubs, and rowed on the freshman crew, which won the 
four-oared race at New London in 1914. In 1916 he was given six 
months' leave of absence from college to join the Morgan-Harjes 
Ambulance Corps, sailing for France in Feb. He was assigned to 
Formation No. 5, and went at once to the front near Verdun. This 
corps was cited for the work done under fire from March 8 to 19. 

Bertram Williams returned to college in Sept. and joined the 
R.O.T.C. at Harvard. He was accepted for the Air Service in July, 
and was assigned to M.I.T. for Ground School work in Aug., 1917, 
graduating in Oct. Being among the "honor men" of his Squad- 
ron, he was at once ordered overseas, and sailed on Oct. 17, 1917. 
He wrote at sea: "We got so efficient at abandon ship drill that it 
was almost disappointing not to have a chance to use it." Immedi- 
ately on his arrival at St.-Nazaire, he was sent to the 3d Aviation 
Instruction Centre at Issoudun. He stayed there until March, 1918, 
when he volunteered, with 25 others, for a two weeks' ground course 
preparatory to becoming an observer, and was ordered to Gondre- 
court. From there he wrote : 

We are the first fighting observers, and ever since we volunteered for it, 
they have never known just what to do with us. For this reason we all wear 
white elephants on our identification plaques. 

He was at the Aviation Instruction Centre at Tours until April, 
and was then sent on to Cazaux. He wrote home : 

There are four of us picked according to our grades at Tours, who are 
going to the School of Aerial Gunnery at Cazaux. All this may not mean 
much to you, but any one who has been through the French School at 

[ 138 ] 



BERTRAM WILLIAMS 



Cazaux is a little bit better than any one else in the flying world over here, 
and I am tickled to death. 

In a later letter, he said: 

When we were shooting at a silhouette of an airplane on the ground, I 
was lucky enough to get 28 per cent, which put me on the Tableau d'Hon- 
neur — the third American to get on it. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, at Cazaux, in May, 1918, and ordered 
to Clermont-Ferrand, where he remained until Sept., when he was 
attached to the 96th Squadron. On Sept. 13 Lieut. Williams and 
his pilot, Stephen Hopkins, were in one of three planes flying over 
Chambley. One of the American planes was separated from the rest, 
and 20 German machines attacked the remaining two. Both were 
shot down in flames. Lieut. Williams and Lieut. Hopkins were re- 
ported "missing in action," in the middle of Sept., and later "killed 
in action." They were buried at Charey, France. In June they were 
reinterred at Thiaucourt, one of the national cemeteries. The fol- 
lowing is quoted from a letter written by Lieut. Roth, observer 
in the plane which was not shot down: 

I was one of the men who were on the bombing-raid the day your son 
Bertram was killed, and I want to tell you with my whole heart that a 
man never died a braver death than your son did . . . the weather condi- 
tions were so bad during the first days of the St.-Mihiel drive that flying 
was almost out of the question, and yet those in command of the aviation 
felt that there was need for us to do what we could in order to help defeat 
the enemy. . . . We had lost some planes over the lines but a great many 
more were broken up on the flying-field because of the bad condition the 
ground was in. The result was that on the morning of the 13th our Squad- 
ron had only five planes in commission, and when we received notice to 
go out on a raid in the afternoon, these planes were made ready for the 
start. 

Our objective that day was only a little distance over the lines and none 
of us had any idea that we would encounter the opposition that we did. 
We had scarcely gotten over when we were able to see the road running 
from Chambley to Gorze but could observe no troops on the road and 
turned to our alternative objective, which was the town of Chambley, and 
prepared to bomb the town. Just as we were turning in order to pass over 
the town, the German anti-aircraft batteries began shooting at us, and 
the black puffs which always follow the explosion of shells gave away our 
position and the next instant we could see a whole flight of fast German 
pursuit planes, possibly around fifteen in all, diving down through the 
clouds at us, and the next instant they were on top of us. However we had 

[ 140 ] 



BERTRAM WILLIAMS 



our work cut out for us and dropped our bombs down on the town, and 
tried to protect ourselves as best we could. It looked hopeless, and as for 
myself I never expected to get back across the lines — Lieut. Williams and 
his pilot, Lieut. Hopkins, Lieut. Thompson and his pilot, Lieut. Farns- 
worth, being of course slightly in the rear had to stand the brunt of the 
fighting, but the odds were so great that the attack was coming from three 
sides at once. Nevertheless, Lieut. Williams and Lieut. Thompson stood by 
their guns so bravely until they were overwhelmed and forced down, that 
the attack was slowed up for an instant and no doubt that instant was a 
great factor in carrying out the mission. I feel that when these officers 
in the two planes that went over on this mission, absolutely unprotected 
by scout planes, not only succeeded in carrying out the mission before 
they were killed but aided one of the other planes in returning safely to 
the lines, their heroism in doing all this deserves to come under the con- 
sideration of whatever Board at Washington has the awarding of the Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross. 

This letter from Lieut. Roth furnishes the only account of this 
battle which has so far been received, and its expression of the con- 
viction of a fellow officer, in regard to the deserved award of the 
D.S.C., would have meant more to the men who had given their 
lives in this encounter than any decision of the authorities at 
Washington. 

Lieuts. Williams and Hopkins lie near together at Thiaucourt, 
France, under the white crosses that they were so ready to win. 

Among Lieut. Williams's effects was a bronze medal, evidently- 
awarded for his shooting record at Cazaux. 



[ 141 ] 



JOHN CHARLES EARLE McLENNAN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of John K. and Isabella (Morrison) McLennan; was born in 
Newport, E.I., Aug. 9, 1891. He was educated in the public schools 
of Newport, R.I., and at the Univ. of Pennsylvania; he received 
the degree of B.S. in Electrical Engineering in 1916, from .the 
Towne Scientific School, U.Pa. After graduation he held a position 
in the Philadelphia Electrical Co. 

In May, 1917, he applied for a commission in the Aviation Sec- 
tion of the Signal Corps, and was offered a non-flying commission. 
This he refused, perf erring to enroll in the flying section of the A.S. 
Signal Corps, in which he enlisted July 30, 1917, at Essington, Pa. 

On Sept. 15, 1917, he entered the U.S. School of Military Aero- 
nautics at Princeton, N.J., completing the course on Nov. 10, 1917. 
He was ordered overseas with the 16th Foreign Detachment of Ca- 
dets, sailing on Nov. 23. He was stationed for the winter at St.-Maix- 
ent, France, leaving there on March 12, 1918, for the 1st Corps 
Gunnery School at Gondrecourt. He took up Aerial gunnery at 
Cazaux, from March 25 to April 24, returning to St.-Maixent on 
completion of the course. He was commissioned 2d Lieut. A.S. (A.) 
May 18, 1918. On May 27 he was sent to the 7th Aviation Instruc- 
tion Centre at Clermont-Ferrand, to take up bombing, completing 
this course about the first of July, when he joined the 96th Aero 
Squadron then stationed at Amanty, Meuse. He remained with the 
96th Squadron during July and Aug., making frequent bombing 
raids over the territory between Verdun and Metz. 

On Sept. 4, 1918, Lieut. McLennan and his pilot, Lieut. A. Had- 
den Alexander, were both severely wounded in an action with 
enemy planes over Conflans. With great heroism the wounded 
pilot was able to bring the plane safely back to the home field. 
McLennan was in the hospital at Chalet Guyon until Jan. 3, 1919, 
the Armistice meanwhile having been signed. He was sent to 
Gondrecourt for reassignment to duty. From there he was detailed 
to duty with freight trains running between the advance S.O.S. 
and the Army of Occupation in Germany; this duty lasting until 
March 5, 1919, when he was ordered back to the U.S. He was 
honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., in June, 1919. 



[ 142 ] 



ROY WALES HALL 



First Lieutenant A.S., U.SA., Ninetieth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group, and Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Bombardment Group 

Son of George E. and Anna Gertrude (Bachelder) Hall, of Need- 
ham, Mass.; was born in Dorchester, M^ass., Oct. 13, 1895. He was 
educated at the Warren Private School and English High School, 
where he was a member of the track team. He was 1st Lieut, in the 
United Boys' Brigade of America. In the summer of 1916 he at- 
tended the Plattsburg Camp. 

On May 4, 1917, Lieut. Hall enlisted in Boston for the Plattsburg 
Officers' Training Camp; after which training he attended M.I.T. 
Ground School, and the School at Mineola, N.Y. He was ordered 
overseas, and stationed at the 3d and later at the 7th Aviation 
Instruction Centre, attached to the 90th Aero Squadron and the 
96th Squadron, operating in the Toul sector, France. He had 
qualified for his commission Sept. 11, 1917, having finished his 
R.M.A., and was commissioned 1st Lieut. Jan. 18, 1918. 

Being trained as a pursuit pilot and a bombing pilot, Lieut. Hall 
was first assigned to artillery observation, then to bombing, which 
he followed chiefly, with the 96th Squadron. He spent 22 months 
in Service, 16 months overseas. On Feb. 11, 1919, he was put on the 
list as a casual officer and in Class 2 (Reserve), at Garden City, N.Y. 

Twin brother in Service — 
Ray Currier Hall, Hospital Serg't., 22 months; Camp Upton, 
19 months; Ambulance Service, 3 months. 



[ 144 ] 



JOHN E. BERRY 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F., Two Hundred Tenth Squadron 
Fifth Group 

Son of George E. and Charlotte K. Berry; was born at Maiden, 
Mass., Jan. 7, 1895. He was educated at the Maiden High School, 
Brewster Academy, and at Dartmouth College. In athletics he 
played football and hockey. 

He enlisted in the U.S.N.R. Flying Corps, in May, 1917, and 
attended the M.I.T. Ground School, Flight A (1). In Oct. he 
joined the Royal Flying Corps, Cadet Wing, at Long Branch, 
Toronto, Can. He trained at the School of Military Aeronautics, 
Toronto University; at Armour Heights, and Leaside Flying 
Camps, Toronto. He continued his training at the School of Aerial 
Gunnery, Hamilton, Ont. In May, 1918, he was commissioned 2d 
Lieut., R.F.C. 

He sailed overseas to England, and completed his training at 
Cranwell Flying Camp, and Freiston No. 4 Fighting School, 
Lincolnshire. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., R.A.F., in Sept., 
1918, and attached to Squadron 210, 5th Group, at Eringham, 
near Dunkirk, France. Later he moved to Cambrai, and saw ac- 
tive service until the end of the war. Lieut. Berry was officially 
credited with two Hun planes "crashed." He was demobilized at 
London, Eng., in March, 1919, and returned to the U.S. 



[ 145 ] 



* RAYMOND CLYDE TAYLOR 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 
Killed in action, Sept. 16, 1918 
Son of Alexander and Barbara (Annand) Taylor, of Billerica, 
Mass.; was born at North Sullivan, Me., on April 30, 1892. He was 
educated at Arlington High School, and at Tufts College, gradu- 
ating (cum laude) in 1916. While at college he completed his training 
in the Mechanical Engineering Department, where he showed great 
initiative and constructive ability; was a member of the S.I. A. 
Fraternity, and the Glee Club. Upon graduation he was selected 
with three other young men from Arlington to attend the Platts- 
burg Training Camp, during the summer of 1916. 

In Feb., 1917, he went to New York and volunteered for the Avi- 
ation Service. He enlisted April 1, 1917, and was sent to Miami, 
Fla., for instruction; then to Austin, Tex., June 3 to July 27. He 
trained at Rantoul, 111., 10th Aero Squadron, July 27 to Sept. 16; 
at San Antonio, Tex., 136th Squadron, Sept. 16. to Oct. 10, and was 
then transferred to Fort Wood, N.Y., for a few days before sailing 
overseas. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Oct. 1, 1917. 

He reached France about Nov. 5, 1917, and was stationed at the 
3d Aviation Instruction Centre, Issoudun. On March 3, 1918, he 
continued his training and later served as an instructor at Tours, 
and from April 25 to July 10, attended the Bombing School at 
Clermont-Ferrand. From there he wrote on May 9 : 

What have we "Great Americans" done in our year of war? I hope to 
get to the front by the time this letter reaches you, but there seem to be 
so many side-tracks and the French are quite able to fly their own planes 
and the British are too darned good flyers to take any chances on green- 
horns, — our only hope is to borrow an old bus from somewhere. If you 
people can fix the heads of those individuals who have held up machine 
guns, so they can think straight — and fix the spies who help them — you 
will be doing the Allies the greatest service . . . it 's a shame that many of us 
have been in training for over a year and we have n't had a look at the 
Boches yet. . . . We want guns, bullets, and planes and we want them 
badly. 

On July 10, Lieut. Taylor joined the 96th Aero Squadron at 
Amanty, where he realized his desire to get to the front, returning 
from his first flight over the lines with four bullet holes in his plane. 

[ 146 ] 



RAYMOND CLYDE TAYLOR 



This number was increased to 36 bullet holes up to the time the 
aviators were forbidden to paint black crosses over the holes. 

While at the front Lieut. Taylor was offered the rank of Captain, if 
he would go back to one of the schools as instructor, to which he re- 
plied: "They need me at the front now more than anywhere else." 

On Sept. 16, he made his last flight. 6 Breguets left Amanty, but 
owing to motor trouble but 4 planes crossed the lines east of St.- 
Mihiel. On approaching Conflans, 24 enemy aircraft were sighted; 
these attacked them after they had dropped their bombs on their 
objective. 

An extract describing the combat, from the report of Lieut. 
Charles It. Codman, follows: 

Before reaching us the enemy aircraft (Fokkers and Pfalz) divided into 
three groups, the first circled round our rear, the second to the southwest 
to cut us off at the lines, the third attacked us directly. Their fire was 
first concentrated upon No. 2 machine (in which was Lieut. Raymond Tay- 
lor, pilot, and Lieut. Wm. A. Stuart, observer). I think the pilot was hit by 
the first burst, as the machine went suddenly out of control, skidded out 
of the formation and, according to Lieut. McDowell, my observer, went 
down in flames. 

No. 3 machine (Lieut. Codman's) moved over to No. 2's place, with the 
intention of making room for No. 4, which was slightly to the left of the 
formation. No. 4 was attacked, however, before regaining the formation 
and was brought down, according to Lieut. McDowell, in flames. No. 1 ma- 
chine was next attacked and the gasoline tank hit. It went down in flames. 
The above all took place within the space of five minutes, I should say, 
in the vicinity of the objective. 

Lieut. Codman's machine was of a newer and faster type than 
the others and equipped with an armored gasoline tank which could 
not explode. This enabled him to land safely. Undoubtedly Lieut. 
Taylor and his observer were attacked by a dozen enemy planes, 
made a brave fight, and before being shot down themselves shot 
down one enemy plane, as testimony to this effect was given by sev- 
eral witnesses. The plane fell near the village of Mainville, some 10 
miles from their objective, Conflans, and there Lieut. Taylor and his 
observer are buried in a field between Mainville and Norroy-le-Sec 

Married, Oct. 1, 1917, Dolly Anna E. l'Hatton. 

Brother in Service — 

Theodore M. Taylor, Motor Transportation Corps. 
[ 148 ] 



* SAMUEL PIERCE MANDELL, Second 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twentieth Aero Squadron, 
First Day Bombardment Group 
Killed in action, Nov. 5, 1918 

Son of George S. and Emily (Proctor) Mandell; was born in Boston, 
Mass., March 20, 1897. A special slant was given his boyhood by an 
out-of-door environment. His days were spent in riding, hunting, 
breaking colts, and playing polo. He entered Harvard College 
from St. Mark's in 1915. His freshman vacation he devoted to the 
Harvard Flying Corps, going to Ithaca, N.Y., and the next spring 
enlisted at Newport News, March 3, 1917, though the U.S. had not 
then entered the war. Here he qualified as pilot July 25, and passed 
on to M.I.T., Cambridge, and Mineola, N. Y., where he received his 
commission, Nov. 5, 1917. Thence he proceeded overseas, Dec. 15. 

Landing at Glasgow, he was sent to Winchester, and almost im- 
mediately to France: Issoudun, Jan. 25 to March 20; Tours, to 
May 21; Clermont-Ferrand, to July 11; Chateaudun, to Aug. 18; 
Orly, and finally on Aug. 30 was assigned to the 20th Aero Squad- 
ron and the front. 

The very first flight over enemy lines which the 20th was asked 
to make was to take part in the St.-Mihiel drive. In driving rain 
and hail, weather such as none of them had ever before been per- 
mitted to venture out in, these untried men were sent to support 
the American attack. That they met the crisis splendidly is re- 
corded in the citation which the Group received, for having "shown 
a devotion to duty and initiative which has not been exceeded 
by any troops on the front." 

Mandell participated in 17 raids, practically all that were made 
by the Squadron, and for this he was cited. On the day before his 
last flight, he was certified for bringing down an enemy Fokker. 

His last flight — and it was the last American air raid of the war 
— was on Nov. 5, Mouzun being the objective. A detailed account 
is given elsewhere. It was in the third fight that his "ship" shot 
up. An aileron was put out of commission and the engine was 
shot dead. The "ship," then some 12,000 feet up, sank in great 
spiral vrilles from which its occupants managed to right it about 
every 1000 feet. The last recovery was less than 100 feet from the 
the ground. It fell within a few yards of the canal in Martincourt. 

[ 149 ] 



SAMUEL PIERCE MANDELL 



Lieut. R. W. Fulton, of N.Y., his observer, was practically unhurt; 
Mandell's leg was badly broken. The exact details of his other in- 
juries are doubtful. The Germans marched Fulton away, and left 
the wounded pilot propped against his plane. 

The rest of the story is gleaned from the inhabitants of the town. 
About 4 o'clock in the afternoon, a German captain of infantry 
came to the bank, took a rifle from one of the guards, and deliber- 
ately fired a number of shots into the helpless American. 

It was the 17th before a detachment from the 5th Marines, in 
passing through the town, were notified of the dead young aviator. 
Reverently they buried him where he fell. Shortly afterward, the 
Meuse overflowed. It was thus that news came to Lieut. Petit, of 
the 58th Field Artillery, who had known Mandell at home as a 
fellow sportsman. Petit immediately arranged for a reinterment 
in a little country churchyard on the hill nearly opposite. Later, 
the body was again transferred to the little U.S. military cemetery 
between Beaumont and Letanne. 

Citations 

(General Orders, No. 27) November 17, 1918 

First Lieutenants S. P. Mandell, John T. Willis, Jr., and Gardner H. 
Fiske and Second Lieutenant L. P. Koepfgen, 20th Aero Squadron, First 
Day Bombardment Group are hereby credited with the distinction, in 
combat, of an enemy Fokker, in the region southwest of Montmedy at 
12,000 feet altitude, on November 4, 1918 at 15.25 o'clock. 

By order of Col. Milling 
U. C. Sherman 
Lieut. Col. A.S., U.S.A., Chief of Staff 

(General Orders, No. 29) November 21, 1918 

Extract 

The Army Air Service Commander First Army cites the following 
officers and men for exceptional devotion to duty. 

First Lieutenant S. P. Mandell, A.S., U.S.A., as Pilot of the 20th Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group, participated in every raid 
made by the squadron in the Argonne-Meuse sector during October, 1918. 

By order of Col. Milling 
U. C. Sherman 
Lieut. Col A.S., U.S.A., Chief of Staff 



[ 150 ] 



DONALD D. WARNER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Clyde Longyear and Caroline Eunice Warner, of Swamp- 
scott, Mass., was born in Rochester, N.Y., Feb. 25, 1895. He grad- 
uated from the English High School in 1914, and attended M.I.T., 
class of 1918, three years; leaving to enlist at the end of his junior 
year, July 16, 1917, at Cambridge. 

He received ground school training at M.I.T., graduating in Oct., 
1917, and was sent immediately with others of his class overseas, 
sailing Nov. 2, 1917. He trained as a bomber at Clermont-Ferrand, 
France, and at the Aerial Gunnery School, Cazaux, France. Fin- 
ishing his training in April, 1918, he was at once ordered to the 
front, where he was commissioned 1 st Lieut. , May 18, 1 9 1 8, U. S. , A. S . , 
and was later attached to the 96th Aero Squadron, 1st American 
Bombardment Group. 

Lieut. Warner participated in frequent bombing raids, and did 
notable service until Sept. 4, 1918, when he was wounded in action 
very severely. For his bravery at this time he was recommended for 
advanced flying rating by the War Department, on the date of Sept. 
4, 1918, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross on Jan. 
18, 1919. The ceremony was performed on the steps of the U.S. 
Army General Hospital, No. 10, Parker Hill Avenue, Roxbury, 
Mass., by Colonel Joseph Taylor Clarke, Commandant, while the 
medical department of that institution, 600 men and 50 officers, 
stood at attention. 

Citation 
D.S.C. 

While on a bombing expedition with other planes of his squadron, he 
engaged in a running fight over hostile territory with a superior number of 
enemy battle planes from Friauville to Lamorville, France. During the 
combat he was severely wounded, his right thigh being shattered. In 
spite of his injuries he continued to operate his machine guns until the 
hostile formation had been driven off and one plane shot down burning. 



[ 152 ] 



GILBERT STANLEY 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of William and Lila Courtney (Wetmore) Stanley, of Great 
Barrington, Mass.; was born Jan. 14, 1897, at Pittsfield, Mass.; 
educated at the Berkshire School, Sheffield, Conn., and at Yale 
College, where he spent two years. 

He enlisted on June 10, 1917, at New York. He graduated from 
the Cornell Ground School, in the class of Oct. 13, 1917, and sailed 
for France as a cadet, Oct. 21, 1917. He was employed at first in 
building the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre at Issoudun. About 
March 1 he was assigned to St.-Maixent, and April 15 to his first 
flying school at Tours. He received his brevet and his commission 
as 1st Lieut, on June 7, 1918. In Sept. he was sent to Issoudun, for 
further training, and later transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. He 
finished the course in bombing Oct. 1, 1918 and then joined the 
96th Aero Squadron, 1st Day Bombardment Group. 

On Oct. 29, with his observer, Lieut. Folger, he was officially 
credited with being wounded in action by enemy aircraft, and with 
the distinction in combat of a Fokker. Though pursued by enemy 
machines, they succeeded in reaching their own lines just outside 
Verdun. Lieut. Stanley returned to the U.S., Feb. 20, 1919. 

Brothers in Service — 

Clarence Stanley Ensign, U.S. Naval Aviation. 
Leonard Stanley 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., 



[ 154 ] 



CHARLES E. TROWBRIDGE 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Edward R. and Alice (Eastman) Trowbridge; was born at 
Providence, R.I., June 9, 1895. He was educated at Hotchkiss 
School, Lakeville, Conn., 1913; and Sheffield Scientific School, Yale, 
Ph.B. 1917. 

He enlisted on April 18, 1917, at Mineola, N.Y., with rank of Ser- 
geant, A.S., S.E.R.C. He studied at Mineola, qualifying as R.M.A. 
on June 28, 1917. On July 10 he was commissioned 1st Lieut. From 
July 15 to Aug. 20 he was stationed with the 8th Aero Squadron 
at Mt. Clemens, Mich. ; from Aug. 22 to Sept. 19 with the 44th Aero 
Squadron at Dayton, O., as supply officer. He was in command of 
the 13th Aero Squadron from Sept. 20, 1917, to Jan. 26, 1918, dur- 
ing which time the Squadron was moved from Dayton to Garden 
City, N.Y.; was outfitted, and sailed for France on Dec. 4, 1917. 
Lieut. Trowbridge was in command of the 15th Foreign Detach- 
ment of "Flying Cadets" for one month at St.-Maixent, France. 
He then received advanced training at the 7th Aviation Instruction 
Centre, Clermont-Ferrand; and was Instructor there from May 
to Nov. He was attached to the 96th Aero Squadron in the 
Argonne-Meuse sector in Nov., 1918. Lieut. Trowbridge was hon- 
orably discharged at the Air Depot, Garden City, N. Y., on Feb. 15, 
1919. 



[ 156 ] 



FRANCIS W. COWLES 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero Squadron 
First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Walter G. and Nellie F. Cowles, of Hartford, Conn.: was 
born at Abilene, Kan., on Oct. 28, 1889. He was educated at the 
Hartford public schools; Conn. Literary Institute, Sheffield, Conn.; 
Allen School, West Newton, Mass.; and U.S. Naval Academy, An- 
napolis, Md. 

He enlisted at Plattsburg, N.Y., on May 15, 1917. He trained at 
Plattsburg, at M.I.T. Ground School, at the flying fields in Mineola, 
N.Y., and at Kelly Field, Tex. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in 
Sept., 1917, and sailed overseas in command of the 117th Aero 
Squadron on Dec. 16, 1917. He was stationed at Issoudun, where 
he was in command of one of the fields, and at Clermont-Ferrand. 
He was assigned to the 96th Aero Squadron, and participated in 
several bombing raids over and around Verdun and St.-Mihiel. He 
was a trained and experienced bomber; and while awaiting planes 
for his especial work he did much ferrying of new planes from Paris 
to the battle-lines. He developed considerable aptitude for cross- 
country work in strange places, and was ordered to take a special 
course in aerial navigation in England, but owing to the Armistice 
the order was revoked. He was discharged at his own request on 
Feb. 1, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Donald B. Cowles, 1st Lieut., U.S. Marine Corps, Aviation 
Force; died in Service. 



[ 158 ] 



* DONALD B. COWLES 

First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Squadron D 
First Aviation Force 
Died of 'pneumonia, Oct. 1, 1918 

Son of Walter G. and Nellie F. Cowles; was born at Hartford, 
Conn., July 26, 1895. He was educated in the public schools of Hart- 
ford; at Holderness School, Plymouth, N.H.; and at N.Y. Military 
School, where he graduated with military honors. 

He enlisted on July 5, 1917, at Winthrop, Md. ; he was attached 
to the Winthrop Rifle Range, and trained at Quantico, Md., Offi- 
cers' School. He was then chosen as one of the First Aviation Force 
of the Marine Corps, and trained as an aviator at Garden City, 
N.Y.; Philadelphia Navy Yard; and Miami, Fla., where he became 
an instructor in advanced flying and acrobacy. He was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut, on June 22, 1917, and 1st Lieut, on July 1, 1918. 
He sailed overseas Sept. 16, 1918. Two days after landing at Liv- 
erpool he died in that city, of pneumonia, on Oct. 1, 1918; he was 
buried at Hartford, Conn. 

Brother in Service — 

Francis W. Cowles, 1st Lieut,, A.S., U.S.A., 96th Aero 
Squadron. 



[ 160 ] 



*BRAYTON NICHOLS 



Second Lieutenant, One Hundred Sixty-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 
Killed in airplane accident, April 2, 1919 

Son of Dr. Charles L. and Mary J. (Brayton) Nichols; was born 
in Worcester, Mass., on Dec. 29, 1892. He attended a private school 
in Worcester, spent two years in school at Lauzanne, Switzerland, 
and then fitted at Pomfret School, for Harvard College, graduating 
in 1915. While in college he enlisted in Battery A, M.V.M., and 
in 1916 went as a private in this battery, 1st Mass. F.A.. N.G., 
to the Mexican Border, being stationed at Fort Bliss, El Paso, 
Tex., from June 10 to Oct. 17. On his return he entered Tufts 
Medical School, where he studied until the U.S. declared war on 
Germany. He then went to the Plattsburg Officers' Training Camp. 
He there elected Aviation, and in Aug. took a special course at New- 
port News, Va., at the Curtiss Aviation School, receiving a commis- 
sion as Pilot. From Oct. to Dec. he attended the Ground School at 
M.I.T. and was then sent to Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., where 
he remained until June, 1918. There he was commissioned 2d Lieut, 
in March, 1918. From July 11 to Sept. he was at the finishing school 
at Fort Worth, Tex., and then went overseas to France. He stayed 
at the Bombing School at Clermont-Ferrand for five weeks and was 
then assigned to the 166th Aero Squadron at the front. After the 
signing of the Armistice the Squadron was moved forward with the 
Army of Occupation, being first assigned quarters at Joppecourt, 
then at Luxembourg, and later at Treves, Germany, where it re- 
mained until its return to the U.S. in April, 1919. Their time was 
spent in single flight, in practice formation, and in aerial photog- 
raphy, in order to be prepared for further action if the peace nego- 
tiations failed. During a regular formation flight, on April 2, an air 
collision occurred involving four of the machines, three of which 
fell to the ground, three men being killed, and one drowned in 
the Moselle River. Lieut. Nichols was killed in this accident at 
Kordel, a few miles from Treves, and was buried at the Stadt 
Cemetery at Treves with his companions. 

Brother in Service: Charles L. Nichols, Jr., private, 34th Ma- 
chine Gun Squadron, 76th Division, Camp Devens. 



[162] 



HENRY BRIGGS 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Charles P. and Gertrude (Russell) Briggs of Lexington, 
Mass. ; was born in Lexington on Jan. 26, 1896. He was educated at 
the Lexington High School, and at Harvard College, class of 1918. 
He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, in 1916, 
and belonged to the Harvard R.O.T.C. 

He enlisted in the Air Service at Cambridge, Mass., on July 7, 
1917, and was assigned to the Ground School at M.I.T., where he 
remained from Aug. 13 to Oct. 6, 1917. He was then ordered to 
Mineola, N.Y., where he was stationed from Oct. 14, to Oct. 27. 
He proceeded overseas, arriving in Liverpool on Nov. 10. 

He continued his training in France: at Issoudun from Nov. 17, 
1917, to Jan. 8, 1918; at the Aerial Gunnery School, Cazaux, from 
Jan. 12 to Feb. 7; at Issoudun, from March 6 to April 1 ; at Tours 
(preliminary training) from April 2 to July 3; at Issoudun (secon- 
dary training) from July 15 to Sept. 6; and at Clermont-Ferrand 
(final training as bomber) from Sept. 7 to Oct. 1. He was assigned 
to the 96th Aero Squadron, 1st Day Bombardment Group, at Mau- 
lan on Oct. 9, 1918. With his observer, Howard C. Binley, he bombed 
Villers-devant-Dun, Bayonville, Brequency,Damvillers, Tailly, and 
Stenay. On three of these trips his plane was struck. His total time 
spent in bombing was 760 minutes. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on May 13, 1918. He was dis- 
charged from the Air Service at the Air Service Depot, Garden City, 
N.Y., on Feb. 3, 1919. 

Citation Extract 



15. First Lieutenant H. Briggs, W. H. Moreland, and H. C. Binley 
and Second Lieutenant W. R. Maynard, 96th Aero Squadron, 1st Day 
Bombardment Group, are hereby credited with the destruction in combat 
of an enemy Fokker in the region between Verdun and Damvillers, at 
3600 metres altitude, on October 29th, 1918, at 1.20 o'clock. 



Brother in Service — 
Russell Briggs, Cadet, A.S.A., U.S.A. 



[ 164 ] 



RUSSELL BRIGGS 

Cadet, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles P. and Gertrude (Russell) Briggs, of Lexington, 
Mass. ; was born in Lexington on Aug. 14, 1894. He was educated 
at the Berkshire School, from which he graduated in 1914, and at 
Harvard College, graduating in 1918. He belonged to the Harvard 
R.O.T.C. He enlisted in Boston on Jan. 5, 1918, and was sent to 
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. He was honorably discharged from 
the Service at Kelly Field, on Nov. 29, 1918. 
(Portrait on opposite page.) 

Brother in Service — 

Henry Briggs, 1st Lieut., A.S.A., U.S.A., 96th Aero Squadron. 



DOUGLAS R. BUCHANAN 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Sixth Aero 
Squadron, First Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. James B. Buchanan, of North Adams, Mass.; 
was born at Lowell, Mass., Aug. 12, 1896. He was educated at the 
Lowell High School, and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. He 
was a member of the Lowell High track team, and of the 'Varsity 
track team at M.I.T. At the end of his junior year, he enlisted at 
Boston, May 18, 1917, and entered the M.I.T. Ground School, 
where he completed the course, and was then sent to Mineola, 
N.Y., for further training. He was ordered overseas to France, and 
trained at Issoudun, and at Clermont-Ferrand. He was commis- 
sioned 1st Lieut. Nov. 2, 1917. He was first attached to the 90th 
Squadron and then to the 96th. Lieut. Buchanan was sent to Italy, 
and later returned to Issoudun, where he was just completing 
chasse training when the Armistice was signed. He returned to 
the U.S. and was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., 
March 21, 1919. 



[ 166 ] 



RAYMOND S. COWARD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA., First Aero Squadron 

Son of George F. and Mary Stewart (McLeod) Coward; was born 
in Cambridge, Mass., on June 8, 1895. He was educated at the Cam- 
bridge Latin School, and at M.I.T., class of 1918 (course uncom- 
pleted). There he was on the track and hockey teams in 1916-17. 
Previous to enlistment he trained one year with the M.I.T. Cadets. 

He enlisted on April 28, 1917, at the Officers' Training Camp, at 
Plattsburg, which he attended for three months. From Aug. 14, 
1917, to March 4, 1918, he trained with S.M.A., M.I.T. and with 
the Detachment of Flying Cadets, at Kelly Field, No. 2, San An- 
tonio, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S., Signal R.C on 
March 4, 1918. From March 4 to July, 1918, he continued training 
at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. and at Fort Sill, Okla. 

Lieut. Coward was ordered overseas in July, 1918, with the Avia- 
tion Section (unattached). Later he was transferred to the 1st Aero 
Squadron, with which he saw active service until the signing of the 
Armistice. He was for seven weeks in the Argonne sector, on obser- 
vation duty; and took part in the fight at Argonne Forest. Later, he 
made flights over many of the contested battle-fields, including 
Verdun and the French trenches in the Champagne sector. 

Lieut. Coward was with the Army of Occupation at Weissen- 
thurm, Germany, with the 1st Aero Squadron, 3d Army. 

Brother in Service — 

Warren F. Coward, Private, U.S.A., Ordnance Department. 



[ 168 ] 



* WILLIAM KEY BOND EMERSON, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Escadrille C 21, and 
Twelfth Aero Squadron 
Killed in action, May 14, 1918 

Son of William Key Bond and Maria Holmes (Furman) Emerson; 
was born in New York City, April 9, 1894. He graduated from Mid- 
dlesex School, Concord, Mass., in 1912, and entered Harvard Col- 
lege with the class of 1916. He left college in his sophomore year to 
join the American Ambulance Field Service, and served with the 
Unit in France for six months, in 1915; but returned to graduate 
with his class at Harvard in June, 1916. 

In 1917 he again joined the American Ambulance Field Service, 
and went this time to Serbia, attached to the Army of the Orient. 
He received the Croix de Guerre with one Star, for " conspicuous 
gallantry in rescuing wounded under fire, near Monastir, in Aug., 
1917." 

Returning to France he was commissioned 2d Lieut. He attended 
the French Officers' Artillery School at Valdahon; and after grad- 
uating in Feb., 1918, he was attached for a short time to the 15th 
Field Artillery, U.S.A., then to the French Escadrille C 21. He was 
transferred from the French Service to the 12th Aero Squadron, 
U.S.A. On the afternoon of May 14, 1918, Lieut. Emerson was 
acting as artillery observer, with Lieut. Cyril M. Angell, of At- 
tleboro, Mass., as pilot; and they were flying over the German 
lines north of Toul. They disappeared into low-lying clouds, and 
were next seen falling within the American lines, probably hit by an 
anti-aircraft shell, though there is no positive proof of this. Both 
aviators were killed. Lieut. Emerson was buried in the cemetery 
of the 104th Infantry, U.S.A., at Vignot, France, north of Toul. 

He was the first Field Artillery Officer to be killed in action in the 
war while flying for the U.S. Army. In recognition of this fact the 
Aviation Field at Camp Jackson, S.C., has been named "Emerson 
Field," by the War Department. 



[ 170 ] 



* CYRIL M. ANGELL 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twelfth Aero Squadron 

Killed in action, May 14, 1918 

Son of Thomas H. and Charlotte Angell, of Attleboro, Mass. ; was 
born in Fall River, Mass., April 9, 1895. He attended the New- 
port High School, and graduated from the Fall River High School, 
and from M.I.T. 

He enlisted at Champaign, 111., in Aug., 1917, and trained at the 
Univ. of 111. School of Military Aeronautics. He was then attached 
to the Royal Flying Corps, Squadron 83, training at Camp Mo- 
hawk, Deseronto, Can. ; and later the R.F.C. School of Aerial Gun- 
nery, Hicks, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, in Aug., 1917. 

Lieut. Angell received overseas orders, and was stationed in 
France, first with the 147th Aero Squadron, A.E.F.; then with the 
12th Aero Squadron, A.E.F. He was killed in action at Vignot, 
France, on May 14, 1918. 

Lieut. Angell was flying as pilot, accompanied by Lieut. W. K. B. 
Emerson, Jr., as artillery observer. They went up in the afternoon of 
May 14, 1918, flying over the German lines, and were lost to sight 
until those watching for them saw them fall inside of the American 
lines, presumably shot down by the enemy. Both pilot and ob- 
server were killed. Lieut. Angell was buried in the cemetery of 
the 104th Infantry, U.S.A., at Vignot, France, north of Toul. 



[ 172 ] 



BARTLETT BEAMAN 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Twelfth Aero Squadron 

Son of Harry Clayton and Jennie (Bartlett) Beaman; was born 
in Princeton, Mass., on July 20, 1890. He was educated at Phillips 
Andover Academy, and at Harvard College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1913. He was on his class baseball nine at college. 

On May 10, 1917, he attended the Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg, and was transferred from there in July to the Ground 
School at M.I.T., where he graduated in Oct., 1917. He was sent 
overseas on Nov. 2, 1917, and received further training at Tours, 
2d Aviation Instruction Centre, and at Issoudun, 3d A.I.C. He was 
commissioned 1st Lieut. May 16, 1918. For a considerable time 
he acted as "ferry pilot," taking new machines to the front. 

He joined the 12th Squadron toward the end of the Argonne 
offensive, and was in active service as observation and photo- 
graphic pilot up to the time of the signing of the Armistice, when 
he was assigned to the Army of Occupation at Treves and Coblenz. 
When the 12th Squadron was detailed home he was detached for 
duty with the 4th Corps, and attached to Headquarters Air 
Service at Zinzig. 

He sailed from Marseilles on June 10, and was honorably dis- 
charged July 15, 1919. 



[ 174 ] 



MAHLON PHILIP BRYAN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twelfth and First Aero 
Squadrons, First Observation Group 

Son of Mahlon R. and Bertha L. (Schrack) Bryan, of Brookline, 
Mass.; was born at Camden, N.J., Aug. 9, 1895. He attended 
the Hackley School, Tarrytown-on-Hudson, and entered Harvard 
College with the class of 1919. He served for nine months with the 
American Ambulance Field Service, Section VIII, in 1916-17. 

On returning to America, he enlisted at M.I.T., Cambridge, 
Mass., on July 23, 1917. He reported for duty on Sept. 5 at Fort 
Wood, N.Y., and was attached to a company of 100 which was sent 
to Toronto, Can., to train with the Royal Flying Corps. After 
completing the ground-school work in Toronto in Nov. he was sent 
with the Canadians to Fort Worth, Tex. There he was attached to 
the 27th Aero Squadron, one of the first American squadrons to be 
organized. After he had finished the required tests and had com- 
pleted the gunnery course, he was commissioned 2d Lieut. Feb. 5, 
1918, and placed on active duty. Almost immediately he received 
his overseas orders, and sailed from New York for Liverpool. 
There he joined the 27th Squadron which had sailed a few weeks 
previously; he went with this Squadron to Issoudun, France, for 
higher training. After he had passed through Field No. 7 at Is- 
soudun, he, with four other pilots, was transferred to the 12th Aero 
Squadron which was already in the zone of advance, ready for 
work over the front. He reported to the new Squadron at Amanty 
and remained with it until the end of the year. In June the Squad- 
ron was detached from the 1st Corps Observation Group and tem- 
porarily sent to work over the Luneville sector. On July 1, 1918, 
the Squadron rejoined the Group near Chateau-Thierry and par- 
ticipated in the general advance. Subsequently Lieut. Bryan's 
Squadron removed to Toul, where it stayed through the St.-Mihiel 
offensive, and later served throughout the Argonne-Meuse drive. 
After the signing of the Armistice the Squadron became part of 
the Army of Occupation in Luxembourg and Germany. 

Lieut. Bryan left Squadron 1 at Treves, Germany, on Dec. 29, 
1918, for transfer to the United States, arrived in America on March 
3, 1919, and was honorably discharged at Mineola, N.Y. 



[ 176 ] 



HENRY WILLIAM DWIGHT 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA., Twelfth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 

Son of Henry W. and Caroline M. Dwight, of Cambridge, Mass. ; 
was born at Brookline, Mass., Jan. 12, 1896. He was educated at 
Phillips Andover Academy, class of 1914, and at Williams College, 
class of 1918. He was on the track team at Andover and at Williams. 

He enlisted at Boston, on April 10, 1917, U.S.N.R.F., and was 
transferred to Army Aviation on Aug. 23, 1917. He attended the 
Ground School, M.I.T., from Sept. 29 to Nov. 20, 1917; was at- 
tached to R.F.C., Can., for further training, which he received at 
Fort Worth Field, Nov. 27, 1917, to March 7, 1918. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., on March 7, 1918, and was as- 
signed to the 184th Aero Squadron. He sailed overseas on June 29, 

1918, landed in England July 7, and was sent to France July 10, 
with casual officers; attached to the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre, 
July 17 to Aug. 10, 1918; he attended the School of Aerial Gun- 
nery at St.-Jean-des-Monts, from Aug. 10 to Aug. 25; was made 
Staff Pilot, 2d Aviation Instruction Centre, Aug. 25, 1918, serving 
until Oct. 9, 1918. He served with the 12th Aero Squadron, 1st 
Corps Observation Group, from Oct. 10 to Nov. 22, 1918, and 
took part in the Argonne-Meuse offensive from Oct. 10 to Nov. 11. 
He was attached to the 12th Aero Squadron, 4th Corps Observa- 
tion Group, Army of Occupation, from Nov. 22, 1918, to Feb. 11, 

1919, stationed at Treves and Coblenz, Germany; served as Casual 
Officer at Bordeaux Embarkation Camp from Feb. 22 to April 13, 
1919. He sailed for America; landed at Hoboken, May 3, 1919, 
and was honorably discharged from the U.S. Army at Mitchel 
Field, Garden City, N.Y., on May 5, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Winslow Dwight, Sergeant in Tank Corps, A.E.F. 



[ 178] 



SIDNEY W. BEAUCLERK, Jr. 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twelfth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 
Killed in action, Oct. 29, 1918 

Son of William Preston and Jennie M. (Hay ward) Beauelerk; was 
born at Irasburg, Vt., Oct. 10, 1895. He prepared for college at the 
public schools of Concord, N.H., and entered Syracuse University 
in the class of 1919. In Aug., 1916, he attended the Officers' Train- 
ing Camp at Plattsburg. He enlisted May 11, 1917, and went to 
Madison Barracks, Watertown, N.Y. On July 18, 1917, he entered 
the U.S. Aviation Ground School at Ithaca, N.Y., and on com- 
pletion of his course there was sent overseas to Foggia, Italy, 
Sept. 25, 1917. 

He received his pilot's license in Italy; was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, on March 22, 1918, and was sent to France for further train- 
ing at Tours and Issoudun. He was assigned to the 12th Aero Squad- 
ron Sept. 8, 1918, and took part in the St.-Mihiel drive, being later 
transferred to the Argonne sector. 

His excellent work performed in the St.-Mihiel attack proved him 
one of the best men in the Squadron and he received high praise 
from his commanding officers in the Argonne. 

On Oct. 29 he was sent up with a formation of six planes whose 
mission was to photograph a sector over which the infantry must 
advance the next morning. The formation was attacked by over- 
whelming numbers, but in spite of this the mission succeeded, 
through the heroism of Lieut. Beauelerk, who sacrificed his own plane 
to save that containing the pictures necessary for the guidance of 
the infantry. By taking the bullets intended for the photographic 
plane, he doubtless saved many lives in the impending advance. 

He fought to the last, and when he came down behind the Ger- 
man lines, mortally wounded, he landed his machine in such a way 
as to save his observer's life. 

When on the following morning the infantry made its famous at- 
tack, which had a direct bearing on the end of the war, they found 
the grave of Lieut. Beauelerk, who had been buried with military 
honors by the enemy at Champigneulle, five miles east of Grand Pre. 
Upon a cross these words were inscribed, "Here lies an American 
flyer, Lieut. S. W. Beauelerk, Jr., killed Oct. 29, 1918." 



[ 180 ] 



STEPHEN HENLEY NOYES 



Major, J.M.A., A.S., U.S.A., Corps Observation Group 
First Army 

Son of Lieut. Boutelle Noyes, U.S.N., and Charlotte (Luce) Noyes; 
was born at Newport, R.I., Nov. 26, 1881. He was educated at St. 
Mark's School, Southboro, Mass., and at Harvard College, A.B. 
1903, Scientific School, B.S. 1905. He played quarter-back on the 
'Varsity team in 1905; prior to the war he was a member of Bat- 
tery A, M.V.M. 

Previous to enlistment he took a preparatory course in a private 
flying school at Essington, Pa., reporting for duty at Newport News 
on Feb. 5, 1917. From then until April 14 he trained at the Curtiss 
Flying School. While awaiting overseas orders he was attached to 
the 1st Aero Squadron, stationed at Columbus, N.M. He was com- 
missioned 1st Lieut. May 10, 1917, and sailed overseas Aug. 12, 
1917. He trained in France at Avord and at Cazaux; was attached 
to the 1st Aero Squadron, from Sept. 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918, act- 
ing as Flight Commander. He first flew over the lines on April 5, 
1918. 

From July 1 to Oct. 25 he commanded the 12th Aero Squadron. 
He was commissioned Capt. on Aug. 1, 1918. His Squadron served 
in every engagement in which our troops participated — Seicheprey, 
Chateau-Thierry, Fismes, St.-Mihiel, and the Argonne. He won the 
Croix de Guerre near Chatel Chehery, July 6, 1918, and the Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross in the Argonne, Oct. 16, 1918. 

From Oct. 26 to Dec. 1, 1918, he commanded the 5th Corps Ob- 
servation Group; and from Dec. 1 to April 16, 1919, he commanded 
the Corps Observation Group, 1st Army. He was appointed Major, 
J.M.A., April 23, 1919. He was honorably discharged at Mitchel 
Field, N.Y., on May 27, 1919. 

Citations 

Croix de Guerre (translation) 

Pilot of the first rank, cool and brave, model of duty for his Squadron. 
On July 6, 1918, attacked first by an enemy patrol, he dispersed them by 
his brave manoeuvres, and permitted his observer to take the desired photo- 
graphs. Attacked a second time, he destroyed one of his adversaries in a 
severe combat; ended his flight by a reconnaissance at the height of 500 
metres over the German lines. 



[ 182 ] 



STEPHEN HENLEY NOYES 



D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Chatel Chehery, France, Oct. 
16, 1918. Capt. Noyes volunteered under the most adverse weather 
conditions to stake the advance lines of the 82d Division. Disregarding the 
fact that darkness would set in before he and his observer could complete 
their mission, and at the extremely low altitude of 150 feet, Capt. Noyes 
proceeded, amid heavy aircraft and ground machine-gun fire, until the 
necessary information was secured. On the return, due to darkness, he was 
forced to land on a shell-torn field, and proceeded on foot to Headquarters 
with valuable information. 



CARLE E. ROLLINS 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Thirty-Third Aero 
Squadron 

Son of Frank E. and Mabel C. Rollins; was born in Dover, N.H., 
Oct. 30, 1890. He was educated at the Dover High School, and at 
Dartmouth College. At Dartmouth he played baseball and football. 
He belonged to the Business Men's Military Association of New 
York City. He enlisted in Chicago, 111., June 30, 1917, and was 
assigned to the Ground School at the University of Illinois. He was 
ordered overseas, and received his preliminary flying training at 
the French school at Chateauroux, from which he was transferred 
for advanced training to the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun, France. He was 
subsequently assigned to the 33d Aero Squadron, and detailed to 
Issoudun as Flying Instructor at the 3d A.I.C. He was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut, on May 18, 1918. 

Father in Service : Frank E. Rollins, Capt., N.H. National Guard, 
during the Spanish War; retired rank, Lieut.-Col., N.H.N. G.; at 
present Major, N.H. State Guard. 



[ 184 ] 



WILLBURT EDWARD KINSLEY 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Ninetieth Aero 
Squadron, Third Observation Group, D.S.C. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Kinsley, of Winchester, Mass. ; was 
born Sept. 12, 1891, at Somerville, Mass.; educated at Winchester 
High School and the Rindge Manual Training School, Cambridge. 

He enlisted at Ithaca, N.Y., on July 9, 1917, in the U.S. Air Serv- 
ice. He was trained at Cornell Ground School; Elementary Flying 
School at Selfridge Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich.; and at Gerstner 
Field, Lake Charles, La. (advanced flying). He was commissioned 
2d Lieut. Chasse Pilot, at the Gerstner Field, on Feb. 8, 1918. He 
sailed overseas in Feb., 1918, and received advanced training at Is- 
soudun, France, and Cazaux Gunnery School. He was appointed to 
the 90th Aero Squadron, 3d Observation Group, 1st Army, July 1, 
1918, at Ourches. He made his first flight over the lines on July 3, 
1918. The Squadron was stationed at Souilly and Bethainville 
during the Argonne-Meuse offensive, and at Ourches during the St- 
Mihiel offensive. Up to the time of the St.-Mihiel offensive Lieut. 
Kinsley's work consisted of reconnaissances and observations. He 
performed infantry liaison work in the Toul sector and east of the 
Meuse River, taking part daily in the St.-Mihiel offensive. His rec- 
ord shows 78 hours' total flying over the German lines. He received 
official credit for two German planes shot down in the Argonne drive 
east of Cunel. He took part in 17 individual combats, at St.-Mihiel, 
Argonne, Meuse, and Verdun. He was recommended by his CO. 
for promotion. He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., 
on Feb. 13, 1919. 

Extracts from his citations and from letters written by Lieut. 
Kinsley's two Commanding Officers follow: 

For extraordinary heroism in action east of Cunel, Verdun sector, 
France, 7th Oct., 1918. While staking the advanced lines of the 80th Divi- 
sion he was attacked by eight enemy machines (Fokker type) which dived 
from a near-by cloudbank. Although attacked simultaneously by the 
enemy planes he placed his airplane in such a position that his observer, 
2d Lieut. William O. Lowe, S.M.S., was able to shoot down and crash one 
enemy plane and disable a second so badly that it was forced to land a few 
kilometres inside the German lines. Later, on the same mission, he was 
attacked again by a patrol of five enemy planes, scout machines, and in a 
running fight he drove these off and successfully completed his mission. 



[ 185 ] 



WILLBURT EDWARD KINSLEY 



France, Dec. 18, 1918 
The Air Service Commander, First Army, cites the following named offi- 
cer for exceptional devotion to duty: 2d Lieut. Willburt Edward Kinsley, 
Air Service, U.S.A., Pilot, 90th Aero Squadron, by his spirit, initiative, and 
ability, was an inspiration to service among officers and men. He served 
with distinction for five months at the front. 

Lieut. Kinsley has served under me for the past five months and has 
proved himself a capable officer and a pilot of great skill and courage. He 
has always been one of the first to volunteer for the most difficult and dan- 
gerous missions. He flew in the worst possible kind of weather in both the 
St.-Mihiel and Verdun-Argonne-Meuse offensives and has been officially 
credited with the destruction of two enemy planes in aerial combat. For 
extraordinary heroism he has been recommended for and is shortly to 
receive the Distinguished Service Cross. He has also been recommended 
for the Distinguished Service Medal. [Signed, Captain W. J. Schauffler, Jr., 
A.S., U.S.A., 3d Corps, Commanding Observation Group, Nov. 30, 1918.] 

As one of the oldest and most experienced pilots of this command, 
Lieut. Kinsley has, by his coolness and skill as a pilot on active fronts, been 
a source of great inspiration to pilots and observers joining the Squadron, 
and has thus contributed, in an unusual degree, to the esprit which has 
made possible the Squadron's successful participation in the St.-Mihiel and 
Verdun offensives. He has, on many occasions, demonstrated his ability 
both in aerial combat and as an observation pilot, and after a particularly 
dangerous and brilliant mission he was recommended for and is shortly to 
receive the Distinguished Service Cross. Because of the unusual consist- 
ency of his work he has also been recommended for the Distinguished 
Service Medal. [Signed, Norris Pierson. 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., Command- 
ing 90th Squadron.] 



[ 186 ] 



PHILIP RODNEY BABCOCK 



Captain, U.S.A., A.S., Commanding Eighty-Eighth Aero 
Squadron, First, Third, and Fifth Observation Groups 

Son of Frederic L. and Susan (Fowler) Babcock, of Lynn, Mass. ; 
was born at Lyme, Conn., Aug. 12, 1893. He graduated from the 
English High School at Lynn, where he was captain of the track 
team, 1911-12, and from the Mass. Agricultural College at Am- 
herst, in 1916. 

He entered the U.S. Service, May 12, 1917, at the Officers' Train- 
ing Camp, Plattsburg, having previously attended the Plattsburg 
Camp in 1916. On June 17, 1917, he was sent to the Aviation Ground 
School, M.I.T., continuing his training at Mineola, N.Y., July 30 
to Nov. 2. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. Nov. 2, 1917; sailed over- 
seas and trained at Issoudun, France, Dec. 2 to Feb. 20, 1918; he 
was assigned to the 88th Aero Squadron, 1st Observation Group, 
Feb. 22, 1918, and stationed at Amanty, France. He moved to the 
front May 28, station Ourches (Toul sector) ; moved to Chateau- 
Thierry sector July 6, stations Francheville, Ferme de Graves, Gou- 
reaucourt; moved to St.-Mihiel sector Sept. 10, station Souilly; 
moved to Meuse-Argonne sector, Sept. 15, stations Pretz-en-Ar- 
gonne, Souilly, Bethainville, until Nov. 11, 1918. Army of Occupa- 
tion Dec. 5, 1918, stations Villers-les-Chevre and Treves, Germany, 
where he was on duty with the 7th Army Corps. 

Capt. Babcock took part in the following battles: Champagne, 
Marne defensive, Aisne-Marne offensive, Oise-Aisne, St.-Mihiel, 
and Meuse-Argonne, besides participating in other affairs at the 
Toul sector, Chateau-Thierry sector, Fismes sector, and Verdun 
sector. 

He was Flight Commander Aug. 5, 1918; commissioned Capt., 
U.S.A., A.S., Oct. 15, 1918; and 88th Squadron Commander 
March 7, 1919. 

Citations 
D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Fismes, France, 11 Aug., 1918. 

Under the protection of three pursuit planes, each carrying a pilot and 
observer, Lieuts. Bernheimer and Jordan, in charge of a photo plane, 
carried out successfully a hazardous photographic mission over the enemy's 
lines to the river Aisne. The four American ships were attacked by twelve 
enemy battle-planes. Lieut. Bernheimer, by coolly and skilfully manceu- 

[ 188 ] 



PHILIP RODNEY BABCOCK 

vring his ship, and Lieut. Jordan, by accurate operation of his machine 
gun, in spite of wounds in the shoulder and leg, aided materially in the vic- 
tory which came to the American ships, and returned safely with 36 
valuable photographs. 

The pursuit plane operated by Lieuts. Hitchcock and Burns was dis- 
abled while these two officers were fighting effectively. Lieut. Burns was 
mortally wounded and his body jammed the controls. After a headlong fall 
of 2500 metres, Lieut. Hitchcock succeeded in regaining control of his 
plane and piloted it back to his airdrome. 

Lieuts. McClendon and Plummer were shot down and killed after a 
vigorous combat with five of the enemy's planes. 

Lieuts. Babcock and Palmer, by gallant and skilful fighting, aided in 
driving off the German planes and were materially responsible for the suc- 
cessful execution of the photographic mission. 

Croix de Guerre 

Lieutenant Pilot P. R. Babcock, of the American 88th Squadron 
The 19th of July, 1918, having had his plane seriously hit in an infantry 
contact patrol, did not return until his mission was completed, with a ma- 
chine riddled with bullets. The 24th of July, 1918, engaged in combat with 
several enemy planes which he outdistanced, received more than thirty 
bullets in his machine, and returned to the landing-field of his Squadron 
more than forty kilometres away. 

Recommendation for appointment as Squadron Commander 
Capt. Philip R. Babcock, A.S. (Pilot) 
Flight Commander, with more than 100 hours' flying time over the 
lines. Has served with great credit to organization since his assignment to 
same, Feb. 22, 1918. Has been awarded the D.S.C. and the French Croix 
de Guerre for conspicuous bravery in action. 

Capt. Babcock has acted as second in command of his organization for 
the past three months, and during the absence of the Commanding Officer 
has served as such very creditably. 



[ 190] 



* CHARLES W. PLUMMER 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Observer, One Hundred 
First Field Artillery 
Attached to Eighty-Eighth Aero Squadron 
Killed in action, Aug. 11, 1918 

Son of Henry M. and Alice (Hussey) Plummer; was born at New 
Bedford, Mass., May 25, 1890. He prepared for college at the Mor- 
ristown School, N.J., and graduated from Harvard College in 1914, 
Prior to the declaration of war he was a member of Battery A, 1st 
Mass. Regiment, F.A., N.G., and went with that organization to the 
Mexican Border in 1916. 

When war was declared he volunteered, and was commissioned 
2d Lieut, in the spring of 1917. He went with Battery A to Camp 
Curtis Guild, Boxford, Mass., and after a month's training, sailed 
overseas, Sept. 10, 1917, with the 101st Regiment, F.A. Soon after 
reaching France he joined the Division of Aeronautics, trained as 
an observer at the various French camps, and was attached to the 
88th Aero Squadron. 

The following extract is from the report sent by Lieut. Plummer 
after an engagement for participation in which he received the 
Croix de Guerre: 

July 24, 1918 Near Beuvardes 

Observation at 800 M. 7-18-15 p.m. 
Two monoplace planes appeared from the north, circled to the east and 
above us. I kept an eye on them, and could distinctly see the French colors 
on their tails. 

A few moments later two German planes appeared, while we were over 
the Beuvardes Wood. I fired 25 rounds at these. 

At this time we were under heavy anti-aircraft gun-fire, the pieces cut- 
ting the wings and fuselage, besides cutting several guy wires. My goggles 
were shot away. 

On inspection I found that many machine-gun bullets had pierced the 
wings and fuselage; the majority of these came from behind and from 
above. There were only the first two planes of which I have spoken which 
could have done this. 

On Aug. 11, 1918, while flying a protection plane near Fismes, 
Lieut. Plummer was attacked by five enemy planes. In vigorous 
fighting he succeeded in downing two planes before his own pilot, 
Lieut. McClendon, was killed. Before Lieut. Plummer was able to 

[ 191 ] 



CHARLES W. PLUMMER 

regain control of the machine, however, it crashed to earth killing 
him instantly. 

Lieut. Louis G. Bernheimer wrote to Lieut. Plummer's family : 

It was a difficult mission inside the German lines. His duty was to pro- 
tect my plane. We had taken our photographs and were crossing the lines 
for home when we were attacked. He fought off five planes. We think he 
brought two of them down before he was killed. You will be proud of 
him — he died gloriously. 

Capt. P. R. Babcock, Commander of the 88th Squadron, wrote : 

I was piloting one of the planes in our formation and was the only one 
who saw Lieut. Plummer's plane go down. I assure you he was fighting 
gallantly to the very last, firing burst after burst of machine-gun bullets 
into five enemy planes that so closely pursued him. 

Lieut. Plummer and his pilot were buried at Chiery, France, on a 
knoll overlooking the valley. Chaplain John H. Lewis officiated at 
an impressive service, attended by the French and American offi- 
cers. As is customary for aviators, his grave was marked with a pro- 
peller blade instead of a cross. 

Citations 
D.S.C. 

Second Lieutenant Charles W. Plummer (deceased), Observer, 101st 
F.A. : Distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in connection with 
military operations against an armed enemy of the United States at Fismes, 
France, on 11 August, 1918, and in recognition of his gallant conduct I 
have awarded him, in the name of the President, the Distinguished Service 
Cross. Awarded on 16 October, 1918. 

(Signed) John J. Pershing 

Commander-in-Chief 

Croix de Guerre 

The Marshal of France, Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies of 
the East, cites in the order of the Army Corps Lieut. Charles W. Plum- 
mer, Observer in American Escadrille 88: July 24, 1918, while protecting 
a group of aviators over the enemy lines, he engaged in a combat with sev- 
eral German planes. During the combat he received more than 30 bullets 
in his plane, but continued to fire and succeeded in beating off his adver- 
saries. 

(Signed) Petain 



[ 192 ] 



JOHN HOLME LAMBERT 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A., Flight Commander, Ninety-First 
Aero Squadron, Pilot, Observation Group 

Son of Harry Lambert (deceased) and Marion Booth (Lambert) 
Kelley, of New York; was born March 19, 1897, at Salem, N.J. He 
was educated at Germantown Academy, Philadelphia; Phillips Exe- 
ter Academy, class of 1915; and Harvard College, class of 1920, leav- 
ing in the middle of his freshman year to drive an ambulance in 
France. He served with the American Ambulance Field Service 
from Feb. 19 to Aug. 21, 1917, at Verdun and in the Champagne. 

In Sept., 1917, he enlisted in the Aviation Section of the U.S. 
Army, at Paris, and trained at Tours, Issoudun, and Gondre- 
court, France. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Dec. 1, 1917, 
and was attached to the 91st Aero Squadron, as a pilot in the Ob- 
servation Group. Lieut. Lambert was awarded the Distinguished 
Service Cross (Dec, 1918) for "extraordinary heroism" in action 
near Stenay, France, Oct. 30, 1918. 

He was commissioned Captain, March 19, 1919, and appointed 
Flight Commander. He was sent with the Army of Occupation to 
Coblenz, Germany. On March 18, 1919, he was awarded the Croix 
de Guerre, with Palm, for ambulance service; also a medal and 
citation from the French Government. An additional citation from 
Gen. Pershing entitled him to an Oak Leaf with the D.S.C. 

D.S.C. 

While on a photographic mission in the vicinity of Stenay, his work being 
seriously interfered with by the. fire of a formation of enemy airplanes, 
Lieutenant Lambert temporarily discontinued his mission, attacked the 
formation and dispersed it, destroying one airplane and seriously damaging 
another. He then returned to his objective, completed his mission, and re- 
turned with information of great value. 

Additional Citation 

First Lieutenant John H. Lambert, Pilot, 91st Aero Squadron, for 
distinguished and exceptional gallantry over Metz, Alsace, on 15 August, 
1918, in the operations of the American Expeditionary Forces. In testi- 
mony thereof, and as an expression of appreciation of his valor, I award 
him this citation. Awarded on 27 March, 1919. 

John J. Pershing 

Commander-in - Chief 



[ 194 ] 



HORACE MOSS GUILBERT 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Ninety-First Aero 
Squadron, First Observation Group 
Son of Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Guilbert, of Boston, Mass.; was 
born at New Berlin, N.Y., Nov. 1, 1892. He was educated at the 
Gunnery School, Washington, Conn.; St. Paul's School, Concord, 
N.H.; and Yale College. 

He enlisted in June, 1917, trained at M.I.T. Ground School, and 
at Hempstead Field, Mineola, N.Y. He sailed overseas and was 
trained at Issoudun, Amanty, Gondrecourt, and Commercy. He 
was commissioned 1st Lieut, in Oct., 1917. He acted as pilot in 
the 91st Aero Squadron, Observation Service. He took part in the 
St.-Mihiel drive; was later injured, and was for six weeks with 
the Aeronautic Division of the 4th French Army as Liaison Officer. 

In Jan., 1919, he received the Croix de Guerre, with Palm, for 
bringing back valuable information in July, 1918, when he and one 
other observation plane were attacked by six enemy planes. 

Lieut. Guilbert has written the following account of the work 
of his Squadron : 

Under the command of Major, now Lieutenant-Colonel, John W. Rey- 
nolds, it was the first American Army Observation Squadron to begin 
work over the lines, operating over the Toul sector under the 8th French 
Army from the middle of June until the formation of the 1st American 
Army. When that was organized, shortly before the St.-Mihiel drive, the 
Squadron became part of the 1st Army Observation Group, of which Major 
Reynolds took command, Capt. Everett R. Cook, one of the original pilots 
of the Squadron, succeeding to the command of the 91st Squadron. 

The Squadron did effective work in the St.-Mihiel operations, but it was in 
the attack on the Argonne-Meuse front that it was put to the test. The Ger- 
mans massed their air service units in an effort to nullify the work of ours, 
and hardly a mission was performed without at least one combat, two or 
three of our planes sometimes fighting off 14 or more of the enemy. Though 
only an observation squadron, and in no sense an attacking or pursuit 
squadron, the 91st is credited officially with the destruction of 22 enemy 
planes, in over 140 combats. In its work over the Toul sector the Squad- 
ron lost 5 planes, on the Argonne-Meuse front, 4, with the loss of 11 pilots 
and observers killed in action, 12 wounded, and 9 made prisoners. Nine- 
teen of the officers in, or formerly in, the 91st have received the Distin- 
guished Service Cross, five the Croix de Guerre with a Palm, and five 
have been promoted to the command of squadrons. 



[ 196 ] 



WILLIAM WALLACE FOSTER 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Eighty-Eighth Aero 
Squadron, First Observation Group 

Born in Boston, Dec. 29, 1894. 

He enlisted in Paris in June, 1917, with the Norton-Harjes Am- 
bulance Unit, Section 63, R.C.A. In July and Aug., 1917, he served 
with the Section Sanitaire, Automobile 63, behind Verdun during 
the great drive. He was transferred from the French to the American 
forces in Sept., enlisting for aviation training. He was trained at 
Tours and Issoudun, and was commissioned 1st Lieut. Nov. 23, 
1917, with active orders on Jan. 10, 1918; being assigned to 88th 
Squadron and 1st Aero Squadron, 1st Observation Group. He was 
flying over the front lines from May to Aug., 1918, including the 
engagement at Chateau-Thierry. On Oct. 28, 1918, he was assigned 
Commanding Officer of Flight C, 351st Aero Squadron, at 1st Ar- 
tillery Observation School, near Rennes, France. He was honorably 
discharged on Feb. 14, 1919, at Hoboken, N.J. 



[ 198 ] 



W. LAWSON LOCKHART 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Twelfth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 

Son of Joseph S. and Eva A. Lockhart; was born in Cambridge, 
Mass., on Oct. 12, 1896. He was educated at the Lycee de Vesoul, 
Haute Seine, France; at Acadia University, N.S.; and at the Mass. 
Institute of Technology. 

He enlisted in June, 1917, at the Harvard R.O.T.C., and in Aug. 
was transferred to the Air Service. After an eight weeks' course at 
the Ground School, M.I.T., he was sent to Camp Mohawk, Onta- 
rio, Can., to join Squadron 84. He was subsequently ordered to Fort 
Worth, Tex., to finish his flying course, and then assigned to the 
School of Gunnery at Camp Hicks. He received his commission as 
2d Lieut. Jan. 16, 1918, and on Jan. 29 was assigned to the 139th 
Squadron as Flying Officer. He sailed overseas about Feb. 22, 1918. 

At the end of March he was in service at the front with the 12th 
Squadron to which he was attached. After recovering from an oper- 
ation for appendicitis at Base Hospital No. 1, he was assigned to the 
166th and the 168th Squadrons, early in July, 1918, as Flight Com- 
mander. He received the citation for the Croix de Guerre for excel- 
lent work, and was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S.A., on Oct. 10, 
1918; he was second on a list of men recommended for Captaincy. 
Lieut. Lockhart is a member of the Aero Club of America. He was 
honorably discharged from the service at Garden City, N.Y., in 
Feb., 1919. 



[ 200 ] 



GEORGE C. KENNEY 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-First Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 

Born at Yarmouth, N.S., Aug. 6, 1889. He was educated at the 
Brookline High School, and at the Mass. Institute of Technology, 
class of 1911. 

He enlisted on June 2, 1917, at M.I. T.; trained there at the 
Ground School during June and July, and at Mineola, N. Y., from 
Aug. to Nov., 1917. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. Nov. 5, 1917. 
He sailed overseas on Nov. 14, 1917, and continued his training at 
Issoudun, France, from Dec. 15, 1917, to Feb., 1918. He was as- 
signed to the 91st Aero Squadron on Feb. 22, and worked over the 
lines under orders from the French 8th Army from May 24, 1918, 
to Aug. 10, 1918. From that time until Nov. 11 he served with the 
American 1st Army, taking part in the St.-Mihiel and Meuse- 
Argonne operations. From Nov. 11, 1918, to April 16, 1919, his 
Squadron served with the American Army of Occupation. On March 
18, 1919, he was commissioned Captain, and is still in the service. 

D.S.C. 

First Lieutenant George C. Kenney, A.S., Pilot, 91st Aero Squadron, 
distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism, in connection with mili- 
tary operations against an armed enemy of the United States at Jametz, 
France, on 9 Oct., 1918, and in recognition of his gallant conduct, I have 
awarded him, in the name of the President, the Distinguished Service 
Cross. Awarded on 25 November, 1918. 

John J. Pershing, Commander-in-Chief 

First Lieutenant George C. Kenney, Pilot, 91st Aero Squadron, for 
distinguished and exceptional gallantry at St.-Mihiel on 15 Sept., 1918, in 
the operations of the American Expeditionary Forces. In testimony thereof, 
and as an expression of appreciation of his valor, I award this citation* 
Awarded on 27 March, 1919. 

John J. Pershing, Commander-in-Chief 

Brother in Service — 

Arthur I. Kenney, 2d Officer, U.S. Army Transport Ken- 
tuckian. 

Sister in Service — 

Gertrude L., nurse, Army Nurses Corps, stationed at Base 
Hospital No. 78, Toul, France. 

[ 202 ] 



* EDWARD LAURISTON BULLARD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninetieth Aero Squadron 

Killed in accident, April 8, 1919 
Son of Frederic Lauriston and Clara Elizabeth (Keil) Bullard, 
of Revere, Mass.; was born at Dayton, O., on Sept. 17, 1895. He 
spent three years at Phillips Exeter Academy, graduating in 1916. 
He entered the U.S. Service May 12, 1917. After one year at Cornell 
University, he was several months in a provisional regiment at 
Madison Barracks. He volunteered for the Air Service on Aug. 1, 
1918, and was trained at M.I.T. and at Princeton University 
School of Military Aviation. He learned to fly in Texas and Okla- 
homa and was commissioned 2d Lieut. May 15, 1918. Sailing from 
Hoboken on Sept. 26, he trained at Issoudun and Romorantin and 
reached the Argonne front just ten days before the Armistice. He 
was detached from the 90th Squadron on Jan. 21, 1919, and spent 
three months at the First Air Depot at Colombey-les-Belles, mostly 
in the ferry service. After having flown many hours both in America 
and in France and having navigated airships of many types, Lieut. 
Bullard, five months after the Armistice, came to his death "in the 
line of duty " in a motor-car accident near Toul. On April 7 he sus- 
tained fatal injuries when a wheel collapsed and his automobile 
was overturned. He died the next morning. A Board of Inquiry 
pronounced the machine defective. He was buried on April 9 in 
the little military cemetery near Colombey-les-Belles. He had been 
recommended for a 1st Lieutenancy. 

He possessed marked literary ability. Describing his first Re- 
nault flight, he wrote: 

I plugged along by my lonesome and tried to pretend I was enjoying 
myself in a strange ship, over a strange country, going to a strange field, 
in a thick haze which was fast deepening into twilight, and against a stiff 
gale which was colder than anything I had ever felt before. 

It has been learned that certain Red Cross workers, in personal 
letters to their own families, said of him that in addition to his 
remarkable physical qualifications, he was gifted with a brilliant 
mind, and had an unusually keen sense of humor and justice. 

Brother in Service — 

Frederic Keil Bullard, 1st Lieut., U.S.A., F.A. 



[ 204 ] 



GERARD HASTINGS HUGHES 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Two Hundred 
Fifty-Eighth Aero Squadron, First Army 

Son of William G. and Lucy C. Hughes, of Ossipee, N.H. ; was born 
at Boerne, Tex., on Jan. 15, 1895. He was educated at Milton Acad- 
emy, graduating 1912, and at Harvard College, graduating 1916. 
He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in 1916, and 
the Harvard R.O.T.C. On April 6, 1917, he enlisted at Boston as 
Sgt. S.E.R.C., and was ordered to Mineola, N.Y., for training in 
flying, April 12, 1917. He passed final tests, R.M.A., July 11, and 
was ordered to Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111.; assigned to duty as 
Officer in Charge of Flying. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S., 
S.C., on July 26, 1917. 

On Dec. 15, 1917, he was ordered to Rich Field, Waco, Tex., 
where he remained as Asst. O.I.C.F. and Flying Instructor from 
Dec. 20 to Aug. 25, 1918. He was ordered overseas for training as 
pilot and sailed for England Sept. 8, 1918. He trained at Issoudun 
from Oct. 1 to 31, and at St.-Jean-des-Monts, American Gunnery 
School, from Nov. 1 to 8. He arrived at Toul Nov. 11, 191 8, and was 
assigned to the 4th Pursuit Group. Two days later he was attached 
to the 258th Squadron. He returned to New York Jan. 31, 1919, 
and was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 5, 
1919. 

While stationed in Texas, Lieut. Hughes was one of five mem- 
bers of the escort chosen to fly over the train in which Miss Mar- 
garet Wilson was travelling; receiving later from her a letter of 
appreciation of the escort's remarkable flying. Of this group, con- 
taining men of unusual skill and experience, three have since been 
killed in accidents. 

Brother in Service — 

George F. Hughes, Capt., A.S.A., U.S.A. 



[ 206 ] 



GEORGE F. HUGHES 



Captain, A.S.A., U.S.A., Twelfth Squadron, First 
Observation Group; Commanding Officer, Two 
Hundred Fifty-Eighth Aero Squadron 
Son of William G. and Lucy C. Hughes, of Ossipee, N.H.; was born 
at Milton, Mass., Sept. 8, 1892. He attended Milton Academy, and 
entered Harvard College, class of 1918. 

He left Harvard to enlist with the Air Service in Boston on April 
3, 1917. He was stationed at Mineola, N.Y., as Sgt., E.R.C., from 
April 12 to July 6, 1917. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on July 20, 
1917, and ordered to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, O., as Flying 
Instructor. 

On Nov. 1 he was ordered overseas in command of the 12th Aero 
Squadron, and from Nov. 1 to 30 remained at Garden City, N.Y., 
awaiting embarkation orders. 

He sailed on Dec. 4, 1917, and was stationed at St.-Maixent, 
France, until Jan. 14, 1918; on Jan. 16 he was transferred to the 
Staff Field, Chaumont, Headquarters A.E.F., where he remained 
with the 12th Aero Squadron until Jan. 31, when he was relieved 
of the command of the Squadron by Major Harry M. Brown, and 
the Squadron ordered to Amanty to assist the 1st Aero Squadron. 

On May 1, 1918, the Squadron was ordered to active duty on 
the front to cooperate with the 1st Aero Squadron in the Seicheprey 
sector. From July 1 to July 25 Lieut. Hughes was stationed in the 
Chateau- Thierry sector. 

On July 25 he was relieved from duty with the 12th Aero Squad- 
ron, and ordered to duty with the 2d Army Corps, B.E.F., in com- 
mand of the 183d Flight Detachment. On Aug. 1, 1918, he was 
commissioned Capt. 

On Sept. 10 the 183d Detachment was incorporated in the 258th 
Aero Squadron, attached to the French 7th Army; and from Sept. 
10 to Nov. 14 Capt. Hughes was Commanding Officer of the 258th 
Squadron. From Nov. 15 to Dec. 15 he was ill in Base Hospital 82 
at Toul. On his return to the U.S., he was honorably discharged 
at Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 5, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Gerard Hastings Hughes, 1st Lieut., A.S.A., U.S.A. 



[ 208 ] 



GEORGE F. HUGHES 



Citation 

November 11, 1918 

For gallantry in action, the General Commanding cites the following 
officers : 

Captain W. H. Saunders, Observer, 12th Aero Squadron 
First Lieut. G. F. Hughes 
These officers flew in an A.R. Airplane for more than two hours in the 
vicinity of Le Bois de Gargantua, performing adjustments of artillery 
fire despite an exceptionally heavy concentration of Hun anti-aircraft ar- 
tillery fire. After completing rSglages for two batteries and while conduct- 
ing fire for amelioration for a third, they were brought down by shell frag- 
ments stopping their motor. In attempting to land inside the American 
lines, the plane was smashed. 



By command of Brigadier-General William Mitchell 



[ 210 ] 



SUMNER CARLISLE 

Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-First Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 

Son of Abbott L. and Nancy Fifield (Dudley) Carlisle; was born 
at Exeter, N.H., June 14, 1892. He was educated at Exeter High 
School; at Phillips Exeter Academy; and at the N.H. State Col- 
lege. He was a member of his class football team. He had three years' 
military training while at college, and joined the first Plattsburg 
Camp in 1916, enlisting there on May 13, 1916. 

He trained at M.I.T. Ground School; then at Fort Worth, Tex. 
He sailed overseas on Oct. 17, 1917, and was stationed at the 
Aviation Camp, Issoudun, France. He was sent to Campo Aveste, 
Italy, about the middle of Feb., 1918; returned to France in July. 
In Aug. he was sent to the front, where he was wounded by a shell 
which sent him to hospital. About Sept. 11 he was discharged from 
hospital, and was accepted as a pilot on Sept. 26. From then till the 
close of the war he saw much active service, being attached to the 
91st Aero Squadron, which was in many engagements and won much 
glory. An Italian Salutation was granted him before leaving Italy. 
He was shot down twice. During the last week of the war he was 
flying with two other machines when they were trapped by 14 
Boches. Lieut. Carlisle was the only member of the American party 
to return, and his own observer was killed. 

Since the close of the war Lieut. Carlisle has been with the Ameri- 
can Army of Occupation at Coblenz. 



[ 211 ] 



* GILBERT NELSON JEROME 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Escadrille Spad 90 
Eighth French Army 
Killed in action, July 11, 1918 
Was born Nov. 15, 1889, at New Haven, Conn. He attended the 
public schools of New Haven; graduated from Yale Sheffield 
Scientific School, in 1910, and from Springfield Y.M.C.A. College 
in 1914, winning honors both in school and college, and the fresh- 
man first prize in French at Yale. 

He was deeply interested in the Boy Scout Movement, and was 
Scout Executive, for New Haven, from Aug., 1915, to June, 1917, 
when he resigned to enter the U.S. Aviation Service. His work 
among the boys was remarkably successful, and his name is loved 
and honored by them. After his death a "Gilbert N. Jerome Lec- 
ture Course for Scout Leaders" was established in his memory. 

He enlisted in June, 1917, and attended the Ground School of 
the M.I.T., completing his course with honors. He was sent over- 
seas in Sept., 1917, and trained at the flying schools near Bourges 
and Brest. On Feb. 14, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., and 
assigned the duty of "ferrying" planes from various points around 
France. 

Early in June, 1918, Lieut. Jerome wrote: 

Having finished my training, I am now in the process of being assimi- 
lated with the ten others into French chasse escadrilles, fighting squadrons. 
Although none of my special pals came into this detachment there is a very 
congenial crowd; Quentin Roosevelt is one. ... We expect soon to be sent 
to the front, and will handle the most desirable type of machine. It handles 
wonderfully in the air, but the speed is simply terrific, and it is called a 
"Spad." 

Again he wrote: 

I am now at the front going over the lines every day. This afternoon I 
went to protect a photographing machine. We met no hostile planes, but 
were liberally " strafed " by anti-aircraft. It is very odd to watch the black 
balls of smoke suddenly appear in space out of nothing, and realize that 
they are meant for you. 

Later in June Lieut. Jerome was assigned, with Lieut. Ross J. 
Hoffman, of Philadelphia, to a French escadrille, stationed near 
Nancy. Here he met his death from a German anti-aircraft gun, on 
July 11, while patrolling the French lines. He fell near Verdenal, 

[ 212 ] 



GILBERT NELSON JEROME 



within the enemy lines, and he was buried by the French people of 
Blamont, Meuthe-et- Moselle, in a German military cemetery, with 
military honors by the enemy. 

Lieut. Jerome was among the 16 chosen from 800 contestants for 
the 1000-franc prize offered by the "N.Y. Herald" in Paris. His 
poem which follows was ranked 7 on the list. 

THE AIRPLANE 

What strange device is this; 

This thing of metal, wood, and cloth, 
So cunningly contrived, and gay with colors bright, 

Standing alone out on the grassy plain? 
Inert and lifeless on its wheels and skid, 

Flaunting its glitter to the sun and sky, 
It seems some giant's toy rather than 
The latest product of the mind of man. 



And now one comes and grasps the twisted wood, 
And with a sudden swing exerts his strength, 

His puny human force, there in the face 

Of that brute thing, that mass of steel and brass, 

When, lo, a miracle is wrought! Pulsating life 
Is born, and from the heart of it 

Bursts forth a mighty roar, a storm of sound, 

So that the framework shakes and trembles on the ground. 

Then, bounding from their hands like some wild thing 

Seeking escape from bonds intolerable, 
It courses o'er the ground and leaps into the air, 

Spurning the lowly earth. Up, up, into the blue 
It beats its forward way, until the mighty roar 

Fades with the height into a distant drone, 
A ceaseless hum, as if some monstrous bee, 
Warmed by the summer sun, was flying free. 

Thus, godlike, alone, the human being, 

Loose from the fetters that for ages long 
Have bound his kind to earth, rushes through space 

And with a touch controls the soaring planes; 
Bends to his will the pent-up power that beats 

With frenzied force against the steely walls, 
Hurling each piston back until the screw 
Cuts the clear air in wisps of vibrant blue. 
[ 214 ] 



GILBERT NELSON JEROME 



Such is the miracle of flight; the latest proof 
That smouldering deep within the soul of man, 

Half-buried ofttimes by the clods which mark 
Him still a beast, there lurks the sacred flame, 

The will to shape this star dust at his feet 

To serve his end, lifting himself thereby until, 

Freed from his heritage of passion, fear, and strife, 

He mounts to better things, to richer, fuller life. 



POEM BY LIEUTENANT JEROME 

Written after the death of a comrade 

It cannot be, I say it cannot be; 

'T is but a moment since he stood 
Here in our little group 

And smiled and spoke. 
A moment's flight, and then 

He passes through the gate 
That bars our view, 

Leaving us desolate. 

It cannot be, I say it cannot be, 

That he who moved among us, 
Winning us all by deeds and words 

Of quiet friendliness, 
Has lived his few short years 

Only to slip away 
Into the vanished past, 

A sad sweet memory. 

It cannot be, I say it cannot be; 

Such friends can never die. 
He lives beyond the gate; 

And when our turn shall come 
To step across the threshold 

Into a world more fair, 
He will be first of those 

Who meet and greet us there. 



[ 215 ] 



WILLIS STETSON FITCH 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Tenth Aero Squadron 
Caproni, Fourteenth Group 

Son of Arthur E. and Gertrude (Stetson) Fitch; was born at Med- 
ford, Mass., June 10, 1896. He was educated at Medford High 
School, and Dartmouth College, B.S. 1917. He was coach of the 
Dartmouth 1920 hockey team. 

He attended Plattsburg Training Camp in 1916, and was instruc- 
tor of the Dartmouth Training Eegiment in 1916-17. From May 
12 to June 19, 1917, he attended the first R.O.T.C. at Plattsburg; 
from June 19 to July 28 the M.I.T. School of M.A. at Cambridge. 
He sailed for Italy with the 8th A.I.C., A.E.F., in Sept., 1917, and 
remained in that Service at Foggia, Italy, until June 15, 1918. He 
was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Feb. 21, 1918. From June 19, 1918, 
to Nov. 14, 1918, he was attached to the 10th Squadron Caproni, 
14th Group, Italian War Zone. He participated in day and night 
bombing at the front, notably in the raid on the Austrian port of 
Pola. In Sept., 1918, he was decorated by the Italian Government 
for his exploits. 

He was later in a bombing raid that was intercepted before 
it reached its objective. However, Lieut. Fitch succeeded in drop- 
ping his bombs on two of the enemy aviation camps, and then 
started back for the Italian lines. While still about 13 miles within 
enemy territory, five Austrian scout planes overtook him from the 
rear. Lieut. Fitch, who was acting as pilot, dived in order to obtain 
the maximum speed, and then pursued a zigzag course in the race 
for the Italian lines. Meanwhile his machine-gunner continued to 
fire at the pursuers, bringing down one of the Austrians. The other 
four Austrian airmen attacked in turn; but the fire from the Amer- 
ican frustrated them. Finally Lieut. Fitch's escort, from whom he 
had been separated, saw his predicament and returned, driving away 
the enemy. 

Lieut. Fitch was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on 
Dec. 28, 1918. 

With the Decoration from the Italian Government came a report, 
of which the following is a translation : 

Lieutenant Willis Fitch, U.S.A., was part of this escadrille from June 
20 to Nov. 14, 1918. He is an officer of a serious and well-disciplined char- 

[ 216 ] 



WILLIS STETSON FITCH 

acter, and fulfilled his special duty with zeal and intelligence. He is of a 
loyal, open nature. Even when off duty he always conducted himself cor- 
rectly. He won the esteem of his superiors and the affection of his colleagues 
and inferiors. A skilful pilot, full of enthusiasm, he took part, with his whole 
soul, in the actions; he carried out eleven (11) bombardments, fulfilling 
conscientiously the various difficult tasks confided to him, distinguishing 
himself by his calmness and surety, even in the most trying moments. On 
account of the admirable way in which he conducted himself while flying 
over the enemy lines, he was decorated with the Cross for Martial Merit 
and proposed for the bronze medal for Military Valor. 

(Signed) The Captain Commanding Escadrille 

Buttini 

(Countersigned) Major Commanding the Group 

Russi 

The work of this young and valorous pilot was always such as to evi- 
dence his faith in the cause for which his great country took up arms. 

(Signed) Chief of the Air Service 

La Polla 



[ 218 ] 



CLARK ROBINSON 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A,, U.S.A., Eighth Aero Squadron 

Son of Frank A. and Grace (Clark) Robinson; was born in Bangor, 
Me., Aug. 11, 1894. He attended the public schools of Bangor, Me., 
and graduated from the Mass. Institute of Technology in 1916, 
where he took a prize of $200 for the best two years' work in Archi- 
tecture. 

He joined the Plattsburg Camp in Jan., 1917. He was trained 
at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., and at the Post Field, Fort Sill, 
Okla. Subsequently he was transferred to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. 
He was assigned to the 8th Aero Squadron, Army Aviation, and 
sailed overseas in Aug., 1918. 

During an engagement over the German lines he was shot down, 
and his observer was injured. They were both taken prisoner, but 
managed after five days to escape with some French soldiers. Lieut. 
Robinson was able to take out valuable information from Germany, 
for which he was especially commended by the General and Chief 
of the Air Service. While he was in Germany he was reported "miss- 
ing in action," and his effects were later returned to him marked 
"Lieut. Clark Robinson, deceased." 

At last accounts Lieut. Robinson was stationed at Bordeaux, 
where he was architect of the new "Victory" theatre just erected 
there, and had also done the designing of curtains, stage settings, 
etc. 

Brothers in Service — 

Albert E. Robinson, Sgt., U.S.A., 140th Infantry, 35th Div. 
Paul Robinson, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., Carlstrom Field, Ar- 
cadia, Fla. 

Sister in Service — 

Katharine G. Robinson, Reconstruction Aid, Base Hospital, 
Camp Upton, N.Y. 

Father in Service — 

Frank A. Robinson (deceased), Major, National Guard, State 
of Maine. 



[ 219 ] 



RAYMOND PEACOCK BALDWIN 



First Lieutenant, First Italian Caproni Squadron 
Fourth Airplane Group, Italian War Zone 

Was born at Brookline, Mass., Nov. 3, 1895. He prepared for col- 
lege at the Volkmann School, where he was prominent in athletics, 
and in his senior year captain of the track team. He graduated from 
Harvard College in 1916, and was attending the Law School when 
he entered the U.S. Aviation Service, April 29, 1917. 

During the summer of 1916 he drove an ambulance in France 
with the Morgan-Harjes Unit. 

He received his early aviation training at the Ground School, 
M.I.T., going from there overseas to continue his training at Foggia, 
• Italy. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. Jan. 12, 1918, and attached 
to the 1st Italian Caproni Squadron, 4th Airplane Group, Italian 
War Zone, June 18, 1918. 

While returning from a bombing expedition Lieut. Baldwin's 
Italian pilot discovered that a new bridge had been thrown across 
a river, which he determined to photograph. He turned the con- 
trols over to his companion, telling him to take the machine down 
as low as possible, and Baldwin immediately nosed the plane over 
and got far below the barrage and anti-aircraft guns, guiding the 
machine so skilfully that an excellent photograph was taken. With- 
in a few hours the place was identified and the bridge shelled by the 
Italian artillery. 

Lieut. Baldwin took part in a daylight air raid on the Austrian 
Naval Base, at Pola, in the Adriatic. The expedition started at day- 
break, and over 60 planes took part attacking in cooperation with 
two fleets of destroyers. It was a 110-kilometre flight straight across 
the Adriatic and only two or three Americans were allowed to take 
part. The raid was a success and the objectives were bombed and 
all the planes returned in safety, despite the fire directed at them 
by land batteries and ships in the harbor. 

On July 4, 1918, Lieut. Baldwin was one of five American aviators 
decorated with the Italian War Cross by King Victor Emmanuel. 

After acting as instructor on the Italian front Lieut. Baldwin was 
ordered to England, Aug. 13, 1918, as Commanding Officer of the 
140th Squadron. 

He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Jan. 2, 1919. 



[ 220 ] 



LAWRENCE I. PEAK 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Escadre 12, G.B. 6 

ESCADRILLE 66 

Son of Walter Irvin and Eva Grace (Swan) Peak, of Somerville, 
Mass.; was born in Medford, Mass., on Jan. 2, 1893. He graduated 
from the Mechanic Arts High School, Boston, in 1910. 

He enlisted at Somerville on July 13, 1917, and was assigned to 
the Ground School, M.I.T., for training, Aug. 20, 1917. After a 
short course there he was chosen from among the honor graduates 
(class of Oct. 13, 1917) to be sent abroad for pilot's training in the 
European schools. He was ordered to Mineola, N.Y., on Oct. 16 
and sailed from New York on Oct. 26. When he arrived in France it 
was to find there were no facilities for advanced training. After wait- 
ing four months he volunteered as an observer in response to an ur- 
gent appeal for men for that work. 

After a course at Cazaux, and the American School at Clermont- 
Ferrand, he was rated as an Aerial Observer, Gunner and Bomber, 
under both French and American systems. On May 18, 1918, he 
was commissioned 1st Lieut, and on June 15 was one of 16 Amer- 
ican aviators chosen for further training with the French, the 
idea being to have men with actual battle experience to lead Ameri- 
can squadrons as they were formed. 

From June 15 to Oct. 23, 1918, he was attached to the French 
Independent Air Force as a member of Escadrille B.R. 66, G.B. 6 
(Day Bombardment), Commander Vuillemin. This was one of the 
escadrilles which made the first reprisal raid on Germany in re- 
sponse to German raids on French towns; it was also a part of the 
famous Escadre 12. 

While a member of Escadrille B.R. 66, Lieut. Peak took part in 
the Chateau- Thierry offensive, and in July covered the sector from 
Chateau- Thierry to Reims. In Aug., 1918, he was in Picardy, cover- 
ing the sector from Amiens to Soissons and along the Chemin des 
Dames. In Sept. the escadrille was chosen as one of those to help 
the Americans in their St.-Mihiel attack in a sector extending from 
Verdun to Nancy; in Oct. he served in Champagne with the 
French, covering the sector from Verdun to Reims. 

Escadrille B.R. 66 took part in practically every attack made by 
the French in these regions from July to Nov. and was awarded 



[ 222 ] 



LAWRENCE I. PEAK 

the Fourragere colors and the Medaille Militaire (4 citations). In 
addition to having the French Brevet, Lieut. Peak has the dis- 
tinction of being one of the two Americans who performed the neces- 
sary work to entitle them to the escadrille insignia, the "Epervier." 
On Aug. 11, 1918, after a series of raids, Lieut. Peak brought down 
his first official Boche, and on Aug. 17 was cited for the Croix de 
Guerre. 

He was withdrawn from the French in Oct., 1918, and sent 
to Issoudun. After the Armistice because of his familiarity with 
the French language and customs, he was ordered to work with 
the Rents, Requisitions, and Claims Service, where he has been 
employed in settling large Aviation claims. 

Citation 
Croix de Guerre 

Commander Vuillemin, Squadron 12, cites that Lieutenant Lawrence 
Peak, an American Observation Officer of the highest order, arrived in the 
midst of the battle and immediately went into the fight, where he bore 
himself brilliantly, attacking fiercely the enemy troops by bomb, in a 
run of nine bombardments, and brought down an enemy machine the 11th 
of Aug., 1918. 



[ 224 ] 



*DINSMORE ELY 

Lafayette Flying Corps; later Second Lieutenant, Volun- 
teer Detached American Officer with French Escadrille 
S 120, Secteur Postal 102 

Killed in airplane accident, April 21, 1918 

Son of Dr. James Owen and Emma (Dinsmore) Ely; was born at 
Chicago, 111., May 16, 1894. He attended the New Trier High 
School; the University and Chicago Latin Schools; and entered the 
Architectural School, M.I.T., in the fall of 1913. He was president 
of the Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity, and vice-president of the 
Architectural Club. He completed his junior year in high standing 
and volunteered in May, 1917, for service in the Tech Unit of the 
American Ambulance Field Service, sailing for France on June 25, 
with the avowed purpose of getting into the Aviation Service as 
quickly as possible. 

Arriving in Paris July 4, he secured his release the following day 
from the Ambulance Service, volunteered, and was accepted as a 
member of the Lafayette Flying Corps. He attended the French 
Aviation Schools of Avord, Pau, Tours, and Cazaux, and during his 
months of training had three thrilling escapes from death. On com- 
pletion of his training, a qualified fighting pilot, he volunteered for 
active service under the French flag, and in Feb. arrived at the 
Toul sector as a member of the French Escadrille guarding the 
American lines. Here he remained in active service until March 29, 
1918, when they were ordered to the great battle then centring 
around Amiens. 

Passing through Paris, Ely was released from his French Squad- 
ron and commissioned 2d Lieut, in the U.S.A. But with the idea 
of more immediate service than seemed probable under the Ameri- 
can forces still forming, he obtained permission to volunteer and re- 
turn to his French corps as a detached officer, as his one desire was 
to be at the front. 

In the last letter written by Lieut. Ely to his family on April 5, 
1918, he said: 

At present my one desire is to reach the defensive front. Right now it 
is hard for the French mind to grasp how much the Americans have wanted 
to help in this defensive during their first year of preparation. No matter 
how great the American organization is to be, if we suppose there are 

[ 225 ] 



DINSMORE ELY 



300,000 Americans actually fighting in this offensive (no one knows num- 
bers), we must keep things in scale by remembering that Germany alone 
has probably had more than a million and a half put out of action in this 
battle alone. 

And I want to say in closing, if anything should happen to me, let 's have 
no mourning in spirit or in dress. Like a Liberty Bond, it is an investment, 
not a loss, when a man dies for his country. It is an honor to a family, and is 
that the time for weeping? I would rather leave my family rich in pleasant 
memories of my life than numbed in sorrow at my death. 

On April 21, 1918, Lieut. Ely was fatally injured in an airplane 
accident; he was taken to the hospital at Versailles with a fractured 
skull and passed away without regaining consciousness. He was 
buried with full military honors at Des Gonards' Cemetery, Ver- 
sailles. 

His last message — "Like a Liberty Bond, it is an investment, 
not a loss, when a man dies for his country " — has been used as a 
slogan throughout the country to help swell the Liberty Loans. 
Posters bearing these words went broadcast, and over a million full- 
page copies were printed in the newspapers of this country. Two 
weeks after Lieut. Ely's death $1,000,000 was subscribed as a me- 
morial to him, on the last day of the Third Liberty Loan drive in 
Chicago, and in accordance with the request of Lieut. Ely, his 
$5000 life insurance was used to buy Liberty Bonds. A year after 
his death the wooden cross from his grave in France was presented 
to the Historical Society of Chicago, and lent inspiration at the 
conclusion of the Victory Loan drive. Of this cross the Librarian 
of the Historical Society wrote to the Chairman of the Victory Loan 
Committee: 

The little white cross brought to my thought the thousands of those 
pale crosses that, like a thicket of Easter lilies, blanket the fields of France, 
and it seemed that there might be a message here that could be used to 
strengthen our morale at this moment. 

And once more the young aviator's words helped swell the re- 
turns in his city and elsewhere. 

For months Lieut. Ely's last message headed the casualty lists 
in the "Chicago Tribune," and cards with the printed paragraph 
upon them have brought comfort and inspiration to many be- 
reaved hearts. 



[ 226 ] 



WILLIAM FITCH LOOMIS 

Lafayette Escadrille, First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One 
Hundred Ninety-Third, Two Hundred Thirteenth 
Aero Squadrons 

Son of Elihu G. and Marion H. (Fitch) Loomis; was born at Bed- 
ford, Mass., April 27, 1894. He was educated in the schools at 
Bedford; at Concord High School; Lawrence Academy; Groton; and 
Phillips Academy, Andover; and graduated from Amherst College 
in 1917, with the degree of A.B. 

He sailed for France as member of the American Ambulance 
Service, May 19, 1917; he enlisted in the French Aviation Service 
and went through the French training schools, obtaining his li- 
cense as a pilot; he served on the French front, flying with French 
companions for about six months, beginning in Nov., 1917. In 
1918 he transferred into the U.S. Army with the rank of 1st Lieut, 
in Aviation, and was engaged in aerial service at Chateau-Thierry, 
St.-Mihiel salient, Verdun, and elsewhere, serving as Flight Com- 
mander and as a member of the "Hat in the Ring" Squadron. He 
received the Croix de Guerre from the French Government for 
faithful and efficient service. At the close of the war he returned 
to America and was honorably discharged. 

Brothers in Service — 

Ralph Lane Loomis, Ensign, Naval Aviation. 
Hubert H. Loomis, 101st Regiment, FA. 
Samuel Loomis, 2d Lieut., 71st Coast Artillery. 



[ 228 ] 



RALPH LANE LOOMIS 

Lafayette Flying Corps, Ensign, Naval Aviation Service 

Son of Elihu G. and Marion H. (Fitch) Loomis; was born at Bed- 
ford, Mass., April 13, 1887. He was educated in the public schools 
at Bedford; at Concord High School; Boston Latin School; and at 
Phillips Academy, Andover. He graduated with the degree of A.B. 
at Amherst, 1908; attended Harvard Law School, and was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk Bar, Boston, 1911; he practised law for a sea- 
son and later engaged in business in Boston as one of the members 
of the firm of Loomis & Co., dealers in paper. On June 25, 1917, he 
sailed for France as a member of the American Ambulance Service, 
but upon reaching France he enlisted in the French Aviation Service 
and passed through the various aviation schools and obtained com- 
mission as a pilot; later, in 1918, he transferred into the U.S. Navy 
with the rank of Ensign; engaged in aviation work in connection 
with the officers of the English Navy, flying from Dunkirk and at- 
tacking enemy positions at Zeebrugge and Ostend; he was certi- 
fied by his Commander to have been "a very good pilot and efficient 
officer in charge of men." 

He is still in service, and stationed (May, 1919) at Pola, Istria. 

Brothers in Service — 

William Fitch Loomis, 1st Lieut., Lafayette Escadrille. 
Hubert H. Loomis, Battery A, 101st F.A.; fought through the 

war with his regiment, being continually engaged at the front 

throughout the heavy fighting. 
Samuel Loomis, 2d Lieut., 71st Coast Artillery. 



[ 230 ] 



ROBERT LOWELL MOORE 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Escadrille Br. 29, G.B. 9 

Son of James Lowell and Jane (Newell) Moore; was born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Jan. 12, 1896. He prepared for college at the high 
school, Way land, Mass., and entered Harvard College, class of 
1918. He left college at midyears in his sophomore year to join the 
Norton-Harjes Ambulance, and after six months' service returned 
in the fall of 1916 and finished his junior year. 

He enlisted, May 17, 1917, and trained at the M.I.T. Ground 
School. He sailed for Europe, July 23, 1917, in the first group of 
aviators sent to France. He continued his training at Tours, Sept., 
1917, Avord, Oct., 1917, and at Issoudun, where he remained from 
Nov., 1917, to Jan., 1918. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Nov. 
20, 1917. Lieut. Moore was transferred to the Gunnery School at 
Cazaux, where he stayed from Feb. to April, 1918, as Pursuit Pilot. 
Subsequently, he spent some time in England at the Hythe Gun- 
nery School. He returned to France, May, 1918, to act as Aerial 
Gunnery Instructor at the 7th Aviation Instruction Centre at 
Clermont-Ferrand. 

He was sent to the front with Groupe de Bombardement 9, 
French Army, and was wounded, June 14, 1918, while engaged in a 
bombing expedition over Soissons. After his recovery two months 
later, he was put in charge of the Aero-Gunnery School at Clermont- 
Ferrand, Sept. to Dec, 1918. 

In his report on the wounding of Lieut. Moore, Lieut. Mongin, 
a superior officer, wrote : 

On the 14th of June, on the return trip from a bombardment attack on 
Soissons, a formation of Breguet aeroplanes, among which was Lieut. 
Moore, American aviator, was attacked by an enemy formation of pur- 
suit planes at a height of 4800 metres over the German lines. At the first 
opening of fire, Lieut. Moore's observer, Lieut. Giquel, was killed; his body 
falling on certain controls, wedged them. Lieut. Moore, having lost control 
of his machine, fell, pursued by the two enemy planes which poured an in- 
cessant fire into his machine. Little by little he succeeded in regaining con- 
trol of his plane, and continued to descend in regular spirals. The enemy 
planes steadfastly pursued him to an altitude of 1000 metres, pouring in 
their shot incessantly, and wounding him three times on the arm and right 
side. 

Thanks to his calmness, presence of mind, and skilfulness, Lieut. Moore 
succeeded in landing his machine, riddled with bullets and damaged in its 

[ 232 ] 



ROBERT LOWELL MOORE 



most essential parts, within our lines. Lieut. Moore was seriously wounded, 
and was at once despatched in an ambulance to the hospital at Guilly 
and evacuated immediately to Paris. 

Citation 

1st Lieut. Moore, Pilot, Escadrille, Br. 29 

A pilot of great bravery, possessing equally splendid enthusiasm and 
remarkable presence of mind. On the 14th of June, 1918, in the course of 
a combat above the enemy lines, his observer was killed, and he was forced 
to descend from an altitude of 5000 metres, pursued almost to the ground 
by two enemy planes, firing at him incessantly. Although he was wounded 
by three bullets and had his machine seriously damaged, he succeeded, 
thanks to his dexterity and courage, in reaching the ground. 

(Signed) Petain 

Lieut. Moore was honorably discharged from the Service at Gar- 
den City, N.Y., Feb. 10, 1919. 



[ 234 ] 



JENKIN R. HOCKERT 



First Lieutenant, A.S.P.C., No. 2, Romorantin, France 

Son of Bruno E. and Esther (Rylander) Hockert, of Hartford, 
Conn.; was born at Chicago, 111., Sept. 10, 1894. He was educated 
in the public schools of Hartford, Conn.; graduated from Val- 
paraiso University, B.S. 1912; and from Columbia University Law 
School, LL.B. 1917. He attended the R.O.T.C. at Plattsburg in 
1917, and enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 15, 1917. He at- 
tended the Ground School at M.I.T. from Aug. 3 to Oct. 6, and 
sailed for Italy on Oct. 17, 1917. He was trained at Campo Oveste 
Flying School, from Feb., 1918, to July, 1918; was commissioned 
1st Lieut. May 13, 1918; and on June 14, 1918, received the Royal 
Italian Brevet as a pilot. 

He was then ordered to France, where he was further trained : at 
Tours, from July 4 to July 19, 1918; and at Issoudun, from July 
19 to Nov. 3, 1918. He acted as Ferry Pilot at Romorantin, France, 
on DH 4. He returned to the U.S. Jan. 31, 1919, and was honor- 
ably discharged on Feb. 10, 1919, at Garden City, N.Y. He now 
holds a commission in the Reserve Corps. 

Brother in Service — 

Frederick Hockert, 2d Lieut., U.S.A., 32d Infantry. 



[ 235 ] 



WILLIAM HENRY MEEKER 



Corporal, Lafayette Flying Corps, Escadrille 124 
Killed in airplane accident, Sept. 11, 1917 
Son of Henry E. and Jenny (Royce) Meeker; was born at New 
York City on Jan. 5, 1894. He was educated at Pomfret School, 
Conn., graduating in 1913; and at Harvard College, graduating in 
1917. He had a very promising literary gift, and his articles and 
letters written overseas have been published in the press. 

He drilled with the Harvard Regiment as Private, Corporal, and 
Sergeant. In the summer of 1916 he trained at the Thomas-Morse 
School at Ithaca, N.Y. Later, in the Harvard R.O.T.C., he was 
brevetted Corporal, Lieut., and Capt. On April 23, 1917, he enlisted 
in the Signal Officers' Reserve Corps, Aviation Section, at Cam- 
bridge. He sailed overseas, and received additional training at the 
French School at Avord, through June, July, and Aug., 1917. On 
July 29 he was brevetted Corporal at Avord. He reached Pau for 
training at the French School for Aviation Acrobacy on Sept. 10, 
1917. He was killed on his trial flight at Pau, on Sept. 11, 1917, and 
was buried at Pau, France, on the same day. 

That Corporal Meeker was one of the most promising young 
pilots, who needed but time to win distinction in his chosen Serv- 
ice, is shown by the citation issued on July 29, 1917, from the Com- 
mandant of the French School of Aviation at Avord, to Corp. 
Meeker, and to Samuel Skinner (Harvard, 1915), of which a trans- 
lation follows: 

The Captain-Commandant of the School extends congratulations to 
the American pilots, Meeker and Skinner, for the skill and good-will of 
M'hich they have given proof in the course of their instruction, which 
they have succeeded in completing in a remarkably short time, accom- 
plishing their brevet of B.M. in less than three days. The Captain-Com- 
mandant presents these pilots, serving voluntarily in the French Army, as 
an example to all the pupils of the School, for the devotion and the excellent 
military spirit with which they are animated. 



[ 236 ] 



SHERBURNE EATON 



Pilot, Lafayette Flying Corps, First Group 

Son of Charles Edward and E. (Sherburne) Eaton, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; was born at Woburn, Mass., June 28, 1897. He was 
educated at Cambridge Latin School, 1915, and Harvard College, 
class of 1919. He was on the Harvard freshman and 'Varsity foot- 
ball squads. 

He enlisted in the Foreign Legion at Paris, on March 2, 1917, and 
was soon transferred to Aviation, being sent to Avord for training 
on March 23. He was injured in a smash while training in July; and 
on Aug. 18, 1917, was bre vetted Pilot, and made a member of 
the Aero Club of France. Again he was injured in a smash at Dijon 
in Sept., 1917. After finishing his training at Avord and Longwy, he 
was attached to the Lafayette Flying Corps for eight months, as a 
pilot. He was detached on special service to the U.S. Army, and 
attached to the 1st Aero Squadron as interpreter and instructor. 

Eaton returned to the United States to lecture on the second 
and third Liberty Loans, and on the Red Cross drive with 
"Men from the Front" Section, U.S. Committee on Public In- 
formation, doing valuable service in four States. He acted as inspec- 
tor of aeroplanes, and on the "Safety Committee." He spent three 
months, Aug. 23 to Nov. 28, 1918, at Louisville, Ky., in conjunc- 
tion with the U.S. Field Artillery. On Nov. 28, 1918, he was 
honorably discharged. 

Brother in Service — 

Putnam Eaton, Chief Yeoman, U.S.N"., Historical Staff, 
Intelligence Dept., London Headquarters. 



[ 238 ] 



ARTHUR RAYMOND KNIGHT 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 
Son of Franklin P. and Annie J. Knight; was born at Newburyport, 
Mass., on Jan. 11, 1896. He attended the public schools of New- 
buryport and the Mass. Institute of Technology, where he played 
on the baseball team as catcher. 

He enlisted on July 23, 1917, at Boston, and trained at the 
M.I.T. School of Aeronautics, where he was one of five highest 
honor graduates of Squadron 17. He was ordered to Egypt for 
advanced training; sailed for Liverpool on Nov. 11, 1917, to await 
transportation to the Mediterranean, but as no transports were 
available, he was transferred to France. He trained at Avord, Pau, 
and at Cazaux. He was sent from there to Gondrecourt, at the 
front, but as no machines were procurable, volunteered for observer 
in night bombing, and was sent back to Cazaux for further in- 
struction in aerial gunnery ; and from the latter place to Clermont- 
Ferrand Day Bombing School. From Clermont-Ferrand he went to 
Foggia, Italy, where he completed his training; thence to Modain, 
Italy, where he served with the Italian Air Forces, making day 
raids across the Adriatic Sea into Austria. He was sent to Chartres, 
France, and assigned to a French Bombardment Squadron and flew 
in day bombing. From this time on he followed the lines. Was three 
and one half months on day, and five months on night bombing. 

At Plessis-Belleville most dangerous low-altitude day bombing 
was carried on. On one bombing raid at this latter place Lieut. 
Knight was nearly killed, his machine being riddled with bullets, 
necessitating its being discarded after his return to the aerodrome. 
He received a citation for this expedition. He continued flying 
over the lines at Gourgancon, Vinet, Arcis-sur-Aube, and La Perthe. 
He started night bombing at this latter place on single-motor Voisin 
machine. He moved forward to Mairy-sur-Marne; stayed there on 
bombing until transferred to Caproni machine at Villeneuve in 
Champagne. From Champagne he went to Epiez, remaining 
two and one half months, and flew from there over the Vosges 
Mountains to the Rhine. He flew here with Capt. Paul de Lesseps, 
the son of the French engineer who built the Suez Canal. Then 
he went westward to Alsace-Lorraine and continued bombing oper- 
ations. He made, in all, 104 bombardments into enemy territory, 



[ 240 ] 



ARTHUR RAYMOND KNIGHT 

and was decorated by General Petain with the Croix de Guerre, 
with two citations. He was at Epiez when ordered, with three other 
lieutenants, to the United States to start a school of instruction in 
night bombing at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex. He sailed from 
Liverpool two days before the signing of the Armistice, and arrived 
in New York Nov. 16, 1918. He was instructor at Ellington Field 
for the two following months, and was honorably discharged July 
1, 1919. 

Brothers in Service — 

David C. Knight, Private, U.S. Infantry. 

Elliot P. Knight, Flying Quartermaster, Naval Aviation. 

WILLIAM B. O'BRIEN 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Cornelius and Anne (Early) O'Brien; was born in Walling- 
ford, Conn., Jan. 5, 1891. He was a graduate of Yale College, 
1911, and made records in swimming and wrestling. He enlisted 
Aug. 10, 1917, at New Haven, Conn., as Private, 1st Class, 
A.S.E.R.C., U.S.A. He attended the M.I.T. Ground School, grad- 
uating with the class of Oct. 6, 1917. 

Oct. 18, 1917, he sailed overseas, and trained at Issoudun, 
France, attached to the 5th Foreign Detachment. Later he was 
sent to the Ecole Militaire d'Aviation, at Chateauroux, Indre, for 
preliminary flying instruction. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. 
May 13, 1918; brevetted in Caudron, and made a member of the 
Federation Aeronautiques Internationale, May 21, 1918. He was 
assigned to the American School of Perfectionnement for complete 
training as Pursuit Pilot, and graduated July 31, 1918, when he was 
ordered to the 1st Aircraft Acceptance Park at Orly, Seine, for 
duty as Transfer Pilot, while awaiting assignment to a Pursuit 
Squadron. He performed this duty until Dec. 17, 1918, when he 
was ordered to the U.S. and honorably discharged at Garden City, 
N.Y., Jan. 10, 1919. 



[ 242 ] 



WILLIAM AUGUSTUS WELLMAN 



First Lieutenant, U.S.A.S.; Lafayette Flying Corps 
Foreign Legion; Escadrille N 87 

Son of Arthur G. and Celia Wellman; was born in Brookline, Mass., 
Feb. 29, 1896. He graduated from the Newton High School, where 
he proved himself an all-round athlete. At the time of enlist- 
ment he was in the wool business in Boston. He desired to enter 
the U.S. Aviation Service, but he was rejected, as the Service was 
full at that time. He therefore enlisted in the Norton-Harjes Am- 
bulance Corps, of New York, in April, 1917, and sailed for France 
on May 22. 

Soon after his arrival in France, he transferred from the Ambu- 
lance Corps, and enlisted in the Foreign Legion, June 27, 1917, 
becoming a member of the Lafayette Flying Corps. He trained at 
Avord, and received his pilot's license on Sept. 29, 1917, becoming a 
Corporal in the French Army, and refusing to accept a 2d Lieuten- 
ant's commission in the U.S.A. He was trained as a chasse pilot 
and as a bombing pilot; then went to Pau and Plessis-Belleville 
for training in acrobatics. Finishing his courses on Dec. 1, he was 
assigned to Escadrille N 87, in the Lorraine sector, near Nancy, 
at Luneville, where he reported on Dec. 3, and made his first flight 
over the German lines on the following day. 

On Jan. 19, 1918, Lieut. Wellman brought down his first Boche, 
in company with Thomas Hitchcock in another plane. The Ger- 
man Rumpeler, which had destroyed a French plane, was brought 
to the ground and the occupants killed. For this achievement both 
Hitchcock and Wellman received the Croix de Guerre. The latter's 
citation reads, translated, as follows: 

Corporal Wellman, William Augustus, ... of the Foreign Legion, 
pilot attached to Escadrille N 87. An American enlisted in the Foreign 
Legion, is distinguished as a remarkable chasse pilote by his enthusiasm 
and courage. On Jan. 19 he brought down an enemy aviator, who crashed 
to the ground near Bois Maut de la Croix. 

In the next two months Lieut. Wellman had three more official 
and three unofficial victories to his credit. He was made Marechal 
de Logis (Quartermaster, corresponding to Sergeant in rank). 
With Lieut. Hitchcock he went on special duty over the German 
lines to distribute President Wilson's Message to Congress. 

[ 243 ] 



WILLIAM AUGUSTUS WELLMAN 

On the second day of their flight they had a narrow escape, 
when flying only 100 yards above the Boches, who constantly 
shelled them. Lieut. Wellman's machine was destroyed, after he 
had succeeded in escaping just over the first-line French trenches. 

On March 9, the day the Rainbow Division made its first and 
successful attack on the enemy, Lieut. Wellman was detailed to fly 
over them with the French patrol — the only American airman at 
that time and place. He flew as leader of the lowest patrol, at a 
height of 1000 metres, with eight machines following him. He first 
destroyed a biplane Rumpeler, sending it to the ground in flames at 
4.20 p.m. and a few minutes later, at 4.45 p.m., brought down a one- 
man Albatross. For this achievement he received a second gold 
palm-leaf on his Croix de Guerre, and the following citation, which 
included recognition of two previous victories: 

The American pilot, Marechal de Logis Wellman, William Augustus, 
pursuit pilot, showing the finest qualities of bravery and enthusiasm for 
attack. On Jan. 20, having gone in pursuit of an enemy biplane, above 
Nancy, he chased him to his terrain for more than 25 kilometres within 
the lines, shooting the hangars at short range and killing the pilot. 

On Feb. 10 he shelled at low altitude an enemy aviation ground. 

On March 9 he brought down an enemy biplane de reglage in the region 

of P , and almost immediately after brought down an escorting enemy 

monoplane. 

On March 21 he was shot down by anti-aircraft guns, at the 
height of nearly three miles. His shelled machine went into a spin- 
ning nose dive that changed as by a miracle into a sweeping spiral, 
over the forest of Parroy. The machine struck the trees and splin- 
tered into fragments; he clung to the top of a big fir tree, and clam- 
bered down, badly injured but alive. On March 29 he was honor- 
ably discharged from the French Army, as unfit for further Aviation 
Service, and returned to America. 

After treatment and recuperation he enlisted in the U.S. Aviation 
Service, receiving a 1st Lieutenant's commission, on Sept. 16, 1918. 
He became Advisory Instructor of Combat Flying at Rockwell 
Field, San Diego, Cal. He has written a most readable and in- 
teresting book, "Go Get 'Em!" 

Brother in Service — 

Arthur Ogden Wellman, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 



[ 244 ] 



ARTHUR OGDEN WELLMAN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Arthur G. and Celia Wellman; was born in Brookline, Mass., 
Oct. 31, 1894. He was educated at the Newton High School, where 
he was a member of the football, baseball, and hockey teams 
throughout his course. 

Lieut. Wellman enlisted at Princeton, N.J., in Jan., 1918, and 
trained at the Ground School at Princeton, West Point, Miss., and 
at Dayton, 0. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., in Aug., 
1918; but did not, like his brother, see service on the other side, as 
the Armistice intervened. 

He was honorably discharged at West Point, Miss., on Jan. 1, 
1919. 

Brother in Service — 
William A. Wellman, 1st Lieut., Lafayette Flying Corps. 



f 246 ] 



EDWARD DAVID JUDD 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F.; Lafayette Flying Corps, Esca- 
drille Spad 3 (Les Cigognes); British Naval Day Bombing 
Squadron; Northern Bombing Group 

Son of Dr. David H. and Lillian M. (Hanna) Judd; was born in 
Boston, Mass., Aug. 31, 1894. He graduated from the Roxbury 
Latin School, 1912, and from Harvard College, A.B. 1916. On Jan. 
6, 1917, he enlisted in the American Ambulance Field Service, and 
was attached to S.S.U. 4 of that Service until June 28, 1917, work- 
ing in the Argonne and Champagne sectors. 

On July 6 Lieut. Judd joined the Foreign Legion of the French 
Army for Aviation Service, and became a member of the Lafayette 
Flying Corps. He was brevetted "Pilote Aviateur" on Oct. 1, 1917, 
at Avord, France. He went through the acrobatic school at Pau, and 
the finishing school at Plessis-Belleville, then joined Escadrille 
Spad 3, at Dunkirk, France, on Dec. 1, 1917. This escadrille moved 
to Soissons and later to Beauzee, just behind Verdun. 

While at Beauzee Lieut. Judd was released from the French 
Service to join U.S. Naval Aviation. He was commissioned Ensign 
on Jan. 19, 1918, and sent to the Naval Air Station at Dunkirk, to 
fly scout seaplanes on anti-submarine patrols in the North Sea, off 
the Belgian coast, at that time held by Germany. On May 28, 1918, 
he was transferred back to land flying on day bombing machines. 
After a month at the Army Day Bombing School at Clermont- 
Ferrand, he was sent to join English Squadron 218, at Calais, for 
training in actual day bombing, later to become a Flight Com- 
mander in a Naval Day Bombing Squadron. While with this Eng- 
lish Squadron Lieut. Judd made raids over Zeebrugge, Bruges, and 
Ostend. 

The day bombing work of the Navy having been taken over 
by the Marines, he was transferred to the staff of Capt. D. C. 
Hanrahan at Paris, Commander of the Northern Bombing Group. 
After a month there, on Sept. 6, 1918, Lieut. Judd was returned to 
the United States to instruct in day bombing. He arrived in Amer- 
ica on Sept. 1, 1918, and was sent to Miami, Fla., to instruct in the 
Marine Flying Field there. He remained in Miami until Feb. 28, 
1919, when he was put on inactive status of the U.S.N.R.F., as a 
Lieut, (j.g.), dating from Oct. 1, 1918. 



[ 248 ] 



CHARLES DABNEY HORTON 



Sergent-Pilote, Escadrille, Spa 75, G.C. 14 

Son of Charles Dabney and Charlotte L. (Ogston) Horton; was 
born in St. Louis, Mo., June 3, 1891. He was educated at St. John's 
School, Ossining, N.Y.; at Blair Academy, Blairstown, N.J.; and 
at Dartmouth College, A.B. 1915. He was noted for his swimming 
at Blair Academy, and at Dartmouth belonged to the Dartmouth 
Outing Club in 1914, took 1st Prize for the 100- Yard Ski Dash, and 
2d prize for the Cross-Country Ski Race. 

He enlisted in the French Army Aviation Service in Paris on 
Aug. 20, 1916. He was trained at the French flying schools at Buc, 
Juvisy, and Avord, and was made "Sergent-Pilote" on Sept. 14, 
1917. He was attached to Escadrille C 17, Sop. 255, Spa 69, and 
Spa 75. He took part in engagements in Flanders in 1917; at Fismes, 
Chemin des Dames, and St.-Quentin in 1918. As a recognition of his 
excellent work at St.-Quentin he was awarded the Croix de Guerre. 
He was discharged from the service of the French Army on Jan. 
20, 1919, in Paris, France. 

Married, Jan. 10, 1917, Miss Helen Wheelock Hubbard. 



[ 250 ] 



TALBOT OTIS FREEMAN 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA.. Quarta Squadrilla 
Undicessimo Gruppo, Zona di Guerra, Italia 
One Hundred Fortieth U.S. Aero Squadron 

Son of Daniel Allen and Lucy T. S. Freeman; was born in Long- 
wood, Mass., Nov. 9, 1890. He graduated from the Noble and 
Greenough School, and from Harvard College, S.B. 1914; member 
of the Institute of 1770, D.K.E., Hasty Pudding, and "Fox" Clubs 
(Digamma). He made the Harvard- Yale freshman record, 120 
yards, high hurdles, and belonged to the 'Varsity track team from 
1911 to 1914. For a year he trained with Battery A, M.V.M. 

He enlisted in the Air Service in Boston on June 20, 1917^ and 
was assigned to the M.I.T. Ground School from June 20 to Aug. 
25. On Sept. 11, 1917, he joined the 4th Squadron of the "First 
Foreign Detachment" at Fort Wood, Bedloes Island, N.Y. He 
sailed overseas on Sept. 25, 1917, arriving in Paris on Oct. 16. He 
was then ordered to the 8th Aviation Instruction Centre at Foggia, 
Italy, where he was trained from Oct. 28. He passed his first 
"brevet" on Jan. 13, 1918; his second "brevet" and R.M.A. tests 
on Feb. 14; and was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S.A., U.S.A., on 
March 2, 1918. On May 28 he qualified as night and day Ca- 
proni bombing pilot. Lieut. Freeman finished his final training at 
Campo Scuola Cascina Malpensa, Galleratte, Milano, on July 1, 
1918. He was subsequently ordered to Verona, where he joined the 
4th Squadron, 11th Group, on July 16. He remained on active duty 
on the Italian front until late in Aug., taking part in the raids over 
Pola, the Austrian naval base. During this time he was piloting 
the Caproni planes, and was recommended for the Italian Croce di 
Guerra on Aug. 20. On Aug. 25 he was detached from the Italian 
Squadron, and assigned to the Chief of the Air Service at Tours, 
France, from Aug. 28 to Oct. 1. On Oct. 7 he was ordered to 
Handley-Page Night-Bombing Aerodrome in England, where he 
qualified as B.E.-2E. Pilot on Oct. 10 and as Liberty D.H. 4 
Pilot on Nov. 5. On Dec. 1, 1918, he sailed for New York. He was 
honorably discharged at Camp Mills, Garden City, N.Y., on Dec. 
30, 1918. 

Brother in Service — 

Daniel Allen Freeman, Jr., 2 years Lieut, (j.g.), in U.S. Navy. 

[ 252 ] 



BRTGGS KILBURN ADAMS 



Second Lieutenant, Eighteenth Aero Squadron 
Bombing Group, R.F.C. 
Killed in action, March 14, 1918 
Son of Major Washington Irving Lincoln and Grace (Wilson) 
Adams; was born in Montclair, N.J., May 6, 1893. He was educated 
in the Montclair public schools, and at Harvard College, class of 
1917. He was leader of the 'Varsity Musical Clubs at Harvard, and 
a member of D.K.E. 

He drove a motor ambulance in France during the summer of 
1916, and before returning to America to complete his college 
course he enrolled for service the following year in the Lafayette 
Escadrille. 

In May, 1917, he volunteered for active war service in the Royal 
Flying Corps, and had his preliminary training at Camp Borden, 
Can., and Fort Worth, Tex. In Nov., 1917, he received his commis- 
sion as 2d Lieut., R.F.C, and sailed for England in Dec. He gradu- 
ated first, in a class of twenty, with an average of 94, the highest 
grade which had been achieved up to that time. After completing 
his training at various camps in England and Scotland, he vol- 
unteered for active service in France before he was required to 
"go out," and crossed the Channel with a single companion in 
Feb., 1918. 

He was assigned to the Bombing Group of the 18th Squadron, 
R.F.C, at Aire, France, and at once began his flying on the battle 
front. He chose the bombing group, because, as he wrote, in de- 
stroying the enemy's munitions, fortifications, and equipment, he 
was "making war on war." To quote from a letter to his mother: 

I feel no bitterness against the Huns as individuals. It is war that I hate, 
and war that I am willing to give all to end as permanently as possible; 
for it is n't the men that war kills, it is the mother's heart which it de- 
stroys, that makes it hateful to me. 

In another letter he wrote: 

Even if I don't come back, it is all right, Mother, for you know we can't 
hope to gain such wonderful ends without paying big prices, and it is not 
right to shirk payment. 

On March 4, 1918, while in active service on the western front, 
he fell and was buried with military honors in the military cemetery 

[ 254 ] 



BRIGGS KILBURN ADAMS 



near St.-Omer, France. "Death is the greatest event in life," he 
wrote in one of his eloquent letters to his mother, " and it is seldom 
that anything is made of it. What a privilege, then, to be able to 
meet it in a manner suitable to its greatness." 

A few of his letters were first printed in the "Harvard Alumni 
Bulletin"; subsequently a larger collection appeared in the "Atlan- 
tic Monthly" for Oct., 1918. They caused a widespread expression 
of deep interest, and thoughtful readers assigned to them a high 
place in the spiritual literature of the war. Of them Professor 
Francis G. Peabody of Harvard says: 

They are not only gallant and beautiful in their feeling, but singularly 
elevated in their style, as though his new experience had lifted him into new 
levels of expression and given to his language something of the clearness 
and freshness of the upper air. 

And Arthur Stanwood Pier, who collected the letters in a volume 
called "The American Spirit," wrote to Major Adams: 

He never wrote anything for me which could compare with these letters, 
and nothing else that has been written about the war that I have read, can 
compare with them. They are the most beautiful bits of writing that have 
come out of the war — beautiful in style, color, and motion. ... No one 
else has taken me up in the air, and shown me what it must be to fly; no 
one else has presented so vivid a figure of War as it should be portrayed. 

In a letter to his mother, he wrote: 

I go about, as it were, hands with palms out, all about my heart, holding 
things outside of it. I am conscious of things I don't like, discomforts, 
sometimes ... but I won't let them get into the inside where they hurt. 
If I can change them, I can do it just as well keeping them outside, and if 
I can't change them — well, what does it matter? — they are outside. 

Lieut. Adams, through his father, Major Adams, was a lineal de- 
scendant of Henry Adams, of Braintree, Mass., the common ances- 
tor of Samuel Adams, the Patriot, and John Adams, the second 
President. On his mother's side, Lieut. Adams was descended from 
the Wilson family of Virginia, of which one member was killed in 
action at Monmouth in the Revolutionary War, and another fell in 
the War of 1812. His father, Major Adams, was in active service 
with the Q.M.C. for over a year. Lieut. Adams also had a brother 
in the Service, Wilson I. Adams, 2d Lieut., F.A., in active service 
about five months. 



[ 256 ] 



WALTER ROGER AVERY 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Forty-Eighth 
U.S. Aero Squadron 
Attached to the Thirteenth Wing, Royal Air Force 

Son of Nicholas F. and Mary Henderson (Taylor) Avery; was born 
at Charlestown, Mass., Feb. 6, 1894. He attended the public 
schools in Boston and Pepperell, Mass., and graduated from Tufts 
College in 1914. 

He entered the employ of Sloane, Huddle, Feustel & Freeman, 
consulting engineers, and was carrying on his work in Chicago at 
the time of his enlistment, May 13, 1917. 

He attended the first Officers' Training Camp at Fort Sheridan, 
111. (Co. I, 111. Engineers). He was one of eight men to be chosen 
for the Air Service, and was transferred to the Aviation Section 
June 18, 1917; he graduated from the School of Military Aeronau- 
tics, Champaign, 111., Aug. 1, 1917, and went overseas Aug. 18, 1917, 
with the first detachment of aviators to go across. He trained in 
England at Oxford University Ground School, receiving flying 
training at Stamford, Joyce Green, London Colney, Hounslow, and 
Marke; during this time he was injured in a "crash," in which his 
companion was killed, and spent three months in English hospitals. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut. May 29, 1917, and was assigned 
to the 148th U.S. Aero Squadron (Pursuit), attached to the 13th 
Wing, R.A.F., Sept. 6, 1918. In the following weeks he took active 
part in patrols, bombing, and observation expeditions, and partici- 
pated in a fight in which between 80 and 90 machines were engaged; 
although outnumbered about two to one, his group suffered no casu- 
alties and brought down enough enemy machines to win a congrat- 
ulatory letter from the General in command. 

He was cited for extraordinary heroism in action on July 25, 
1918, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. 

On Oct. 1, while flying at a low altitude, some distance over the 
lines, his engine was put out of action by an enemy machine gun 
and he was forced to land a few kilometres southeast of Cambrai, 
behind the German lines, where he was captured. He was confined 
in the prison camps at Caudry, Solesmes, and Le Quesnoi, until Oct. 
10, when he entrained for Germany; some hours later he escaped 
from his guards and jumped from the train, moving at the rate of 



[ 257 ] 



WALTER ROGER AVERY 



25 miles an hour, near Valenciennes; for the next two days he trav- 
elled by compass without food or water, hiding in ditches during the 
daylight and crawling through the middle of a German transport 
camp. Forced to take shelter in a shell-hole by the Allied bombard- 
ment, he was recaptured by the enemy, and while being marched 
through the streets narrowly escaped death from bombs dropped 
by his own Squadron. 

He was imprisoned from Oct. 18 to 31 at Siognies, under the 
poorest conditions, suffering from insults, hunger, and filthy sur- 
roundings; on Nov. 2 he was transferred to Maransart, where, on 
Nov. 6, he escaped with a British officer, by a rope suspended from 
a barn, between guards stationed outside. 

Aided by friendly Belgians he remained in hiding during the fol- 
lowing week, travelling back by degrees to Siognies, where he was 
located on Nov. 11, and witnessed the evacuation of the town the 
next day by the enemy. On Nov. 14 Lieut. Avery was returned by 
airplane to his Squadron at Toul, which had given him up for lost. 
He was for some time confined in the hospital as a result of his 
ill-treatment by the Germans. 

He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Feb. 5, 
1919. 



[ 258 ] 



ROYAL WINTER WETHERALD 

Exxsign, U.S.N.R.F., U.S.N., A.S. 
Son of James I. and Eliza (Phelps) Wetherald, of Boston, Mass.; 
was born in Newton, Mass., Dec. 29, 1893. He was educated at the 
Noble and Greenough School, Boston; St. Andrew's School, Con- 
cord, Mass.; and Mass. Institute of Technology. He played on the 
football and track teams. Previous to enlistment he completed the 
prescribed Infantry and Cavalry Course of the U.S. Military Train- 
ing Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., on May 30, 1916. 

He entered the Curtiss School of Flying at Newport News, Va., 
on March 5, 1917. He received a certificate as pilot after 600 min- 
utes' instruction in Curtiss F Boat type and land tractor J.N. 4. 
He enlisted in Naval Air Service on April 19, 1917. On Nov. 5 he 
passed the Naval Aviator's tests and examinations at Naval Base, 
Hampton Roads, Va.; and on Dec. 19, 1917, was commissioned 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

After receiving his commission Ensign Wetherald was detailed 
to instruct students in flying, until ordered to Fort Worth, Tex., to 
take a course of instruction at the Aerial Gunnery School of the 
Royal Flying Corps. After graduating from this school he returned 
to Washington and received foreign orders; but before sailing was 
ordered back to Hampton Roads as Ordnance Officer and Instruc- 
tor in Charge of the Officers' School of Gunnery. He organized the 
Ordnance Department at that station and fitted with ordnance 
the first seaplanes that were ever used in active patrol work off the 
Virginia Capes. During this time he instructed many of the officers 
in flying and aerial gunnery who were afterwards sent abroad. 

During the German submarine activities off the U.S. coast, while 
still acting as Ordnance Officer, Lieut. Wetherald patrolled the 
coast of Virginia. On Nov. 18, 1918, he was honorably discharged, 
at Hampton Roads, Va. 

Married, May 11, 1918, Rosemonde Wyman. 



[260 ] 



* ARNOLD WHITTIER HILL 



Lieutenant, Royal Air Force 
Killed in airplane accident, July 13, 1918 
Son of Arthur W. and Josephine B. Hill; was born in Maiden, 
Mass., June 6, 1897. He was educated at the Maiden Grammar and 
High Schools, 1915. From earliest boyhood Lieut. Hill showed the 
keenest interest in flying and in flying machines. While in high 
school he won a silver cup for special flying at a meet of the Wal- 
tham Model Aeroplane Club. He made a double somersault and 
spiralled to the ground, a feat unusual for an amateur ' . those days. 

On Jan. 1, 1918, Lieut. Hill volunteered in the Ro;>l Air Force 
at Toronto, Can. He trained at Camp Mohawk, Can., and had 
technical training at the University of Toronto. He learned to fly 
at Fort Worth, Tex., and was recommended for Instructor in the 
School of Special Flying at Toronto. He was commissioned Lieut, 
in June, 1918. 

On July 13, 1918, Lieut. Hill was killed in an accident while fly- 
ing at Armour Heights, Toronto, Can. He was buried at Mt. 
Auburn, Mass. 

A letter from the Chaplain to Lieut. Hill's family said in part: 

In speaking with Captain Leach, the Commanding Officer of the School 
of Special Flying, he said it was a pure accident which caused the death of 
Lieutenant A. W. Hill; he was a promising flyer, a good officer, and per- 
sonally a very fine fellow. His death cast a deep gloom over the airdrome. 
Speaking personally, I know he was very popular among his fellow officers 
and all who knew him in the airdrome. There is no doubt that he took his 
duties very seriously and showed wonderful ability. There is every evi- 
dence that he was a fine, clean-living, manly fellow, who commanded the 
respect and confidence of all who knew him. He will net be forgotten. Be 
assured that his passing was due to no mistake or neglect on his own part 
or the part of any one, but just one of those unaccountable accidents that 
have taken from us so many of our fine, heroic boys. 



[ 262 ] 



GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD 



Captain, Squadron 254, Royal Air Force, England 

Son of Charles Eustis and Caroline Dennie (Tracy) Hubbard; was 
born in Boston, April 19, 1878. He fitted for college at the Browne 
and Nichols and the Noble and Greenough Schools, and graduated 
from Harvard College in 1900. He was prominent in athletics 
(running, jumping, hurdling, pole-vaulting, and golf), playing on 
the 'Varsity, team in his senior year. After graduation he made a 
trip round the world, and then spent over three years in Paris, at 
the Beaux-Arts, studying architecture. On his return he went into 
an office in New York. Some years later he visited Prof. Bell at 
Cape Breton, who was at that time experimenting on flying ma- 
chines, and Hubbard became interested in the subject. This resulted 
in his spending the winter there and designing and building an aero- 
plane in the Baddeck shop. He then went to Pau and took lessons 
in aviation and received his certificate. Later he built another ma- 
chine at Ipswich, Mass., and did some flying in New York State. 
He was a member of Squadron A, N.Y. State Cavalry, when the 
war broke out. 

In Nov., 1914, he went to Belgium, with Francis Colby and ten 
other young men to form an ambulance corps, attached to the Bel- 
gian Cavalry. He remained there until the summer of 1915, when 
the ambulance corps disbanded. Hubbard was urged to join the 
Lafayette Escadrille, but decided to go to England and enter the 
Royal Flying Corps. He received his commission in the fall, and 
went to the front on active duty and remained there until spring. 

He was then sent back to England to serve as an instructor. 
Later he was detailed at Coventry, to fly new aeroplanes to Farn- 
borough, Aviation Headquarters. From there he went to Norwich 
to test out new machines. He then went to the Military School at 
Christ Church, Oxford, as Instructor in the Mechanism of Aero- 
planes. He remained there for about a year, receiving his Cap- 
taincy there. He then went to assist in establishing an aerodrome at 
Denham, near London, where he was brevetted Major. In the sum- 
mer of 1918 he was sent to Prawle's Point, South Devon, to estab- 
lish a Coast Patrol. 

Father in Service: Charles Eustis Hubbard, Company A, 45th 
Mass. Volunteers Civil War. 



[ 264 ] 



MELVIN STORY DICKINSON 



Second Lieutenant, Royal Air Force 

Son of David Taggart and Carrie N. (Story) Dickinson; was born 
at Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 11, 1895. He was educated at the Cam- 
bridge Latin School, and at Harvard College, class of 1918. At 
college he won his numerals in his freshman year in the high jump. 

He went to Toronto, Can., in Sept., 1917, to join the Royal Air 
Force; attended training camps at Long Branch, Camp Borden, 
and the School of Aeronautics at Burwash. In Jan., 1918, his train- 
ing in flying began at Fort Worth, Tex., Camp Taliaferro, and Ben- 
brook. In March, 1918, he sailed overseas with the Royal Air Force, 
and finished his training at Scampton Aerodrome, Lincoln, and 
Shrewsbury. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, in July, 1918. At 
Scampton he was recommended for a Bristol fighter. On account of 
his excess height (he is 6 feet, 7 inches tall), he was sent to Shrews- 
bury for Bristol bombing-machine training. He was then assigned 
as pilot in a battleplane, and was preparing to go overseas when 
his knee was badly injured in an airplane crash, while he was a 
passenger. He became instructor at Shrewsbury and Thelford. In 
Dec, 1918, he began a course in wireless telephony at the R.A.F. 
Winter Aerodrome. Bournemouth. Later he was to have been officer 
in charge of this school; but he was incapacitated on account of his 
injured knee, and was honorably discharged by the Medical Board, 
as permanently unfit for further air service with the R.A.F. 



[ 266 ] 



*VICTOR RALEIGH CRAIGIE 



Second Lieutenant, Royal Air Force 
Killed in accident, April 7, 1918 
Son of Capt. Horace Walpole Craigie (of the British Army), of 
London; was born in New Brunswick, Can., May 22, 1892. At an 
early age he was adopted by Mr. and Mrs. James Brown and sub- 
sequently made his home in Boston. He received his education at 
the Mt. Hermon Preparatory School, the Boston Y.M.C.A., and 
the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. 

At the time of the outbreak of the war in Europe, Craigie, then 
in business with the Berkshire Life Insurance Co., desired to enlist, 
and made several applications in Canada, but failed to obtain his 
mother's consent. He was a member of Troop A, 1st Squadron of 
Cavalry, M.V.M., and trained one year at the M.V.M. Training 
School. 

When the U.S. entered the war he made application to attend 
the 1st Plattsburg Camp, but was not eligible because of failure to 
receive his final papers for Americanization. He then enlisted in the 
Royal Flying Corps, in Canada, where he began his training in 
June, 1917, at Toronto University, Camp Mohawk, and at Camp 
Borden; he continued training at Taliaferro Field, Tex., where he 
proved himself the best shot with machine gun in the division. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut, in Toronto, in Nov., 1917, and sailed 
overseas Dec. 14, 1917, continuing his training in Stockbridge and 
Langmere near Chichester, Eng. There he had about completed his 
course and was eagerly awaiting orders to be sent to France, when 
he was killed in a collision on April 7, 1918. 

Before going overseas, Lieut. Craigie wrote to his mother: 

I thank God that I have been accepted to take part in this damnable 
slaughter for the freedom of future generations and the race. Had I held 
back I should feel myself a traitor to the whole civilized world. 

Later he wrote: 

Certainly I forgive you for not allowing me to get into the fray sooner, 
although it has grieved me much not to have been one of the first to put 
the harness on in the great cause for freedom and right. However, may 
God permit me to reach the German lines. 

He was buried with full military honors at St. Andrew's Church, 
Oving, Sussex, Eng. 

[ 268 ] 



* HENRY BRADLEY FROST 

First Lieutenant, Seventeenth Aero Squadron 
Killed in action, Aug. 26, 1918 
Son of Frank Clifton and Mattie (Bradley) Frost; was born at 
Arlington, Mass., Aug. 8, 1892. He prepared for college at the 
Arlington High School, graduated from Dartmouth in 1914, and 
from the Thayer School of Civil Engineering in 1915. While in 
college he played on the Dartmouth hockey team. 

In July, 1916, he joined the National Guard, in Iowa, and the 
following year enlisted in the Aviation Service. He attended the 
Ground School, M.I.T., during the summer of 1917, and was sent 
overseas to continue his training in England, at Oxford, Grantham, 
Lincoln, Tadcaster, and Turnberry; also at Ayr, Scotland. 

This course extended from Sept., 1917, to March, 1918, and on 
April 2, 1918, he was ordered to France where he was attached to 
the 17th Aero Squadron, and sent to the front. He was on active 
duty until Aug. 3, when he had two weeks' furlough which he spent 
in England. On returning to France he was made Flight Com- 
mander and was leading his patrol in a battle with enemy planes on 
Aug. 26, when he was seen to fall behind the German lines, near 
Bapaume. He was at first reported missing, and later his family 
were informed that he was alive and a prisoner in Germany. It was 
not until more than six months after he was reported missing that 
the War Department announced that Lieut. Frost had died on the 
day he was shot down, at the main dressing-station at Boursiers, 
France. He was buried in the military cemetery on the Cambrai- 
Bapaume road at Boursiers. 



[ 270 ] 



*JAMES GRANTLEY HALL 

First Lieutenant, Sixtieth Squadron, Royal Air Force 
Reported killed in action, Aug. 8, 1918 
Son of Charles Edwin and Edith J. Hall, of Maiden, Mass.; was 
born in West Dennis, Mass., Jan. 8, 1896. He was educated in the 
Medford and Maiden High Schools, and at Burdett Business Col- 
lege. He left college to enlist. He won several medals and ribbons for 
running-races. In Jan., 1913, he was awarded a silver medal by the 
Humane Society for bravery in trying to save the life of a chum in 
a skating accident. 

He enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps, at Boston, in July, 1917, 
after having been several times refused by the U.S. because he 
lacked half an inch of the required height. He went to Toronto and 
trained at different camps in Canada and later in Texas. He was 
commissioned 2d Lieut. Nov., 1917, in Toronto, and sailed overseas 
on Dec. 22, 1917. He landed in England and was sent to the front, 
in France. He was in active service, flying a scout plane, and had 
three Hun planes to his official credit. He was commissioned 1st 
Lieut., in May, 1918. He was doing admirable work, when he was 
shot down in combat on the Picardy front and reported killed, on 
Aug. 8, 1918; though the report has not been officially confirmed 
by the Air Ministry. 

Lieut. Hall's Major wrote his parents that he was a most prom- 
ising officer and had done wonderful work in his Squadron. From 
his letters it is assumed that he was on the Picardy front, and it was 
on the day before the British began their smash there that he en- 
gaged the Germans, and failed to return. The battle was at several 
thousand feet, and as long as Lieut. Hall was in sight he appeared 
to be under control and heading for the British advanced lines. 
Unless shot down by anti-aircraft gun-fire it seemed that he might 
land safely. 

He is said to be buried one and a half kilometres south of Mari- 
court, France. 



[ 272 ] 



SIDNEY SPALDING BATCHELDER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S A., Sixty-Fourth Squadron, RA.F. 
Twenty-Fifth Aero Squadron, Fifth Pursuit Group 

Son of Dr. Henry Flanders and Caroline E. (Taft) Batchelder, of 
Dedham, Mass.; was born in Danvers, Mass., Nov. 10, 1895. He 
attended the Dedham High School, and graduated from the Mass. 
Institute of Technology in 1917. 

He enlisted at Plattsburg, N.Y., on May 12, 1917, and was one of 
the first ten to be sent from the Plattsburg Training Camp to 
the Ground School at M.I.T. on June 18. There he was one of three 
chosen for a ground course at Oxford University, England, and 
sailed overseas on Aug. 18, 1917. He remained at Oxford from 
Sept. 4 to Oct. 22, 1917, and was attached to the Royal Flying 
Corps in Sept. He was then transferred to Stamford, Eng., to 
Harling Road and Marske-by-the-Sea for training as a scout pilot. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in the Signal Reserve Corps, on 
May 13, 1918, and was attached to the 64th Squadron, Royal Air 
Force, serving in France from July to Sept., 1918. He was with- 
drawn to the American Air Service in Sept., and assigned to the 
25th Aero Squadron for patrol duty on the Rhine through Nov. and 
Dec, 1918. 

Lieut. Batchelder was honorably discharged from the service at 
Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 4, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Hollis G. Batchelder, Lieut., Medical Corps., on duty with 
A.E.F., 76th Division, 301st Field Hospital; Surgeon-in- 
Chief, Camp Hospital 26. 



[ 274 ] 



* THOMAS CUSHMAN NATHAN 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 
Attached to Royal Air Service 
Killed in airplane accident, March 20, 1918 

Son of Frank N". and Elizabeth (Kimball) Nathan, of Newton 
Centre, Mass.; was born at Dorchester, Mass., Jan. 21, 1897. He 
graduated from Newton High School, class of 1915; attended 
Dartmouth College one year; then transferred to M.I.T., class of 
1920, leaving there to enlist at the end of his freshman year. He 
played four years on the Newton High School football team; was 
captain of the freshman football team at M.I.T. For three years he 
was on the school track team, winning many cups and medals. 

On March 17, 1917, he enlisted, at the age of 20, in the U.S. Avi- 
ation Service. He trained at Miami, Fla., and at the Ground School, 
Berkeley, Cal. In Aug. he was made Commander of his Squadron, 
and a few weeks later was put in charge of the eight highest honor 
men, picked to finish their training in England. These were among 
the first 50 aviators ready for service abroad. He went to Oxford, 
Eng., on Aug. 12, 1917; and having trained there was sent to Stam- 
ford, Eng., for scout-patrol work on the coast. Later he was sent 
to the Flying School at Ayr, Scotland, to test planes. On March 3, 
1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., and was ordered across the 
Channel. Lieut. Nathan was to have sailed for France on March 22, 
but two days before that date he was killed at Ayr, Scotland, while 
testing a Spad plane, a wing of which collapsed, so that it fell. 
He was given a funeral with full military honors, both British and 
American. 

A letter to his father from the English Lieutenant in command 
of the School at Ayr says : 

Your son's death was a very severe loss to all those who knew him in 
England. He was not only extremely popular and well liked, but an excel- 
lent soldier, and I have heard from many sources that he was considered 
the best American pilot that had ever been to the Flying School at Ayr. 



[ 276 ] 



GEORGE E. SPRAGUE 



C.Q.M. (A.), U.S.N., Two Hundred Seventeenth Squadron 
Royal Air Force 
Seventh Squadron, Northern Bombing Group, U.S.N. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Sprague, of Saugus, Mass.; was 
born in Boston, Mass., on Nov. 16, 1896. He was educated at 
the Saugus High School, where he played football and basket-ball 
for four years, and at Boston University. 

He enlisted in Naval Aviation early in April, 1917, in Boston, 
and after a few weeks' training at the Ground School in Pensacola, 
Fla., sailed for France on May 25, 1917, as a member of the 
First Aeronautical Detachment, U.S.N. , which was the first official 
unit of U.S. forces to land in France, disembarking at St.-Nazaire, 
June 7, 1917. 

Sprague was designated as an observer and assigned to the 
Centre d' Aviation Maritime, at St.-Raphael, on the Mediterranean 
coast. Here he took the French seaplane observers' course. He was 
then ordered to the Aerial Gunnery School at Cazaux, where he re- 
ceived his brevet as a military observer. For a number of months 
he acted as a Gunnery Instructor in the U.S. Naval School of Aerial 
Gunnery at Montchic-Lacanau, Gironde. After an additional 
course at the U.S. Army School of Bombing at Clermont-Ferrand, 
Puy-de-Dome, he went to the front with the first squadron of day- 
light bombers which the Navy had on land work. He had several 
months of active service over the lines with Squadron 217 of the 
Royal Air Force, with Squadron 7 of the First Marine Corps Avia- 
tion Force, and with the Northern Bombing Group, U.S.N. Soon 
after the Armistice was signed, he was sent to England for training 
as a pilot. He was ordered home in Dec, 1918, after having com- 
pleted eighteen months of foreign service. He was honorably dis- 
charged from the service at the U.S. Naval Station, Pelham, N.Y., 
on March 15, 1919. 



[ 278 ] 



JOHN LAVALLE, Jr. 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Attached to Thirty-Third Wing, R.A.F. 

Son of John and Alice C. (Johnson) Lavalle, of Boston, Mass.; was 
born in Nahant, Mass., on June 24, 1896. He was educated at the 
Noble and Greenough School, at St. Paul's School, and at Harvard 
College. He belonged to the Harvard R.O.T.C. from April to June, 
1916; attended the Officers' Training Camp in Plattsburg in July, 
1916; and had intensive training with the Harvard R.O.T.C. from 
April to July, 1917. He passed the examination for the Aviation 
Service in April, 1917, but because his record was lost in Washing- 
ton for three months, did not formally enlist until July 2, 1917, in 
Cambridge. He was assigned to the Ground School at M.I.T., 
where he remained from July 2 to Sept. 1, 1917. 

He left the U.S. on Sept. 18, 1917, with the "Italian Detach- 
ment," which never reached Italy, but was sent to Oxford and 
Grantham, Eng., and then split into several groups for flying instruc- 
tion. He trained at the Ground School, Oxford, from Oct. 5 to Nov. 
2, and at the School of Machine Gunnery, Harrowby Camp, Gran- 
tham, from Nov. 3 to Dec. 3. He was then transferred to Rockford, 
where he stayed till Jan. 27, 1918, when he was ordered to South- 
end, and later to Amesbury, Jan. 28 to April 1. He was in the hos- 
pital in London from April 1 to Aug. 8, leaving to return to Ames- 
bury. Lieut. Lavalle was attached to the 33d Wing, R.A.F., and 
was sent to 58 T.S., Cramwell, Eng., where he expected to join a 
night-bombing Handley-Page Squadron, which, however, was dis- 
organized. On his return to Amesbury, he was made Instructor. 
He was posted to No. 1 School of Fighting and Aerial Gunnery, 
Turnberry, Scotland, on the day of the Armistice; returned to Liver- 
pool, and sailed for the U.S., arriving in New York on Dec. 4,1918. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on March 20, 1918, and honor- 
ably discharged from the Service at Camp Mills, Mineola, N.Y., on 
Dec. 26, 1918. 

Married: Oct. 3, 1919, Ellen Tufts. 



[ 280 ] 



* ELLIOT ADAMS CHAPIN 



First Lieutenant, Royal Air Force, Ninety-Ninth 
Squadron, B Flight 
Killed in action, June 27, 1918 

Son of Cyrus S. and Alice (Bigelow) Chapin, of Newton Centre, 
Mass.; was born May 10, 1895, at Somerville, Mass. He was edu- 
cated at the Newton High School, class of 1913; and at Phillips 
Andover Academy, graduating with the class of 1914. He entered 
Harvard College in the class of 1918. In his freshman year he played 
on the Gore Hall football team, and in 1915 captained the Gore 
Hall baseball team. 

At the close of his junior year, in April, 1917, he enlisted in the 
U.S.N.R.F. Coast Patrol, after having been refused by the U.S. 
Aviation Service, because of a minor defect in one eye. Being eager 
to serve in Aviation, however, he applied for and obtained an 
honorable discharge from the U.S.N.R.F., effective upon his enlist- 
ing in the British Royal Flying Corps, which he did on Aug. 26, 
1917. He reported at Toronto, Can., on Sept. 6, and received ground 
and flying training at Deseronto and Long Branch; he continued 
his training at Camp Hicks, Fort Worth, Tex., where, in Dec, 1917, 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut. On Dec. 31, 1917, he sailed from 
Halifax on the Tunisan, as part of the convoy with the ill-fated 
Tuscania when she was torpedoed off the Irish coast. Lieut. Chapin 
volunteered, when the Captain called for "extra submarine watch," 
and afterward wrote his family that "it was the most exciting three 
hours he had ever spent." 

After further intensive training at Old Sarum, Salisbury, Eng., 
he was commissioned 1st Lieut, in April, 1918, only seven months 
after beginning training. Early in May, 1918, he was ordered to 
France, and with his observer flew his plane, a large de Haviland 
bomber, over the Channel and across France to the aerodrome of the 
99th Squadron, R.A.F., 6 miles south of Nancy. His Squadron was 
a bombing squadron, whose duties were to harass the enemy lines 
of communication, railways, ammunition dumps, and aerodromes. 

On June 27, 1918, Lieut. Chapin was sent with others to bomb 
the railway at Thionville, north of Metz. After successfully drop- 
ping their bombs, the formation was attacked by a large number 
of Fokker scouts. In a desperate fight a shot passed through the 

[ 282 ] 



ELLIOT ADAMS CHAPIN 



petrol tank of Lieut. Chapin's plane, causing an explosion which 
sent the machine down in flames from 1300 feet. Lieut. Chapin fell 
at Thionville, 25 miles within the enemy lines, and was killed. As 
the machine went down he was seen to turn to his observer and 
shake hands with him. His grave is as yet unidentified. 

In a letter informing Lieut. Chapin's family of his death, Major 
Pattison, Commanding Squadron 99, R.A.R, writes: 

Your son is a great loss to this Squadron, as he was one of our best 
pilots, and also most popular amongst the other officers. He had been in a 
number of successful duties over the lines, and was a fine, stout-hearted 
officer. 

One of his brother officers also writes : 

His loss is very keenly felt amongst us all, as he was one of the best. He 
always had a smile, and a kind word for every one. 

And later, this officer wrote: 

There have been many tales of bravery, but I think it must be nice for 
you to know that your son died a hero's death, and faced it without fear. 
He was a son for any parent to be proud of, and we all loved him. In fact 
he was the finest type of Christian manhood that could possibly be found. 

Lieut. Chapin's maternal grandfather, George E. Bigelow, was 
killed in the Civil War at the battle of Fredericksburg. His great- 
grandfather, Capt. John Bigelow, fought in the Revolutionary War, 
and was delegate to the Convention to ratify the Constitution. 



[ 284 ] 



*WILLARD FREDERICK SWAN 



Sergeant, One Hundred Eighty-Second Aero Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, Feb. 6, 1918 

Son of Frederick A. and Emma Ida (McDaniels) Swan; was born at 
Saugus, Mass., July 6, 1898. He was educated in the public schools 
of Saugus, at the Hawley School of Electrical Engineering, and 
Boston Y.M.C.A. (Automobile Course). He worked for a year as 
apprentice with the Burgess Aeroplane Company, of Marblehead, 
Mass., while it was under Government control; and was advanced 
to the position of foreman of the Flying Squad in July, 1917. He 
left this company to enter the U.S. Aviation Branch of the Army 
on Oct. 29, 1917. He trained at the Kelly Field, Everman Field, and 
Hicks Field, Tex., receiving high marks; and was recommended 
by his Captain, on Jan. 3, 1918, for a commission. 
In a letter of Jan. 29, 1918 he said: 

I had a wonderful flight yesterday with a boy from Boston. We were up 
for an hour and ten minutes. Believe me, at 6000 feet I got a good look at 
Texas. 

Jan. 28: 

Our Captain's plane collapsed 3000 feet up to-day. It happened before 
my very eyes and I shall never forget it. It was the worst thing that could 
have happened to the Squadron, because Captain Payne was a worker and 
was pushing this Squadron ahead very fast. 

The death of his beloved Captain greatly affected him. On Feb. 4 
he wrote: 

Was in the air to-day two hours and ten minutes, and during that time 
we did about everything that was ever done in a flying machine. I had 
the controls 45 minutes. 

Feb. 7: 

I had two beautiful flights to-day with Lieut. Marquand. This morning 
we did not go very far, but this afternoon went to Dallas, about 44 miles 
from here. To-morrow I expect to make a trip to Denton, about the same 
distance, only in the opposite direction. 

He never made that trip; for on Feb. 8 he was instantly killed 
in an airplane crash, at Hicks Field. His Lieut., Joseph Lersch, 
with whom he was making the flight, was nearly killed by the same 
fall. 



[ 285 ] 



WILLARD FREDERICK SWAN 



Lieut. Lersch wrote of the accident a year later: 

I wish I could tell you in detail the happenings of that February morn- 
ing. What I remember is that we started up about 9.45. In my recollections 
of Willard, I think of him as always making the most careful examination 
of the plane before a flight. His cautiousness was an outstanding charac- 
teristic as a "mechanic," and while, as I say, happenings just preceding 
are not clear, I can picture him, as was his habit, making the usual tests 
before going up. I know that while aloft we discovered some engine trouble 
and landed; after attempting to remedy it we went up again. I should say 
we had been flying about ten minutes when the crash came. I can remem- 
ber falling; I think, too, I realized striking the ground, but there was no 
pain. ... It seems certain that Willard must also have escaped conscious 
suffering. The cause of the crash was, in my opinion, a "frozen control.' 
Willard was my 52d student. It seems a hopeless thing to try and convey 
sympathy for his family in writing. I know that resignation to the sacrifice 
of such a boy — one so full of promise and who had the admiration and 
affection of every last man in the Squadron — is a heroic thing. . . . 

Sergeant Swan is buried at Camden, Me. 

Willard Swan's last words to his parents on leaving home were 
to the effect that he was not going to fight for selfish gain, for any 
honor or praise which he might win in the Service; not for the good 
of his country only; but Service in the highest sense. 



[ 286 ] 



*LE ROY GATES WOODWARD 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 
Killed in airplane accident, Aug. 16, 1918 

Son of Charles Herbert and Nellie R. (Oatman) Woodward; was 
born at Watertown, Conn., Dec. 28, 1893. He attended the public 
schools of Watertown, was president of his class in the High School 
(1912), and graduated from the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, in 1916. 
He was captain of class baseball team (Pratt Applied Electricity), 
and played on 'Varsity basket-ball, tennis, and football teams. 

He enlisted June 21, 1917, and attended the Ground School, 
M.I.T., receiving further training at Scott Field, Belleville, 111. 
He was commissioned 1st Lieut, at Washington, D.C., Dec. 24, 
1917, and sailed overseas Feb. 25, 1918, continuing his training as 
chasse pilote at 3d Aviation Instruction Centre, Issoudun. He took 
the gunnery course at Cazaux, and returned to Issoudun for three 
days' combat work before going to the front. 

On Aug. 16, the second day of this combat flying, he was killed 
in an airplane accident, two days before he was to have gone to the 
front. He was buried in the Military Cemetery 32, at Issoudun. 

Lieut. Woodward was very ill during the first of his stay in 
France. 

After his recovery he wrote to his mother: 

I'm back on the OK list again, and am feeling like a two-year-old. I 
started to fly again about a week ago and went through the rouleurs, the 
23 doubles and singles, and 18 metres all in about a week, and am now over 
on the 15-metre machine, which is the smallest machine we have. I prob- 
ably will be here a couple of weeks or so, perhaps not as long as that; then 
I have to have a gunnery course — that will take about another week, and 
then yours truly will be ready for that longed-for crack at the Hun. . . . 

As we progress from one field to the next, planes get smaller and better, 
and I'm really in love with the "liT babies." I know I will make good be- 
cause I love the work and have so much confidence in myself. I feel at 
home quite as much when I'm upside down in the air, at an altitude of a 
couple of miles, as I do when I am flying level at a few feet off the ground. 
But never have a fear, 'cause above all things I'm careful, 'cause I'm al- 
ways thinking of you. 

Brother in Service: Russell Johnson Woodward, 2d Lieut., 
25th Engineers, A.E.F. 

Grandfather in Service: John Andrew Woodward, 22d Con- 
necticut Volunteers, Civil War. 



[ 288 ] 



JOHN LESTER HUBBARD 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Tenth Aero Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, Aug. 18, 1918 

Son of Henry F. and Julia (Calligan) Hubbard, of Providence, 
R.I.; was born in New Rochelle, N.Y., Nov. 9, 1895. He was edu- 
cated at the Moses Brown School, Providence, R.L, and at Harvard 
College, class of 1918. At the Moses Brown School he was one of the 
editors of the school paper, president of his class in junior and 
senior years, and at graduation won the Harvard Prize. At school 
he was captain and catcher for two years of the baseball team, and 
captain of the football team in his junior and senior years. At Har- 
vard he won his "H" for playing on the 'Varsity lacrosse team. 

He joined the R.O.T.C. at Harvard, and was sent to the 1st 
Training Camp at Plattsburg. He was one of the first to answer the 
call from Washington for volunteers for the Aviation Corps, enlist- 
ing in April, 1917. He was sent to the M.I.T. Ground School for 
training, and graduated as an honor man. He sailed overseas from 
Halifax on Oct. 29, 1917, for final training, which he received at 
Avord, Tours, Cazaux, and Issoudun. He was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, on May 13, 1918, and was attached to the 10th Aero Squad- 
ron, Aviation Corps, U.S.A. 

He was killed on Aug. 18,1918, as a result of the fall of his air- 
plane, during the final phase of his training, at Issoudun, France, 
and was buried with full military honors in the Government Ceme- 
tery connected with the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre, A.P.O. 
724, Issoudun. 

A quotation follows from a letter sent to the parents of Lieut. 
Hubbard by the Aero Club of America: 

Although the sacrifice is great, it is a consolation to feel that your son's 
patriotic and faithful service to our Country, for which he gave his life, 
and the indomitable spirit which he has shown, will serve as a noble ex- 
ample and be an added incentive to young men, especially to his nearest 
and dearest friends and companions, to fight for the cause of Liberty and 
Freedom. We believe the Air Service, in which your son was engaged, is 
the most important of all forms of combat. . . . His name will be inscribed 
upon the records of this Club among those who gallantly answered their 
Country's call, and who nobly gave their lives in her defence. 



[ 290 ] 



* WALTER FRANCIS BUCK 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA. 
Killed in airplane accident, Sept. 7, 1918 

Son of Rev. and Mrs. Walter P. Buck, of New London, Conn.; 
was born in Provincetown, Mass., July 18, 1896. He graduated 
from the High School, Brockton, Mass., and attended Wesleyan 
University, 1913-14; Mass. Institute of Technology, 1915-16. He 
was proficient in tennis, rowing, riding, and motoring. He enlisted 
at Fort Slocum in April, 1917, and was sent from there to Kelly 
Field No. 2, San Antonio, Tex. He went to Princeton, N.J., for 
theoretical training; then back to Kelly Field, where he was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut, in the spring of 1918. Lieut. Buck soon became 
Pioneer Instructor at Kelly Field, and trained 44 cadets in solo 
flying without an accident. He was then appointed Instructor of 
Instructors, teaching them "stunts" and military tactics. He 
longed for active service, but was kept at the less interesting work 
of training other flyers. 

He had passed his final examinations and was awaiting further 
promotion at the time of his death. 

On Sept. 7 Lieut. Buck had been flying in battle formation all the 
morning at Kelly Field. On coming down, a mechanic asked him to 
go up with him to test a certain airship. When 4000 feet high, both 
wings fell from the plane, and were found later a city block apart. 
The Government stopped at once the use of all ships of that make. 
It is supposed that the steel pins were removed and wooden ones 
substituted by some one sympathizing with the enemy. 

Lieut. Buck was buried at Cedar Grove Cemetery, New London, 
Conn. The Government showed every possible honor on the occa- 
sion. Five airships, driven by officers whom Lieut. Buck had in- 
structed, flew above the train for 30 miles out of San Antonio, 
dropping flowers on the coach. A full military funeral was held at 
New London, by order of the Kelly Field Commander. An airship 
hovered over the cortege, and dropped flowers into the grave of 
the aviator. 

Married, April 26, 1918, Mab Casey, of San Antonio, Texas. 

Brother in Service — 

Willis L. Buck, entered Hydroplane Service as soon as possible 
after his brother's death. Assigned to M.I.T. for training. 

[ 292 ] 



GORDON STEWART 



Cadet, A.S., U.S.A., Second Aviation Instruction Centre 
Tours, France 

Died in Service, Jan. 9, 1918 

Son of Edward J. and Helena (Felt) Stewart, of Brookline, Mass.; 
born in Millis, Mass., March 15, 1896. He was educated at the 
Brookline High School, Chauncy Hall School, Boston, and at the 
Mass. Institute of Technology. He was an all-round athlete; cox- 
swain of the high school crew for two years, and captain in 1915, 
when the crew won the interscholastic cup; a member of the swim- 
ming team for three years; member of the gymnasium team, win- 
ning two medals from the Harvard Interscholastic Gymnasium 
Association. He was prominent in various branches of sport at 
Chauncy Hall, and held the Greater Boston interscholastic diving 
championship for two years. He was a member of Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon Fraternity at Tech. 

Immediately after the declaration of war, Stewart left the M.I.T. 
to enlist, with his brother Theodore, in the American Ambulance 
Field Service, reaching France aboard the first ship to dock after 
the declaration. He served from April to Oct., 1917, except for two 
and a half months spent in the hospital with a bad fracture of the 
arm. In Aug., 1917, his ambulance section was cited for excep- 
tional bravery at Verdun. On Oct. 15, 1917, he enlisted in the 
Aviation Corps at Paris. He trained at Tours, and was about to 
graduate from the Aviation School there, when he fell ill with 
spinal meningitis and died within ten days, on Jan. 9, 1918, at 
Tours, France. He is buried in the American Cemetery, Indre-et- 
Loire, at Tours, France. His French instructor, when he heard of 
his death, wept, not wholly for Gordon, but, as he said, "for the 
loss to the Allies." He was accounted the most promising pupil 
that had passed through the school at Tours. 

Brother in Service — 

Theodore F. Stewart, ambulance driver; wagoner, Co. D, 
2d Corps Artillery Park, France. 



[ 294 ] 



* CHARLES EDWARD JONES 



Cadet, A.S., Signal Corps, A.E.F., Fourth Aviation 
Instruction Centre, France 
Killed in airplane accident, Feb. 15, 1918 

Only son of Edward Archie and Isabel (Abbe) Jones; was born at 
Pittsfield, Mass., on Jan. 7. 1894. He attended the public schools 
of Pittsfield, and prepared for college at the Hill Preparatory 
School at Pottstown, Pa.; he graduated from the Yale-Sheffield 
Scientific School (Mechanical Engineering), with high honors, in 
1915; the year following he took a special course in chemistry at 
the M.I.T. in order to fit himself for his father's business, the 
manufacture of paper-mill machinery. 

In the summer of 1916, and again in 1917, he attended the Offi- 
cers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, enlisting from there in the 
aviation section of the Army, June, 1917. In Aug. he was trans- 
ferred to the Ground School, M.I.T., at which time he entered the 
13th Squadron, graduating from there in Oct. He was assigned to 
Mineola, N.Y., for training, and from there was sent abroad Oct. 
27, 1917, and trained at Tours, France, until Dec. 26, 1917, when 
he was transferred to a French flying school at Avord. There he 
was killed in an airplane accident on Feb. 15, 1918, two weeks be- 
fore the time when he was to have been commissioned 1st Lieu- 
tenant. He was buried in the Protestant Cemetery, at Avord, on 
Feb. 18, and on March 25 memorial services were held for him in 
Pittsfield, at the First Congregational Church. 

In paying tribute to his memory the Rev. Mr. Gregg said: 

" This young soldier, whom we are commemorating, did not pretend to 
greatness. His last thought would have been to esteem himself above his 
fellows. Yet it is remarkable that wherever he went, other people and 
especially his contemporaries and comrades, admired him, respected him, 
and loved him. One of these, a cadet, who was with him both at the avia- 
tion school in Cambridge and in France, wrote: "I have never known any- 
body who was a better example of the highest type of an American. Of all 
the men in our detachment there was no one who was a better citizen, actu- 
ally and potentially, none whom the nation could so ill afford to spare. By 
his straightforward living under conditions not the most favorable he was a 
constant inspiration to all of us." 

Cadet Jones was descended from two Captains of Revolutionary 
fame, on his mother's side from Capt. Thomas Abbe, of Enfield, 
Conn., and on his father's, from Capt. Samuel Pelton, of Pittsfield. 

[ 296 ] 



*WILLIAM HALSALL CHENEY 



First Lieutenant, A.S., S.O.R.C. 
Killed in airplane accident, at Foggia, Italy, Jan. 20, 1918 
Son of Charles P. Cheney and Mary C. Cheney (Schofield), of 
Peterboro, N.H.; was born at Colorado Springs, Colo., Jan. 15, 
1897. He was educated at St. Mark's School, and at Harvard Col- 
lege, class of 1920. He was captain of St. Mark's School football 
team in 1915-16; and member of the Harvard freshman football 
team in 1916. During his vacations in 1915 and 1916 he took pre- 
liminary training in Aviation at Newport News, Va. 

He left college in his freshman year to enlist in U.S. Aviation 
Service. March 31, 1917, he entered the School of Military Aero- 
nautics at Urbana, 111., and graduated as Honor Student on July 
25, 1917. He sailed overseas and took advanced training in flying 
in Italy, and was the first American to win the Italian Military 
Flying Brevet, on Oct. 18, 1917. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. 
A.S., S.O.R.C. on Nov. 23, 1917. 

On Jan. 20, 1918, Lieut. Cheney was accidentally killed at 
Foggia, Italy, in an airplane collision which resulted in the death 
of two other aviators. 

The accident is described in the following letter from Head- 
quarters of Major Ryan, commanding the U.S.S.C., Foggia, under 
date of Jan. 20, 1918. 

With the profoundest feeling of sympathy for you and sorrow for your 
loss, I wish to inform you of the death of your son, 1st Lieutenant William 
H. Cheney, Aviation Section, Signal Officers Reserve Corps, a member of 
this command, on January 20, 1918. 

Your son served under my command since leaving the United States, 
and by his delightful personality, keenness for work, and devotion to duty 
proved himself a man, a soldier, and a gentleman in every respect and one 
worthy of the greatest respect and admiration by all with whom he came 
in contact. 

His death, which was instantaneous, was one of those almost impossible 
and wholly unavoidable accidents. He was piloting a machine with Lieut. 
Oliver B. Sherwood as observer and flying over the training field. At the 
same time another machine, piloted by Aviation Cadet George A. Beach, 
was also in the air. A very low cloud of fog blew over the training field and 
closed around your son's machine. He immediately turned to get out of 
the fog, and as the machine emerged, it struck the machine of Cadet 
Beach who was also endeavoring to avoid the fog. Both machines fell to 
the ground, a distance of about one hundred and fifty feet. 

[ 298 ] 



WILLIAM HALSALL CHENEY 



The funeral was held from the Italian Military Hospital in Foggia, at 
two o'clock in the afternoon of the twenty-first, and was attended by troops 
and officers of the American, Italian, French, and English Armies. All three 
men were buried with full military honors. 

This noble sacrifice, although very hard to bear, is one every soldier is 
ready to make at any time for his country, and it was a comfort to know that 
he died as he desired, a soldier, a flier, honorably, in the defense of his coun- 
try, of liberty and democracy for the world. 

(Signed) Wm. Ord Ryan 

Major, J.M.A., Signal Corps 

From Special Order, issued by Headquarters, Foggia, Italy, 
Jan. 22, 1918: 

1st Lieut. W. H. Cheney, A.S., S.O.R.C., 1st Lieut. O. S. Sherwood, 
A.S., S.O.R.C., and Aviation Cadet George A. Beach, S.E.R.C., were men 
who on every occasion and in every way showed their bravery, desire, 
and eagerness in serving their country in all things and in all ways. 

1st Lieut. W. H. Cheney answered the call of his country by enlisting in 
the S.E.R.C. on March 31, 1917; entered School of Military Aeronautics 
at Urbana, 111., graduating therefrom as an honor student on the 25th 
day of July, 1917. After completion of the course at the S.M.A., he was 
sent abroad as a member of the A.E.F. He was the first member of this 
command to complete his Italian Military Flying Brevet, this on October 
18, 1917, was commissioned as 1st Lieutenant, A.S., S.O.R.C., on No- 
vember 23, 1917, and thereafter, as well as before, showed his abilities as a 
soldier and endeared himself to all men of his command. . . . 

The great sacrifice of these brave young soldiers is not only an inspira- 
tion to this entire command and to the American Air Service at large, but 
also America's first offering of life in Italy to the great cause of the Allied 
Nations. 

The command mourns at their loss and desires to express its deepest 
sympathy to their bereaved families. 

(Signed) Wm. Ord Ryan 

Major, J.M.A. Signal Corps, Commanding 



[ 300 ] 



PETER K. CONSTAN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Bomber 
Son of Constantine P. and Amalia J. Perentesis Konstantaro- 
giannis, of Greece; was born in Sparta, Greece, Jan. 30, 1888. He 
is now a citizen of Boston. He was educated at Olivet College, A.B., 
and at Harvard University (post-graduate). Immediately after 
the declaration of war, he made application for the Officers' Train- 
ing Camp at Plattsburg, but was rejected as being a fraction of an 
inch below the minimum height. Constan applied for the 2d Platts- 
burg Camp, and was this time rejected for being three pounds 
underweight. Just then the age for Aviators was raised, and he 
enlisted in U.S. Air Service at Cambridge, on Sept. 14, 1917. 
He attended successively the M.I.T. Ground School, Nov. 3, 

1917, to Jan. 6, 1918, and the School of Military Aeronautics, 
Princeton, N.J., Jan. 6 to graduation, Jan. 19, 1918. From Jan. 25 
until April 20 he was trained as a pilot at Kelly Field, San Antonio, 
Tex. He then transferred to aerial bombing, and was ordered to 
the Concentration Camp at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. On June 28, 

1918, he was ordered to Ellington Field, Tex., to train as a bombier. 
He finished his training and was recommended for a commission 
on Sept. 13. A week later he was ordered to the Aerial Gunnery 
School for Bombers at San Leon, Tex., a branch of Ellington Field. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut, on Oct. 25, 1918. He grad- 
uated from this school on Nov. 2, and returned to Ellington Field 
to await orders for overseas. 

Lieut. Constan has taken up a course for piloting and will re- 
main at Ellington Field until it is finished. 

In an interesting letter, Lieut. Constan shows his appreciation 
of American citizenship and of the New England tradition: 

I am a native of Greece. But I am an American none the less. Without 
a hyphen. I am very proud of the fact that I was an American citizen when 
I first set foot upon this continent, almost fourteen years ago, my father 
having been naturalized some years before my arrival. I am also a New 
Englander, more specifically a Bostonian. At least, I consider myself one, 
inasmuch as I have made Boston, or one of its suburbs, my home for the last 
seven years. It will be a matter of infinite pride to me to be included among 
the New England Aviators. 

New England's past records are among the highest. Let us hope that this 
one will not fall short of the mark; that the Past will welcome it as a worthy 
companion; that the Future will look up to it with pride. 

[ 301 ] 



* ROBERT SWIFT GILLETT 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Chief Observer, One Hun- 
dred Ninetieth Aero Squadron, Second Provisional Wing 

Killed in airplane accident, Sept. 17, 1918 

Son of Arthur Lincoln and Mary Bradford (Swift) Gillett; was 
born at Hartford, Conn., March 5, 1895. He was educated at 
Westminster School, Simsbury, Conn., graduating in 1912; and 
at Amherst College, class of 1916. He attended the Harvard Law 
School, but left in the spring of 1917 to go to Plattsburg. 

He attended Plattsburg Camp in 1916, and Plattsburg Officers' 
Training Camp in the summer of 1917. He enlisted May, 1917. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., F.A., and was ordered to Camp 
Devens, where he was attached first to Battery 1, 302d F.A.; then 
to Headquarters Co., 302d F.A. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
F.A., early in the winter of 1918. He was ordered to take exami- 
nation as Aerial Observer, and was sent for training successively to 
Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla.; Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; Self ridge 
Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich.; and Park Place, Houston, Tex. He was 
with the 191st Squadron, 2d Wing, Air Service. At Park Place 
he was made Chief Observer of the 2d Wing, consisting of the 
190th and 191st Squadrons. 

He was killed in an airplane accident near Kingsville, Tex., on 
Sept. 17, 1918. He was interred in Hartford, Conn., Sept. 21, 1918. 

Married, Oct. 13, 1917, Marjorie Stafford Root; one child, Mary; 
born July 22, 1918. 



[ 302 ] 



* RALPH SANGER 

Captain, U.S.N., A.S., CO. Ferry Pilots, Orly Field, France 

Killed in airplane accident, Aug. 29, 1918 

Son of William Thompson and Ellen (Horswell) Sanger, of New 
York City; was born at Cambridge, Mass., May 31, 1882. He was 
educated at St. Mark's School, Southboro, Mass., and at Harvard 
College, A.B. 1904. He rowed on the Harvard freshman crew and 
on the Harvard four-oared crew. 

He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in Aug., 
1917, graduating with a commission as Capt. of Infantry, about 
Nov. 27, 1917. He transferred to the Aviation Service and went 
first to Fort Sill, Okla., then to Austin, Tex., for eight weeks' 
training in machine-gunnery and wireless telegraphy. He con- 
tinued his instruction in flying at Hazlehurst Field, Mineola, N.Y., 
beginning in April, 1918. He passed all tests and received his wings 
in July, when he received overseas orders, and sailed for France. 
He was given command of 250 officers, known as ferry pilots, at 
Orly Field, France, on Aug. 20. He was killed in an aerial accident 
on Aug. 29, 1918, and was buried at Suresnes, France. 

The officer in charge of the Transfer Section, who had been in 
very close touch with Capt. Sanger from the time he came to take 
charge of the Transfer Pilots, wrote of him : 

I enjoyed my work with him, and for him, so much. To work under him 
was excellent training. He insisted that everything should be exactly right, 
and his attitude towards us was always such that no one wanted to fall 
short of the standard. ... I thought perhaps I might tell you how much 
I miss him and how much the other pilots feel his loss. 

Married, Nov. 16, 1904, Virginia Osborn. 



[ 304 ] 



* ARTHUR MAXWELL PARSONS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Killed in airplane accident, July 3, 1918 

Son of Charles M. and Alice M. (Call) Parsons; was born at 
Gloucester, Mass., Dec. 11, 1895. He was educated in the public 
schools of Gloucester and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. 
He was a member of Theta Chi Fraternity at M.I.T. He played 
baseball and football at Gloucester High, and won his letters. At 
M.I.T. he won his numerals in wrestling, and was on the football 
team. He was Captain of the High School Cadets in his senior 
year, and 1st Lieut, in the M.I.T. Regiment. After graduation, 
and before the war, he practised civil engineering, and had ex- 
perience in planning and building roads with the Mass. Highway 
Commission. In 1917 he worked five months for the West Virginia 
Railroad, laying tracks in the coal mountains. 

He enlisted at Boston, on Nov. 10, 1917, and trained six weeks 
at M.I.T. and two weeks at Cornell University. From there he 
went to Dallas, Tex., and was among 50 men chosen to train with 
the Royal Flying Corps. In April, 1918, he was commissioned 2d 
Lieut., and was transferred to Hicks, Tex., where he served as 
Instructor in the Gunnery School. On July 2, 1918, he met with 
an accident while going for help for a fellow aviator, which resulted 
in his death on the following day. He was buried in Gloucester. 

Lieut. Parsons had a narrow escape from accident on his altitude 
test, when his motor stopped and he came down 8000 feet, but 
he escaped without injury. He never had an accident with the 
cadets he was called to instruct. He had 150 hours of solo flying to 
his credit. 



[ 306 ] 



* RAYMOND B. MESSER 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Killed in airplane accident, Feb. 20, 1919 

Son of Bradley A. and Hattie (Boden) Messer, of Lowell, Mass.; 
was born in Lowell, Sept. 12, 1894. He graduated from the Lowell 
High School, where he made a record as long-distance runner, and 
was manager of the baseball team in 1913. He attended the Lowell 
Textile School for three years. 

He enlisted as mounted orderly in the 6th Mass. Regiment, on 
March 30, 1917, at Lowell, and was chosen to attend the Officers' 
Training Camp at Plattsburg. There he volunteered for Aviation 
Service, and was sent to the Ground School, M.LT. When he had 
completed a six weeks' course, he was transferred to Mineola, N.Y. 
He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in Sept. 1917. 

He went overseas, Nov. 13, 1917, and trained at Issoudun, 
France, graduating there in Feb., 1918. He was subsequently 
ordered to several other training-fields as an instructor. On July 
13, 1918, he was sent into the zone of advance. He hoped to get 
to the front, but was stationed at Chatillon-sur-Seine as instruc- 
tor and tester of planes. He was killed in an airplane collision 
there on Feb. 20, 1919, and was buried at Chatillon-sur-Seine on 
Feb. 22, 1919. 

Lieut. Messer's superior officer wrote concerning his death: 

Raymond joined us as a pilot shortly after the Second Corps Aeronau- 
tical School was organized at Chatillon-sur-Seine. I was in charge of the 
flying at that school from its organization. It did not take many days to 
find what a really valuable man your son was, and he was at once put to 
work as an instructor in Sopwith and Breguet planes, in addition to his 
duties as a staff pilot. He was a skilful pilot; his judgment was good; and his 
attitude toward his equals and superiors was one of unvaried courtesy. 
He was extremely popular, and to quote one of the old officers, "No acci- 
dent ever hit the fellows quite so hard as Messer's death." Like the rest 
of us, he found it a source of great regret, not being able to get to the front. 
But the training of observers was so important that he could not be spared. 
If ever a man served his country well, it was Messer. 



[ 308 ] 



* EUGENE DORR MORSE 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Killed in airplane accident, Nov. 6, 1918 
Son of Fitz Albert and Helen D. (Cotting) Morse; was born in 
Brookline, Mass., Dec. 7, 1895. He was educated at the Country 
Day School, Boston; and at Harvard College, class of 1919. At 
school he played baseball and football, and was captain of the 
football team in 1914. At college he was assistant manager of his 
freshman baseball team, and 2d assistant manager of the Harvard, 
1917, hockey team. 

He left college in his sophomore year to enlist, on Oct. 23, 1917, 
at Boston. He received his ground training at M.I.T. and Cornell 
University, graduating on Jan. 26, 1918, and was assigned to 
Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., for flying instruction. He passed 
his reserve military aviator test on May 2, and was commissioned 
2d Lieut, in the Air Service on that date. He was then assigned for 
advanced training in reconnaissance successively to Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Tex.; Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla.; and Taliaferro Field, 
Hicks, Tex. On Aug. 13, 1918, he embarked for duty overseas, 
arriving in France on Sept. 7, 1918. There was a great demand for 
bombers; and Lieut. Morse was assigned to the 7th Aviation In- 
struction Centre, near Clermont-Ferrand, for instruction in that 
branch. On completing the course in bombing he was detailed as 
instructor in flying, and was on such active duty when he was 
killed in an airplane accident, Nov. 6, 1918, at Clermont-Ferrand. 
He was buried in the U.S. Military Cemetery of that town. 

According to proceedings of the Board of Officers convened to 
investigate the accident which caused Lieut. Morse's death, he 
was flying with an observer doing aerial gunnery practice at about 
500 feet altitude, when the machine became in some way disabled 
and fell to the ground. Lieut. Morse was killed and the observer 
was slightly injured. In the findings of the investigation Lieut. 
Morse was not only exonerated from all blame, but was highly 
commended by his superior officer, who spoke of him as a good 
pilot and a man of ability and good judgment. 



[ 310 ] 



HARRY HUBBARD METCALF 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 
Died of jmeumonia, Oct. 13, 1918 
Son of Walter C. and Jessie F. (Willson) Metcalf; was born at 
Southboro, Mass., July 4, 1894. He prepared for college at Exeter, 
and William Nolen's, Cambridge, and was a member of the class 
of 1917, at Harvard College. In the spring of 1915, he entered the 
American Ambulance Service in France, and was one of the first 
to volunteer to drive at the front; his section was twice mentioned 
in the orders of the day at Pont-a-Mousson. He was a member of 
the Harvard Gun Club and one of the best intercollegiate shots. 
When the Harvard Flying Corps was organized by Frazier Curtis, 
in 1916, he was made temporary Flight Captain. He was one of 
the first ten men sent to the Harvard Flying School at Buffalo, in 
1916, and the first to qualify there for his pilot's license, which he 
received from the Aero Club of America, Aug. 30, 1916. 

On Nov. 19, 1916, he offered his services to his country, having 
previously been a member of Battery A, M.V.M., and was sent to 
Miami, Fla., in March, 1917. He was ordered to the School of 
Military Aeronautics, M.I.T., Cambridge, Nov. 2, 1917 (graduat- 
ing Jan., 1918), and to Princeton University, Jan. 7, 1918, being 
transferred to Park Field, Memphis, Tenn., Jan. 14, 1918. 

He was commissioned 2d Lieut. March 17, 1918, and was kept 
at Park Field as officer in charge of formation flying. He was 
twice recommended for promotion, by Major Jernegan and Col. 
Mc.Chord. 

On Oct. 13, 1918, he succumbed to pneumonia at Park Field, 
Memphis, and was buried from his home at Westboro, Mass., with 
military honors. The long-wished-for overseas orders came to him 
after he was taken ill. 

In a letter to Lieut. Metcalf 's family, Frazier Curtis wrote: 

What he did for army flying can only be realized by the few of us who 
know that in March, 1916, we had only 24 army flyers qualified for the 
Western Front, and that the Harvard Flying Corps was the first successful 
attempt to get college men interested in the flying game. 

Married, Jan. 1, 1918, Helen T. B. Williams, of Pasadena, Cal. 

Brother in Service — 

Walter W. Metcalf, Lieut.-Col., 305th Infantry, A.E.F. 
[ 312 ] 



* ROLAND JOHN WINTERTON 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Second Provisional 
Training Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, April 16, 1918 

Son of Roland B. and Catherine M. (O'Brien) Winterton; was 
born in South Boston, Mass., May 7, 1889. He attended the South 
Boston High School, where he was prominent in athletics. He was 
devoted to yachting, and was librarian and an active member of 
the South Boston Yacht Club. He left his business as civil engineer 
and surveyor to enlist at the 1st Plattsburg Camp, May 7, 1917. 
Having been assigned to the Air Service, he was sent to the U.S.A. 
Aeronautical School, M.I.T., in Oct., 1917. On Dec. 19 he was 
transferred to Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., attached to the 1st 
Prov. Training Squadron, and later to the 2d Squadron. On March 
25 he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S. 

On April 16, 1918, while acting as pilot of an airplane in which 
he and Cadet Jones of Worcester had been doing camera work 
near Webster, Tex., both aviators were killed at Ellington Field 
in an unexplained tail-spin, falling about 2000 feet to the ground. 
Lieut. Winterton was instantly killed; Cadet Jones lived about an 
hour. It is believed that the accident was due to a faulty engine. 

The following extract is from a letter from his friends and brother 
officers to the mother of Lieut. Winterton: 

Those who have known Roland and lived with him during his period of 
training wish to express their deepest sympathies to his mother in her 
sorrow. We knew him to be a gentleman and a soldier, as well as a stanch 
and patriotic citizen of our country, the United States of America. His 
name will long remain in our hearts, acting as an incentive, and giving us 
strength to help us through this conflict. We feel that there is no more beau- 
tiful passage from this earth than in the service of our country, for the 
cause of democracy. These words can but slightly express the feeling of 
loss we hold in our hearts. 

A Resolution offered by the South Boston Yacht Club reads: 

He answered the nation's call and with characteristic courage chose the 
Aviation Service. A thorough yachtsman, he was always willing and ready 
to lend a hand; and the remaining men of the Club bear testimony to his 
sterling worth as a sailor and as a man. 



[ 314 ] 



* FORREST DEAN JONES 



Cadet, Fifth Aero Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, April 16, 1918 

Son of William H. and Gertrude E. (Dudley) Jones, of Worcester, 
Mass.; was born in Nashua, N.H., Sept. 23, 1895. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Worcester, Mass., and at Amherst 
Agricultural College. He was a member of the South High School 
crew, which won a number of races at Lake Quinsigamond. Be- 
fore enlisting he did war garden work, farming alone a large garden 
in Millbury. 

He enlisted at Boston, in Oct., 1918, and was sent first to M.I.T. 
Ground School for a few weeks, then to Cornell University, from 
Jan. 1 to March 2, 1918. He was then ordered to Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex., attached to the 5th Cadet Aero Squadron. 

On April 16, 1918, he was killed in an aeroplane accident at 
Ellington Field, and was buried in Lebanon, N.H. He was to have 
received his commission after this last flight, in which he and Lieut. 
Roland Winterton met their death. The two New Englanders, 
Cadet Jones and his pilot, Lieut. Winterton of South Boston, had 
just finished their daily lesson or "stunt," and were preparing to 
come down, when it was noticed that they were in a tail-spin; 
whether intentionally or not will never be known. They were un- 
able to recover, and dashed about 2000 feet to the ground. Winter- 
ton was instantly killed, and Jones lived about an hour. There 
were several other accidents at the Field the same day, all of 
which were believed to have been due to faulty engines. Lieut. 
Jones had always been deeply interested in Aviation, and had 
hoped to engage in the Aerial Mail Service after the war. 

Brother in Service — 

Leon D. Jones, Corporal, Co. C, 104th Infantry. 

Brother-in-law in Service — 

Leroy W. Gardiner, Corporal, Co. C. 104th Infantry. Died 
from wounds received in action, July 7, 1918. 



[ 316 ] 



* ROBERT JAMES BARRON 



Cadet, A.S., U.SA. 
Died in Service, trying to rescue drowning comrades 

Son of James T. and Elizabeth (Nixon) Barron; was born in Port- 
land, Ore., March 22, 1896. He was educated in the Portland pub- 
lic schools, Volkmann's School, Boston, and the Boston University 
College of Business Administration. At the time of his enlistment, 
he was by occupation a salmon-packer, vice-president of the 
Thlinket Packing Co., and Nooksack Packing Co., of Portland, 
Ore. He was a trained athlete, and when examined for the Aviation 
Service, at Portland Ore., he was pronounced the finest specimen of 
physical manhood ever seen by the examiner. 

He enlisted at Boston, June 3, 1917, as cadet in the Aviation 
Service. He entered at once the Ground School, M.I.T., and finish- 
ing his course there was transferred to the Aviation Field at Essing- 
ton, Pa. 

On Aug. 22, 1917, Cadet Barron met his death by drowning, in 
an attempt to rescue two cadets of his class precipitated into the 
Delaware River by an accident to their hydroplane. He swam to 
their assistance, but his strength proved unequal to battle with 
the strong current and rough waters and he was drowned before 
reaching them. By order of the War Department he was accorded 
a military funeral of an officer of rank; and also by order of the 
War Department the Aviation Field at Fort Worth, Tex., formerly 
known as "Everman Field," was renamed "Barron Field," in his 
honor. The highest peak on Mansfield Peninsula, off southeastern 
Alaska, 4000 feet high, has also been named Mount Robert Barron 
by our Government to commemorate the Aviator who gave his 
life for his friends. Personal letters were received by the family of 
Cadet Barron, from President Wilson, Secretary Baker, Senator 
Chamberlain, and others, praising his heroic act. He was buried 
at Mount Calvary Cemetery, Portland, Ore. 

Letter from President Wilson: 

The White House 
Washington 

12 December, 1917 

My dear Friends : 

May I not send you a word of very heartfelt sympathy? The death of 
your son in an heroic effort to save two of his comrades from drowning has 

[ 318 ] 



ROBERT JAMES BARRON 



excited my sympathy not only, but my very profound admiration. I hope 
that your grief will be tempered in some degree at least by a knowledge of 
the peculiar distinction with which your son died. 

Cordially and sincerely yours 

(Sgd) Woodrow Wilson 

Cadet Barron's grandfather, Robert Nixon, served in the Civil 
War, and met his death also by drowning, on a transport en route 
from the South to New York. 

* HOWARD B. HULL 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Gunnery Officer 
Ellington Field 
Killed in airplane accident, Sept. 8, 1918 
Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles N. Hull, of Bridgeport, Conn.; was 
born Jan. 4, 1895. He was educated in the Boston public schools; 
at the Roxbury High School, 1912; and at Harvard College, A.B. 
1916. He attended the 1st Plattsburg Training Camp, from May 
to Aug., 1917, and was commissioned 2d Lieut. Aug. 14, 1917. 
From Aug. 27 to Sept. 1, 1917, he was stationed at Camp Devens, 
Mass. He was attached to the Royal Flying Corps for special duty 
at Camp Borden, Ontario, Canada, from Sept. 1 to Oct., 1917. He 
was made Gunnery Officer of the 17th U.S. Aero Squadron, and 
stationed at Fort Worth, Tex., from Oct. 12 to Nov. 12, 1917. 

Upon completion of the course at Ellington Field, Tex., he was 
appointed Gunnery Officer in that Aviation School, where he re- 
mained until Aug. 28, 1918, when he was transferred to Self ridge 
Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich., for a three weeks' specialization in 
gunnery, as a fighting observer in a pursuit plane, the final phase 
of that important work. 

On Sept. 8, 1918, Lieut. Hull met his death as the result of a 
collision at 8.50 a.m. between two planes in mid-air, at the height 
of 2000 feet, in "combat practice." 



[ 320 ] 



* FREDERIC PERCIVAL CLEMENT, Jr. 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Killed in airplane accident, July 4, 1918 

Son of Frederic P. and Maud (Morrison) Clement; was born at 
Elizabeth, N.J., March 20, 1895. He attended the Watertown, 
N.Y., public schools, and graduated from the Morristown School, 
N.J., where he won the highest scholarship prize each year; he 
obtained more scholarship prizes than any other boy in the school 
(Greek, Latin, French, History, and English) and played on the 
football and track teams. 

He graduated from Harvard College in 1916; while there he was 
assistant manager of the Freshman track team, manager of the 
'Varsity track team, and a member of the executive committee 
I.C.A.A.A.A.; he belonged to the Institute of 1770, the Hasty 
Pudding Club, the Delphic Club, and the Signet Society. 

He spent one year at the Harvard Law School, leaving in 
May, 1917, to enlist in the U.S. Service. He attended the 1st Offi- 
cers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, and volunteered on the first 
call for aviators, and on June 19, 1917, entered the M.I.T. Ground 
School. From there he went to Mineola, N.Y., and was made a 
Reserve Military Aviator Sept. 1, 1917. On Sept. 18 he was trans- 
ferred to Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., and on Oct. 5 commis- 
sioned 1st Lieut, in the Aviation Section of the Signal Reserve 
Corps; he went to Fort Sill, Okla., in Oct. as instructor in training 
observers, and in Nov. was ordered into the 4th Aero Squadron, 
scheduled for overseas duty; these orders were changed and he was 
stationed at Fort Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he was instrumental 
in getting a flying section started, and where he was the head of 
the court-martial department; he made out a series of lectures 
covering 150 cases. In April, 1918, he was sent to Taliaferro Field, 
Hicks, Tex., where he was considered the best flyer. 

On July 4, 1918, Lieut. Clement was in charge of the exhibition 
flying at the Fair Grounds, Camp Dick; he had been thrilling his 
audience of 20,000 persons with daring aerial manoeuvres, when 
his plane suddenly went into a tail-spin and crashed to the earth. 
Lieut. Clement was hurried to the Camp Dick Hospital, but died 
before reaching there; his companion, Cadet Arnold Hald, was not 
seriously injured. 



[ 321 ] 



FREDERIC PERCIVAL CLEMENT, JR. 

Shortly before his death Lieut. Clement established a new alti- 
tude record for Dallas, when he attained a height of 16,700 feet. 

At the time of his death he was flying in a model J.N. 4-H 
Curtiss plane decorated with the Iron Cross to represent a German 
scout plane. With several other planes he appeared in battle 
formation dropping imaginary bombs. Lieut. Clement was playing 
the part of the German scout plane attempting an escape, when 
the accident occurred. 

He was buried with military honors from Trinity Church, Rut- 
land, Vt., and interred in the family lot there, at Evergreen 
Cemetery. 

Lieut. Henri Le Maitre, the famous French Ace, was present at 
the exhibition of flying when Lieut. Clement met his death. He 
expressed himself as amazed at the work of the Camp Dick flyers. 
Never, he said, in all his experience, both at the front and in 
America, had he seen such flying. He spoke especially of the dar- 
ing and skilful work of Lieut. Clement. 

Brother in Service — 

Roger C. Clement, Harvard Regiment 1916-17, commissioned 
1st Lieut. Nov. 27, 1917, promoted to Capt. Aug., 1918, at 
Camp Devens. 



[ 322 ] 



GEORGE H. TRIDER, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George H. and Hannah A. (Ziegler) Trider; was born in 
Waltham, Mass., Sept. 13, 1890. He was educated in the Waltham 
public schools and at Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

He enlisted Sept. 27, 1917, at Cambridge, Mass., and trained 
first at M.I.T. Ground School, from Dec. 1, 1917, to Jan. 6, 1918; 
then he was transferred to Princeton University, U.S.S.M.A., 
where he graduated on Feb. 2, 1918. He was attached to the Cadet 
Detachment, 13th Squadron, at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., from 
March 2 to March 13, and had flying training at Taliaferro Field, 
Fort Worth, Tex., from March 13 to June 28, 1918. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut. June 21, 1918, with brevet grade, R.M.A. 
He was ordered to Flying Officers' Detachment, Camp Dick, from 
June 28 to July 25 ; and acted as machine-gun instructor, at Wilbur 
Wright Field, Fairfield, 0., from July 27 to Aug. 24, 1918. 

Receiving overseas orders, Lieut. Trider sailed from Hoboken on 
Aug. 30, 1918, landing in Brest on Sept. 12. He trained as a pursuit 
pilot at the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre, Issoudun, from Sept. 
22 to Oct. 12, when he was attached to the American Aviation 
Acceptance Park at Orly, until Jan. 20, 1919, ferrying airplanes 
to the front and to other points. 

Lieut. Trider had various narrow escapes from death, even 
though he saw no actual combat. On Oct. 8, 1918, he wrecked a 
Nieuport and was injured. During a bombing-raid at Nancy the 
auto in which Lieut. Trider and thirteen other aviators were riding 
was struck and rolled down an embankment in the dark. Only one 
aviator, Lieut. Richard Banks, was killed, the others having a 
marvellous escape. 

Lieut. Trider was honorably discharged at Camp Dix, N.J., on 
Feb. 23, 1919. 



[ 324 ] 



WILLIAM BARTLETT BACON 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Instructor, Aerial 
Gunnery School, Second A.I.C., Tours, France 

Son of William and Karolen (Bartlett) Bacon of Brookline, Mass.; 
was born in Brookline, March 26, 1897. He was educated at the 
Country Day School, Newton, Mass., and entered Harvard Col- 
lege with the class of 1919. He graduated from the Curtiss Aviation 
School, Buffalo, N.Y., in 1916. 

He enlisted in the Air Service in Boston on May 18, 1917, and 
was a member of the first class graduated from the Ground School, 
M.I.T. On July 15, 1917, before completing the course, Bacon 
received overseas orders and sailed for France on July 23, 1917. 
He had his preliminary training on Caudrons at the French 
Aviation School at Tours, where he remained from Aug. 16 to 
Sept. 28, 1917. He then received instruction on Nieuport 23-metre 
and 18-metre machines, at the French School, Avord, from Sept. 
29 to Oct. 21, 1917. From Oct. 22, 1917, to Jan. 8, 1918, he was at 
the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre at Issoudun, where he was 
trained in formation flying, acrobatics, and cross-country flying, 
on 15-metre Nieuports. He was then transferred to the French 
School at Cazaux for work in aerial gunnery (Lewis gun), where 
he remained until the end of Jan. He was subsequently ordered to 
Hythe, Kent, Eng., where he spent from Feb. 9 to Feb. 23 at the 
R.F.C. School in a course in aerial gunnery (Vickers gun). After 
graduating from another course in aerial gunnery (Vickers gun), 
this time at the R.F.C. School, Turnberry, Ayrshire, Scotland 
(March 1-12, 1918), he was assigned as Instructor to the Aerial 
Gunnery School, 2d Aviation Instruction Centre, at Tours, in 
charge of range and aerial practice, from March 25 to Sept. 15, 
1918; and from Sept. 15 to Nov. 11, 1918, was Staff Chasse Pilote 
on camera-gun practice. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Nov. 20, 1917. He returned 
to the U.S. on March 25, 1919, and was honorably discharged 
from the Service on May 14, 1919. 



[ 326 ] 



JOHN WHITIN LASELL 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Three Hundred Fifty- 
Fourth Aero Squadron, Sixth Observation Group 

Son of Josiah M. and Mary F. (Krum) Lasell, was born in Whit- 
insville, Mass., Nov. 30, 1897. He was educated at the Hotchkiss 
School, Conn., and at Williams College. At Hotchkiss he played 
on the football team, and at Williams played on the freshman foot- 
ball team. In the summer of 1916 he attended the Officers' Training 
Camp at Plattsburg. 

He enlisted at Minneola, Fla., on Aug. 22, 1917. He trained at 
M.I.T. Ground School, Sept. 29, 1917, to Nov. 24, 1917; and at 
Love Field/Dallas, Tex., from Nov. 28, 1917, to Feb. 23, 1918. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut. Feb. 16, 1918, and trained at Camp 
Dick, Dallas, Tex., Feb. 23 to March 18; Post Field, Fort Sill, 
Okla., March 18 to April 15, 1918; Camp Dick, April 15 to June 
29; Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., June 29 to July 31. 

Lieut. Lasell sailed overseas on Aug. 9, 1918, and was stationed 
at St.-Maixent, France, from Aug. 22 to Sept. 25, 1918; at Issoudun, 
3d Aviation Instruction Centre, Sept. 27 to Oct. 16; with the 354th 
Squadron, Oct. 20 to Nov. 26, at Antreville. He was then ordered 
to Saizerais, in the Marbache sector. He was stationed at Tours, 
2d A.I.C. from Nov. 28 to Dec. 21; and at Bordeaux, Dec. 21 to 
25. He sailed for home on Dec. 26, 1918, arriving in the U.S. on 
Jan. 7. He was honorably discharged at the U.S. Army General 
Hospital No. 10, Boston, Mass., on Feb. 20, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Josiah Lasell, 2d, Captain, C. O. 302d Hq. Co., 16th Division. 



[ 328 ] 



FREDERICK ARTHUR KEEP 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Twenty-Eighth Aero 
Squadron; Seventy-Eighth Aero Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, May 6, 1918 

Son of Frederick Heber and Alice (Leavitt) Keep, of Milton, 
Mass.; was born at Wollaston, Mass., Nov. 23, 1892. He was edu- 
cated at Milton public schools, Milton Academy, and Harvard 
College, class of 1915. 

He was a cadet in the Harvard R.O.T.C., 1916 and 1917. He 
attended Plattsburg Training Camp from May 13, 1917; was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., I.O.R.C., Aug. 15, 1917, and ordered to active 
duty at Camp Devens on Aug. 28, 1917. From here in a few days 
he was ordered to the Royal Flying Corps, Camp Borden, Ont., 
then to the University of Toronto for courses in military aero- 
nautics. Leaving there for Fort Worth, Tex., on Nov. 8, 1917, he 
became attached to the 28th Aero Squadron, Taliaferro Field, 
Fort Hicks, Tex. He was injured in an airplane accident, Nov. 22, 
1917, when his leg was fractured; and did not report for duty until 
about March 20, 1918. He was then attached to the 78th Aero 
Squadron. He was again injured in an airplane accident, at Fort 
Worth, Tex., on May 3, 1918, when his machine got into a tail- 
spin and crashed. He died on May 6, as a result of his fall, at Fort 
Worth, Tex. He was buried at Milton, Mass. 



[ 330 ] 



BRADFORD BROOKS LOCKE 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Third Aviation 
Instruction Centre, Issoudun, France 
Son of Warren A. and Madeline (Weedman) Locke, of Cambridge, 
Mass.; was born in Cambridge on Oct. 14, 1891. He attended the 
Cambridge Latin School, and graduated from Harvard College in 
1913. At Harvard he played on the freshman hockey team in 1910, 
and on the 'Varsity soccer team in 1911, 1912, and 1913. 

Prior to the declaration of war he was 2d Lieut, in the 1st Ar- 
mored Motor Battery, in the National Guard of New York. He 
enlisted in the Air Service at Mineola, N.Y., July 19, 1917, and 
was assigned to the Cornell Ground School, Ithaca, N.Y., where 
he remained from Aug. 20 to Oct. 13. On Oct. 25 he sailed overseas 
as Aviation Cadet. 

He was trained at the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre, Issoudun, 
France, from Nov. 17 to March 21. He was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, on May 18, 1918, and was on the staff at Issoudun. 

Lieut. Locke was honorably discharged from the Service at 
Mitchel Field, Garden City, N.Y., on April 20, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Arthur W. Locke, A.R.C., Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass. 



[ 332 ] 



*JOHN WATLING BRADLEY 



Second Lieutenant, Instructor, A.S., U.S.A. 

Killed in airplane accident, July 4, 1918 

Son of John and Selina A. (Watling) Bradley, of Groton, Mass.; 
was born at Quincy, Mass., Dec. 13, 1890. He was educated at the 
Groton High School and at the Mass. Agricultural College, Am- 
herst, graduating in 1914, with the degree of B.S. He received a 
Government appointment and became attached to the Bureau of 
Entomology at Washington, working at the laboratory at Melrose 
Highlands until his enlistment. 

He enlisted Nov. 27, 1917, and went to the Ground School, 
M.I.T., for training; was transferred to Princeton, N.J., in Dec, 
and from there was sent to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. He was again 
transferred to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, O., and was there 
commissioned 2d Lieut, on June 17, 1918. He was killed in a 
fall on July 4, 1918, while instructing cadets at Wilbur Wright 
Field. 

Lieut. Bradley's Commander wrote to his mother that Bradley 
was one of the most promising aviators at the Field, and that they 
had expected a brilliant career for him. 

Brother in Service — 

William G. Bradley, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 



[ 334 ] 



WILLIAM GEORGE BRADLEY 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA. 

Son of John and Selina A. (Watling) Bradley; was born at Quincy, 
Mass., Aug. 11, 1892. He was educated at the Groton High School 
and Mass. Agricultural College, Amherst. 

He enlisted at the Ground School, M.I.T., in Sept., 1917, and 
was trained there, at Princeton, N.J., Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., 
at the Flying School, Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., and at Brooks 
Field, San Antonio, Tex. Soon after reaching Kelly Field, Bradley 
was flying with his instructor who was driving the ship, when it 
fell, killing the instructor and injuring Bradley. In Nov., 1918, he 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., receiving Instructor's rating on Jan. 
6, 1919. At the closing of Brooks Field he was honorably dis- 
charged, Jan. 7, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Lieut. John Watling Bradley, Instructor in Aviation; killed 
in accident on July 4, 1918. 



[ 336 ] 



JOHN WINTHROP EDWARDS 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of John Couper and Elizabeth (Morrill) Edwards, of Marion, 
Mass.; was born in Brookline, Mass., Nov. 18, 1896. He was edu- 
cated at the Noble and Greenough School; Milton Academy, 1914; 
and at Harvard College, 1918. 

He enlisted in June, 1917, at Boston, and trained at the M.I.T. 
Ground School, and at Mineola, N. Y. He sailed for France in Oct., 
after receiving his commission as 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., and con- 
tinued his training at the French and U.S. Aviation Schools in 
France, notably at Issoudun. Lieut. Edwards spent the winter of 
1917-18 on the Brittany coast. In the summer of 1918 he trained 
student officers from the U.S. at Issoudun, in the use of de Havi- 
land machines. 

After the Armistice, Lieut. Edwards was chosen special courier 
for Gen. Patrick, Chief of the U.S. Air Service. His official duty 
was to take by airplane from Tours to Paris the completed MS. 
of the history of the American Air Service in France. He re- 
ceived a special recommendation for this courier work from Col. 
Hiram Bingham, his Commanding Officer; special commendation 
also for his work in training student officers. He was honorably 
discharged on Feb. 20, 1919, at Paris. 

Married, Nov. 30, 1918, Marcelle Moch, of France. 

Brother in Service* — 

B. Allison Edwards, Capt. U.S.A., 302 F.A., A.E.F. 

Grandfather in Service — 

Lewis Allison Edwards, M.D., Col., U.S.A. 



[ 338 ] 



JOE GARNER ESTILL, Jr. 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Joe Garner and Mary (North) Estill; was born in Lake- 
ville, Conn., May 6, 1894. He attended the New Haven public 
schools, graduated from Hotchkiss School, and Yale Scientific 
School. He holds the record of Hotchkiss School for half-mile, %'5". 

He enlisted in Boston on May 21, 1917, and trained at M.I.T. 
Ground School; had flying training at Mineola, N.Y., and was 
stationed at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., for a short time. On 
Oct. 3, 1917, he was commissioned 1st Lieut, in Aviation Section, 
Signal Service. 

Lieut. Estill returned to Mineola, and was ordered overseas on 
Oct. 30, 1917. He reported at Issoudun, at the 3d Aviation In- 
struction Centre; and was sent later to Chateauroux to fly with 
the French; thence to Coetquidan, for pilot, at the American Ar- 
tillery Observation School for some months. He then went back 
to Issoudun and finished his training in all forms of flying — scout 
flying, aerial gunnery, acrobacy, bombing. 

He was made assistant tester of planes at Issoudun, after finish- 
ing training at Cazaux. Two weeks later he was made tester of 
planes at St.-Jean de Monts, Vendee. After a few weeks there he 
had the misfortune to slip in alighting from his plane, and the pro- 
peller almost completely severed his left arm above the elbow. He 
was rushed to Base Hospital 34, Nantes, and his arm was saved. 

Brothers in Service — 

Wallace Estill, 2d Lieut. F.A.C.O. T.S., Camp Zachary Taylor. 
Gordon North Estill, member S.A.T.C., at Yale. 



[ 340 ] 



STERLING RUSSELL CHATFIELD 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Two Hundred Second 
Squadron (Italian) 

Son of Minotte Estes and Stella Stowe (Russell) Chatfield; was 
born in New Haven, Conn., Sept. 14, 1891. He attended the Taft 
and Cheshire Schools, and graduated from the Sheffield Scientific 
School, Yale, in 1915. He was on the football and hockey teams at 
Taft and Cheshire Schools, and holds the half-mile track record 
at Taft. 

On Dec. 15, 1915, he enlisted in Co. F (New Haven Grays), 2d 
Regiment, Conn. Infantry. He was on duty at the Mexican Border 
from June 20 to Nov. 8, 1916, and was appointed Corporal, Feb. 8, 
1917. He was sent as one of 25 non-commissioned officers to the 
1st R.O.T.C. at Plattsburg, May 20, 1917. He was honorably dis- 
charged as a Corporal from U.S. Army on Aug. 16, 1917, by reason 
of enlistment in S.E.R.C., Aug. 10, 1917. About July 20, Chatfield 
was sent as Acting Sergeant in charge of 15 men, to U.S. Ground 
School, M.I.T., and during the school term he was Acting Sergeant 
of the class, graduating as a cadet on Sept. 29, 1917. He was hon- 
orably discharged as Corporal from Nat. Guard of U.S. on Aug. 5, 
1917, when the regiment entered Federal Service. 

He sailed for France on Oct. 17, 1917, and trained at Issoudun 
until Feb. 8, 1918, when he was transferred to Campo Avest, Avi- 
ation Camp, at Foggia, Italy. Having finished his preliminary 
training at Foggia, he received his brevetto on June 8, 1918, and 
was made a member of the Aero Club d' Italia. He was transferred 
to Campo Sud, Foggia, on June 9. 

On June 25, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut. Air Service 
(Aeronautics), of the National Army, and started instruction on 
Caproni machines. Lieut. Chatfield was later sent to Foggia Re- 
nantico, near the Italian front, as pilot bomber of a 600 h.p. Caproni 
biplane. He left for St.-Maixent, France, on Nov. 10, 1918. 

On Dec. 16 he sailed from Bordeaux for America. He reported 
at Garden City, N.Y., and was honorably discharged on Jan. 8, 
1919. 



[ 341 ] 



H. POTTER TRAINER 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Eighth Aero Squadron 

Son of Harry Reeves and Celia E. (Potter) Trainer, of Brookline, 
Mass. ; was born in Boston Dec. 8, 1891. He was educated, in the 
Brookline public schools, the Stone School, Boston, and Harvard 
College, A.B. 1915. He was a member of the freshman hockey team; 
captain of the second hockey team in 1914 and 1915; a member of 
the Institute of 1770, D.K.E. Fraternity, Hasty Pudding Club, 
and Owl Club. He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Platts- 
burg, from July 12 to Aug. 8, 1916. 

On April 16, 1917, he enlisted for four years, at Boston; re- 
ported at Mineola, N.Y., on April 23, and completed his R.M.A. 
tests on July 3. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. Aviation Section, 
S.O.R.C. July 18, 1917, On. July 25, he was sent to Mt. Clemens, 
Mich., for further instruction. He was on active duty with flying 
status orders from Aug. 11, 1917. On Oct. 25, he was ordered over- 
seas as Supply Officer attached to the 8th Aero Squadron. He sailed 
on Nov. 22, arriving in England on Dec, 8. He was immediately 
detached from the Squadron and attached to the Royal Flying 
Corps. The greater part of the next seven months he spent in three 
different hospitals with pleuro-pneumonia and mastoiditis. In 
Oct., 1918, being discharged as physically fit he resumed flying 
duties. At London Colney, Herts, Eng., he learned to fly SE 5. 
(combat) machines, and was on duty at that station as a scout 
pilot when the Armistice was signed. Lieut. Trainer was honorably 
discharged on Dec. 28, 1918, at Garden City, N.Y. 



[ 342 ] 



CHARLES LAKEMAN WARD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Student Officer 
Love Field, Dallas, Texas 

Son of Charles W. and Mabel (Brace) Ward; was born in Brook- 
line, Mass., Dec. 3, 1895. He was educated at the Browne and 
Nichols School, Cambridge, at Brookline High School, and at 
Harvard College, B.S. 1917. He was on his class football and soccer 
teams; and played on the Love Field football team, while in Service. 

He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in 1916, 
and trained with Harvard R.O.T.C. in 1917. He enlisted at Boston 
in April, 1917, and attended the 1st Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg from May to Aug., 1917. He was appointed to the 301st 
Mass. Infantry with the commission of 2d Lieut, on Aug. 15, 1917; 
and trained at Camp Devens, Mass., until March, 1918. He was 
stationed at Aviation Ground School, Austin, Tex., from March 
to May, 1918, detached from Service for instruction as a pilot. He 
attended Princeton Ground School in June, 1917; and Chanute 
Flying Field, Rantoul, 111., from July to Oct., 1918. He was ap- 
pointed Reserve Military Aviator in Oct., 1918, and transferred 
to Love Field, Dallas, Tex., where he spent Nov. and Dec, 1918. 

Lieut. Ward was honorably discharged from the Army on Dec. 
13, 1918, at Love Field, Dallas, Tex. 

Grandfather in Service — 

Captain Andrew Abbot Ward, U.S.N., Civil War, 
Grandfather in Service — 

Sergeant David Elwell Saunders, U.S.A., Civil War. 



[ 344 ] 



MARSHALL HEADLE 



First Lieutenant, A.S .A., U.S A., Second Aviation 
Instruction Centre 

Son of Rev. Edwin Charles and Clarendo (Yeomans) Headle, of 
Bolton, Mass.; was born in Winthrop, Mass., March 21, 1893. 
He was educated at the Winthrop High School, and the Mass. 
Agricultural College, Amherst. He was one of the first in rank at 
college, though having to work his way through. He played base- 
ball, and was the best shot in the rifle team. 

He enlisted in Aviation at the beginning of the war, at Spring- 
field, Mass., and was trained at M.I.T. Ground School. He sailed 
overseas and landed in France Sept. 17, 1917. He started flying 
under French instructors at Tours, and was trained with the 
Caudron plane, receiving his Reserve Military Aviation grade, in 
Feb., 1918, and the French brevet at the same time. For the next 
two months he took advanced flying on Nieuports, at Issoudun, 
in the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre, returning to Tours in 
March, 1918, when he began instruction in flying, and acted as 
staff pilot in the 2d Aviation Instruction Centre. From Aug., 1918, 
to March, 1919, he was Chef de Piste in the Observation Training 
Camp at Tours. He was then appointed instructor in the A.E.F. 
University, Beaune, France. 

Brother in Service — 

Herbert Wallace Headle, Corp., Co. E, 23d Engineers. 



[ 346 ] 



i 



ROBERT WALKER HARWOOD 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA 

Son of Herbert J. and Emilie Augusta (Green) Harwood; was born 
at Littleton, Mass., July 16, 1897. He was educated at Concord 
(Mass.) High School, and at Harvard College, class of 1920. At 
college he became a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, Institute of 
1770, Delta Upsilon, and was on the board of the Harvard Crimson. 
He was the holder of the Harvard interscholastic pole vault record, 
12' |", and was a member of the Harvard freshman and 'Varsity 
track teams. He attended the Plattsburg Camp in 1916, and trained 
with the Harvard R.O.T.C. in 1917. 

He enlisted at Boston on Dec. 24, 1917. He attended the U.S. 
School of Military Aeronautics, Princeton, from Feb. 16 to April 
13, 1918; was stationed in turn at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., April 
22 to May 13, 1918; Scott Field, Belleville, 111., May 15 to Sept. 
26, 1918, and was commissioned 2d Lieut. A.S.A., on July 27, 1918. 
He was stationed at Park Field, Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 27, 1918, 
to Jan. 25, 1919. At Park Field, Lieut. Harwood was Officer in 
Charge of Formation Flying. He was honorably discharged on 
Jan. 25, 1919, at Park Field, to finish his course at Harvard College. 

Brothers in Service — 

Herbert E. Harwood, 1st Lieut., A.S. (MA.) 

Jonathan H. Harwood, Capt. 303d F. A. Eight months' serv- 
ice in France as Battalion Commander; commanded Offi- 
cers' Artillery School at Camp Devens, Mass. 



[ 348 ] 



LOYAL R. SAFFORD 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Third Aviation 
Instruction Centre, Issoudun, France 

Son of Charles R. and Drusilla A. (Robinson) Safford of Wollaston, 
Mass.; was born in Atlantic, Mass., on Oct. 4, 1897. He was edu- 
cated at the Quincy (Mass.) High School; at Boston University, 
and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. In school and college 
he played baseball and basket-ball. 

He enlisted in Boston on Aug. 29, 1917, and was assigned to the 
Ground School, M.I.T., on Nov. 17, 1917. He was later trans- 
ferred to the Ground School at Princeton University, from which 
he graduated on Feb. 9, 1918. He continued his training at Camp 
Dick, Dallas, Tex., Feb. 12 to April 3, 1918, and at Kelly Field, 
San Antonio, Tex., April 4 to April 23. He was then sent to Hazel- 
hurst Field, N.Y., attached to the 1st U.S. Coast Patrol. He re- 
ceived his commission as 2d Lieut, on June 4, 1918, and was 
ordered to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., on June 15, and from there 
to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, O. He was then transferred to 
Hoboken, N.J., for overseas service, and sailed Sept. 8, 1918. 

On arriving at Brest, Sept. 20, Lieut. Safford was assigned to 
the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre at Issoudun, France, at which 
he remained until Jan. 8, 1919. He was ordered to Angers on Jan. 
8, and to Brest on Feb. 3. He sailed for America on Feb. 8, arriv- 
ing at Philadelphia on Feb. 21, 1919. Lieut. Safford was honorably 
discharged at Camp Dix, N.J., on Feb. 23, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Henry W, Safford, Corp. 301st Infantry, A.E.F. 



[ 350 ] 



RALPH MAURICE PHELPS 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Robert Wiley and Martha Gibson (Palmer) Phelps, of 
Gloucester, Mass.; was born in Clinton, Mass., April 11, 1892. He 
was educated in the public schools of Gloucester and at Dartmouth 
College, xA..B. 1914. At college he was a member of the Mandolin 
and Glee Club, the Outing Club, and Kappa Sigma Fraternity. He 
later engaged in the automobile business. 

On June 20, 1917, he enlisted in the Aviation Service, and was 
ordered to the M.I.T. Ground School, where he remained until 
Aug. 20, when he was sent to Flying School at Scott Field, Belle- 
ville, 111. He left Belleville Nov. 20, 1917; was commissioned 1st 
Lieut. Dec, 1917, and reported to Mineola, N.Y., about Dec. 20. 
He received instruction there until Aug. 20, 1918, when he sailed 
overseas and was stationed at Sussex, Eng., at the Handley- 
Page Acceptance Park No. 1. There he acted in many capacities 
as Assistant Flying Adjutant, until the signing of the Armistice, 
when he assumed the duties of Adjutant, until the camp was dis- 
mantled. About Nov. 20 he went to London as liaison officer, and 
worked in conjunction with the British Flying Forces, until Eng- 
lish Aviation affairs were settled, receiving permission from the 
Royal Air Force to wear the insignia of the Eagle and Crown, for 
services rendered. Lieut. Phelps was ordered to Paris about Jan. 
20, 1919, as a liaison officer. 

Married, Aug. 3, 1917, Harriet Hazeltine Gage, of Haverhill, 
Mass.; a son, Ralph M., Jr., born May 31, 1918. 



[ 352 ] 



* WILLIAM ST. AGNAN STEARNS 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Seventh Aviation 
Instruction Centre, France 
Killed in airplane accident. May 25, 1918 
Son of Richard Sprague and Carrie (Gill) Stearns, of Jamaica 
Plain, Mass.; was born in Eastbourne, Eng., Sept. 8, 1895. He 
fitted for college at the Noble and Greenough School, and grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1917, with a high record for scholar- 
ship. He was a member of the Institute, D.K.E., and Hasty Pud- 
ding Club; and was for two years captain of the Harvard rifle 
team. He attended the Plattsburg Camp in 1915. 

He enlisted in May, 1917, from M.I.T., where he was in the 
first squadron of 25 to receive ground instruction. He was trans- 
ferred to Mineola, N.Y., about July 10, 1917, passed his Reserve 
Military air test Aug. 11, 1917, and was sent to San Antonio, 
Tex., for a month of training. He sailed for France on Nov. 1, and 
continued his training at Issoudun. From there he went to the 
bombing school at Clermont-Ferrand. In Jan., 1918, he was com- 
missioned 1st Lieut., and was made instructor at the 7th Aviation 
Instruction Centre, Clermont-Ferrand. He was acting as chief 
pilot and testing a machine, on May 25, 1918, when he fell, and 
was killed in the execution of his duty. With him was George M. 
Martin, who was also killed. He is buried at Clermont-Ferrand. 

Capt. Walker M. Ellis, Officer in Charge of Training at Clermont- 
Ferrand, after stating that on account of the skill, judgment, and 
ability of Lieut. Stearns, he had retained him as instructor, wrote: 

Though he did n't like it, he accepted his assignment cheerfully and did 
splendidly as an instructor. . . . We soon grew to have absolute con- 
fidence in him. He was above all things reliable. He never did any spec- 
tacular flying, but every movement in the air was perfect, and he knew 
what he was doing every instant of the time. . . . 

There were two or three Fiats, which were ready for testing. ... It 
seems that he had taken up one. . . . The immediate cause of the trouble 
was a vertical bank at about 2000 feet, during which the nose of the ma- 
chine fell, which resulted in a tail-spin. . . . He was instantly killed. . . . 
No other accident ever did, or will, affect me as that one did. He was such 
a dear boy; and he represented the very best in young American manhood. 

Brother in Service — 

George Gill Stearns, 1st Canadian Reserve Battalion. 



[ 354 ] 



VOLNEY DALTON HURD 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Six Hundred Forty- 
Fourth Aero Squadron 

Son of George W. and Jessie (Dalton) Hurd; was born in Boston, 
May 2, 1898. He was educated at the English High School, Boston, 
and had one year at Northeastern College. 

He enlisted on Oct. 26, 1917, at Boston, and was trained at 
M.I.T. Ground School and Cornell University, later going to 
Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, 
on May 9, 1918, as pursuit pilot, and sailed overseas Sept. 17, 1918. 
He was attached to the 644th Squadron at Issoudun, France. On 
May 8, 1918, he fell 800 feet with his machine, completely wreck- 
ing it, but escaping with a few minor cuts and bruises. He was 
appointed one of the eight instructors in France of aerial fighting 
and tactics. When his school closed he became interested in fur- 
thering entertainments for those in Service and was attached to 
the Show Detail, taking a company of 25 enlisted men organized 
as a minstrel show, to all the camps and stations in France; he and 
two other officers comprising the orchestra. He had just reached 
the front when the Armistice was signed. 

Citations 

1. In accordance with instructions from Commanding Officer the fol- 
lowing is submitted: 2d Lieut. Volney D. Hukd, A.S. On Nov. 11, 1918, 
Lieut. Hurd was detailed as Combat Instructor at Field No. 8. Despite 
his lack of previous experience as an instructor, his alertness and ability 
to fly soon made his work noticeable in its thoroughness. He displayed a 
willingness to work and a precision in his efforts that marked him as an 
exponent of the efficiency of the field. His careful analysis and correction 
of the faults of his pupils made them pilots of high standard. 

(Signed) H. L. Wingate 

Captain, A.S. 

You would not have been selected to be a member of the teaching force 
of the largest and most important flying school in France if it had not 
been that you showed unusual ability as a pilot and reliability and trust- 
worthiness as an officer. Your self-sacrifice and loyalty in training others 
to achieve brilliant victories merits the highest commendation. 

(Signed) Hiram Bingham 

Lt.-Col., A.S., Commanding 



[ 356 ] 



FREDERIC WYLLIS CALDWELL 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Forty-Eighth Aero 
Squadron, First Provisional Wing 

Son of Frederic Atherton and Sylvia (Woodin) Caldwell, of Kings- 
ton, R.I.; was born at Toledo, O., Sept. 22, 1892. He was educated 
at the Woonsocket (R.I.) public schools, and at Rhode Island State 
College, where he was on the basket-ball and track teams. 

He enlisted in the Aviation Service at Cambridge, Mass., July 
15, 1917. He graduated from the M.I.T. Ground School Nov. 17, 
and was ordered to Garden City, N.Y., for overseas training. He 
was transferred to the Flying School, Love Field, Dallas, Tex., 
Dec. 25, 1917, where he completed his course and was commissioned 
2d Lieut. April 20, 1918. He was sent successively to Camp Dick, 
to Langley Field, Hampton, Va., and to Taliaferro Field, Fort 
Worth, Tex., where he was retained as instructor until Oct. 2, 1918, 
when he was again transferred to Garden City for overseas service. 
He was attached to the 48th Squadron, 1st Provisional Wing, at 
Mitchel Field, Garden City. Later he was transferred to Hazel- 
hurst Field, Mineola, N.Y. He is a member of the Aero Club of 
America. 

On Feb. 15, 1919, Lieut. Caldwell was sent to Ancon, Panama, 
for special flying work. He is still in Service. 

Brother in Service — 

Seth Atherton Caldwell, Ensign, U.S.N. 

Grandfather in Service — 

Charles Henry Bromedge, Line officer, U.S.N. , in Civil War. 
Commanded gunboat Itaska at capture of New Orleans. 
Commodore in blockade squadron. 

Great-grandfather in Service — 

Charles Henry Caldwell, officer, U.S.N. ; died at sea from 
wound received in Mexican War. 

Great-great-grandfather in Service — 

Charles Caldwell, Marine officer, U.S.N. 



[ 358 ] 



WALTER FREDERIC THOMAS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Staff Pilot 
Second Corps 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Frederic William Thomas; was born at 
Melrose, Mass., Dec. 28, 1888. He was educated at the Melrose 
High School, the Allen School, Newton, Mass., and at Dartmouth 
College, where he was a member of Theta Delta Chi Fraternity. 
Before the war he served in Co. L, 8th Regiment, M.V.M. 

He joined the National Guard, U.S.A., on June 28, 1916, and 
served as Regiment Supply Sergeant of the 8th Regulars at Camp 
Cotton, Tex., on the Mexican Border; being honorably discharged 
in May, 1917. He enlisted in Aviation Service on May 14, 1917, 
at the 1st Plattsburg Officers' Training Camp, and attended first 
the M.I.T. Ground School, graduating Dec. 8, 1917. He received 
flying training at Park Field, Memphis, Tenn., and was there 
commissioned 2d Lieut, on March 22, 1918. He sailed for France 
on May 19, 1918; received Nieuport training at the 3d Aviation 
Instruction Centre, Issoudun, France; qualified as an observation 
pilot at the 2d Aviation Instruction Centre, Tours, France; and 
studied aerial gunnery at St.-Jean-des-Monts, Vendee, France. On 
Oct. 20, 1918, he was ordered to the Zone of Advance, and was 
assigned to 2d Corps Aeronautical School as staff pilot, at Chatillon- 
sur-Seine. At the time of the Armistice he was training observers 
in photographic missions, infantry liaison and artillery reglage. His 
was the last school in France to close after the Armistice; and 
Lieut. Thomas was still continuing his work there in Feb., 1919. 



[ 360 ] 



SEYMOUR SOULE 



Flying Cadet, A.S., U.S.A. 
Son of Allen P. and Harriet L. (Seymour) Soule, of Hingham, 
Mass.; was born in Maiden, Mass., April 5, 1891. He was educated 
in the public schools of Hingham, and at Colby College, where he 
played on the 'Varsity football team. Previous to enlisting he 
served three years in Co. H, 2d Regiment, Maine Nat. Guard; two 
years in Battery A, 1st Regt. Mass. F.A., seeing Service on the 
Mexican Border in 1916. 

He enlisted in Aviation on Oct. 23, 1917, at Boston, and was 
assigned to Princeton Ground School, Nov. 24, 1917. He grad- 
uated Feb. 2, 1918, and served as Squadron Commander for five 
weeks, when he was transferred to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., on 
Feb. 5, 1918. From there he was sent to Ellington Field, Houston, 
Tex., on March 8, 1918. On April 1, 1918, Cadet Soule received an 
injury from a collision in the air, while training at Ellington Field, 
which resulted in his physical disqualification for the Air Service. 
He was recommended for a commission on June 25, 1918; but was 
discharged on July 8, 1918. 

Quoting from the Findings and Recommendation of the Head- 
quarters Board, at Ellington Field, dated June 25, 1918: 

The Board is of the opinion that on account of the physical disqualifi- 
cations of this cadet, he should be removed from flying status and dis- 
continue his training as pilot. He is an excellent type of man, his record 
is absolutely clean at this School, and his services as a cadet in training for 
a commission have been satisfactory in every respect except physically, 
and inasmuch as he had had some 45 hours' training and is particularly 
acquainted with the Air Service, the Board recommends that he be con- 
sidered as a candidate for a commission as Adjutant, or as a Supply Officer, 
and if this be not approved, it is recommended that he be discharged from 
the service of the United States. 

Mr. Soule was assigned to duty as Inspector and Tester of Air- 
planes at Detroit Acceptance Park, by the Bureau of Aircraft 
Production, on Sept. 9, 1918. He resigned from this duty on Dec. 
10, 1918. 

Married, June 23, 1917, Eleanor Patterson. 



[ 362 ] 



HOWARD C. HOYT 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., TJ.S.A 
Son of George O. and Mary Etta (Cook) Hoyt; was born at Haver- 
hill, Mass., Dec. 29, 1891. He was educated in the Haverhill 
Schools, at Deering High School, Portland, Me., and at Dartmouth 
College. 

He enlisted at Boston on April 15, 1917, and attended the 1st 
Plattsburg Camp that spring and summer; and the S.M.A., M.I.T., 
Cambridge, from Oct. 10 to Dec. 1, 1917. He was successively 
trained at Rich Field, Waco, Tex., Dec. 7, 1917, to April 11, 1918; 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., April 16 to May 10; Hoboken, N.J., 
May 16 to June 1; Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., June 12 to June 29; 
Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla., June 29 to Aug. 3, 1918. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut, on March 30, 1918. After finishing his course 
at Fort Sill, he was chosen temporary instructor, but was released 
at his own request. At Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he 
was ordered from Aug. 8 to Sept. 4, 1918, on finishing his course 
he was again appointed instructor. But after making a special plea, 
Lieut. Hoyt was again released and obtained overseas orders. He 
was put in command of a casual company and stationed at Ho- 
boken, N.J., and Camp Merritt, from Sept. 16 to Oct. 13, 1918. 
This delay prevented him from seeing active service. He sailed 
overseas, however, in Oct., and was stationed in France from Oct. 
26, 1918, to Jan. 26, 1919, when he was ordered back to America, 
and honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 14. 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

George S. Hoyt, Serg't, 1st Class, Q.M. Corps. 



[ 364 ] 



FRED DON POLLARD, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Fred Don and Lois (Bryant) Pollard of Proctorsville, Vt.; 
was born in Proctorsville, Jan. 13, 1892. He attended the Black 
River Academy, Ludlow, Vt., and graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1911. 

He enlisted at Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass., on Sept. 17, 1917, 
and served as Corporal in the 301st Infantry until Jan. 5, 1918, 
when he was transferred to the Air Service. He attended the 
Ground School at Cornell University from Jan. 5 to March 5, 1918, 
and was then ordered to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he re- 
mained until April 23. He was sent to Park Field, Tenn., where 
he stayed from April 23 to Aug. 28, and where he was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., on July 16, 1918. Subsequently he re- 
ceived further training at Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla., from Aug. 
28 to Oct. 28; and at Taliaferro Field, Tex., from Oct. 28 to Nov. 
13, 1918. He was ordered to the Air Service Depot, Garden City, 
N.Y., where he was held from Nov. 13, to the date of his honorable 
discharge from the Service on Dec. 19, 1918. 

Married, Dec. 16, 1918, France Ganguet. 

Brothers in Service — 

Rowland P. Pollard, Corp., Co. C, 310th Infantry. 

Bryant F. Pollard, 3d Serg't., 58th F.A. 

Roy G. Pollard, Private, Dartmouth S.A.T.C. 

Sister in Service — 

Mary V. Pollard, Dietitian, Ellis Island Hospital. 



[ 365 ] 



CHARLES KINGMAN PERKINS 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Second Aviation 
Instruction Centre 

Son of Rev. Sidney Kingman and Jennie H. (Shattuck) Perkins, 
of Manchester, Vt.; was born in Haverhill, N.H., Oct. 21, 1891. He 
was educated at the York (Me.) High School, and at Amherst 
College, A.B. 1912. For two years after graduation he was Assist- 
ant Register and Assistant to the Dean of Amherst. He then 
entered business with the Sears Manuf. Co., of Walpole, Mass. 
Just prior to his enlistment he was treasurer of a company which 
was to furnish the Government with surgical dressings. 

He enlisted at New York City on July 17, 1917. From Aug. 20 
to Oct. 13 he studied at Cornell University Ground School. On Oct. 
27, 1917, he sailed for France with the 10th Detachment of Flying 
Cadets. From Nov. 17 to Feb. 10, he trained in flying at Issoudun, 
3d Aviation Instruction Centre. From Feb. 10 to May 16, he was 
first student, then instructor, in aerial gunnery at Cazaux. From 
May 16 to Aug. 16 he had pilot's training at 2d and 3d A.I.C. 
From Aug. 16 to Nov. 27 he was staff pilot attached to 2d A.I.C. 
He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on May 18, 1918. He was honor- 
ably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on March 18, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Roger Conant Perkins, Chief Quartermaster, U.S.N.R.F.; 
killed in seaplane accident, March 14, 1918. 



[ 366 ] 



/ 



ROGER CONANT PERKINS 



Chief Quartermaster, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 
Killed in the fall of a seaplane, March 14, 1918 
Son of Rev. Sidney Kingman and Jennie H. (Shattuck) Perkins, 
of Manchester, Vt.; was born at West Springfield, Mass., Nov. 6, 
1895. He was educated in the schools of York, Me., and Man- 
chester, Vt., and at Amherst College, class of 1917. He was a 
member of the Amherst football team, and was manager of the 
'Varsity baseball team at the time of his enlistment. He was also 
a member of the Sphinx Club and the Scarab at college. 

He enlisted at New York City on April 9, 1917. He trained at 
the M.I.T. Ground School, where he stood second in his class, 
with the honorary rank of brevet Ensign. On Feb. 12, 1918, he 
was sent to Key West, Fla., for training in flying. He had been up 
16 times alone, and was making his 50th flight, when his seaplane 
fell, on March 14, 1918, and he was killed. He is buried in Man- 
chester, Vt. 

A former teacher said of him: "Roger was a leader of boys and 
promised to become a leader of men." 

Brother in Service — 

Charles Kingman Perkins, 1st Lieut., U.S.A.S. 



[ 368 ] 



ARTHUR L. RICHMOND 



Captain, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Arthur Jones and Rosita (Lavalle) Richmond, of Boston, 
Mass.; was born in Boston, Aug. 31, 1896. He was educated at St. 
Mark's School, and at Harvard College. He was trained by the 
Harvard Undergraduate Aero Training Fund at the Thomas Avi- 
ation School, Ithaca, N.Y., from July to Oct., 1916, and flew at 
Marblehead in the winter of 1916-17. 

He enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, Mass., on March 1, 
1917, and was ordered to complete his training at the Curtiss Avia- 
tion School, Miami, Fla., where he remained as Sergeant, S.E.R.C., 
from March to June, 1917. He was subsequently ordered to Kelly 
Field, San Antonio, Tex., for advanced flying, for the month of 
July. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., Sig. R.C.A.S., on June 25, 
1917, and was put in command of the 22d Aero Squadron, U.S.A., 
attached to R.F.C., at Leaside, Toronto, Can., from Aug. to Oct., 

1917. He was then made Assistant Officer in Charge of Flying at 
Scott Field, Belleville, 111., from Oct. to Dec, 1917. He was then 
assigned to Park Field, Memphis, Tenn., from Dec, 1917, to Oct., 

1918, first as Assistant Officer in Charge of Flying, and later as 
Officer in Charge of Flying. He was commissioned Capt., S.C., 
Regular Army, on Feb. 19, 1918. He was ordered to the port of 
embarkation, Hoboken, N.J., on Oct. 15, 1918, sailed Nov. 11, 
and was turned back. Capt. Richmond was honorably discharged 
at Hoboken, N.J., on Dec 9, 1918, to enter the reserve forces. 

He flew almost 12,000 miles cross-country for the Third Liberty 
Loan, covering territory from Pensacola, Fla., to Chicago, 111., 
Kansas City, Mo., and Dayton, O. 



[ 370 J 



RICHARD W. SEARLE 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., One Hundred Sixty- 
Eighth Aero Squadron, First Army Observation 
Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Putnam Searle; was born in Boston, 
Mass., July 7, 1891. He graduated from the Stone School and from 
Harvard College, S.B. 1914. At college he played on his class foot- 
ball teams, and was a member of his class crew. At one time he 
was a member of Battery A, 1st Mass. F.A., N.G. 

He enlisted in Sept., 1917, at Cornell University, and trained 
there in the School of Aeronautics, graduating on Jan. 26, 1918. 
He then trained successively at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex.; 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; Langley Field, Hampton, Va.; and 
Taliaferro Field, Hicks, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, on 
May 2, 1918, and ordered overseas. 

Lieut. Searle sailed from Hoboken, N.J.; on Sept. 15, 1918, 
landed at Brest, France, and trained at St.-Maixent, Deux Sceurs, 
France; Issoudun, and Colombey-les-Belles; being assigned to the 
168th Aero Squadron, 1st Army Observation, at Mannonville. 

He was honorably discharged at St.-Aignan, Loire-et-Cher, 
France, on April 5, 1919. 



[ 372 ] 



* LAURENCE HILL CATE 



Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 
Died of pneumonia, Oct. 9, 1918 
Son of Frederick and Joanna (Lane) Cate, of Weymouth, Mass.; 
was born in Weymouth, April 19, 1896. He graduated from Thayer 
Academy, Braintree, Mass., in 1916, and was there captain of the 
baseball team. He entered Bowdoin College with the class of 1920. 
At Bowdoin he played baseball, and was a member of Zeta Psi 
Fraternity. He trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. for three 
months and enlisted in Boston in July, 1917, in the Naval Aviation 
Service. After a ground course at M.I.T., he was sent to Hampton 
Roads, Va., and thence to Pensacola, Fla. He was commissioned 
Ensign in the Naval Reserve Flying Corps on March 11, 1918, and 
had been recommended for Junior Lieutenant at the time of his 
death. He died of pneumonia following influenza on Oct. 9, 1918, 
at Pensacola. 

His Squadron Commander wrote of him : 

A good aviator, conservative flyer with a cool head. Rather young in 
appearance but above the average in brains, industry and reliability. He 
has a very pleasant personality. He is a conscientious worker. 

In the official report it was stated: 

For some time he was a flight instructor in an N 9 Squadron, teaching 
elementary flying. He was taken from this duty to be made an Assistant 
Division Commander in a division of flying boats, and soon became a 
Division Commander in the F boat squadron. From this duty he was 
promoted to be Assistant Patrol Officer, and later to the position of Patrol 
Officer, which he held at the time of his death. As Patrol Officer he had 
full charge of all navigation training flights out into the Gulf, and of all 
rescue work in connection with these flights. He was also in charge of all 
ground instruction in Navigation. His status was commensurate with that 
of a Senior Squadron Commander. His classification as to type of pilot was 
"HS Pilot." I have in official files of the School . . a confidential report 
to me from the Commander of the Squadron V. The comment made was 
"fine officer," and was signed by Squadron Commander, Lieut. V. F. 
Valdes. 

I feel that I knew Laurence well, personally, and can say without hes- 
itation or reservation that he was one of the most liked and admired 
officers of the Seaplane School. 

Brother in Service — 

Melville F. Cate, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 



[ 374 ] 



*ROBERT FITZGERALD CLARK 

Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 
Killed in airplane accident, Aug. 21, 1918 
Son of Robert Jones and Harriet (FitzGerald) Clark; was born at 
Dedham, Mass., on Sept. 13, 1898. He was educated at the Noble 
and Greenough School, Boston, and at Harvard College, class of 
1920. 

He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in 1916, 
and the Harvard R.O.T.C. in 1917. In April, 1917, he enlisted in 
the Naval Reserve Flying Corps; enrolled May 9, Quartermaster, 
1st class (Aviation). On June 27 he was sent to Pensacola, Fla., 
where he was in training for six months; there he was commissioned 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C., Class 5, on Dec. 17, 1917. 

He sailed overseas Jan. 13, 1918, and on arrival in England 
was assigned to duty with the Royal Naval Air Service, and for 
six months served at different stations on the English coast, among 
them, Westgate, Portland, and Felixstowe. On July 17, 1918, he 
was detached and ordered to Paris, where he was assigned to the 
U.S.N. Air Station at Brest, France; here he won the respect and 
confidence of his commanding officers, and he was acting as Chief 
Pilot of the station when he was killed, while flying in the perform- 
ance of his duty, on Aug. 21, 1918. He was buried at Kerfautras 
Cemetery, Brest, France. 



[ 376 ] 



*WINTHROP FLOYD SMITH 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Died of pneumonia, Oct. 10, 1918 
Son of Henry Floyd and Jennie (Saville) Smith; was born in 
Ashmont, Mass., July 28, 1893. He attended the Henry L. Pierce 
School, Dorchester, Mass.; Phillips Exeter Academy, and spent 
one year at Williams College. He graduated from Mass. Institute 
of Technology. He was an all-round athlete. At Phillips Exeter he 
was a member of Alpha Nu Fraternity, and managing editor of the 
Exonian in his senior year. He was a member of D.K.E. at Williams. 
In 1915 and 1916 he attended the Officers' Training Camps at 
Plattsburg. 

On May 8, 1917, he left the business in which he was engaged 
to enlist in the Naval Reserve Corps at Newport, R.I. He trained 
at the M.I.T. Ground School, and after passing all tests was sent 
to Key West, Fla., for a twelve weeks' course in flying. He was 
there commissioned Ensign, the first week in April, 1918. He was 
then sent to Bay Shore, N.Y., as Instructor in Aviation. He was a 
very successful navigating aviator, and trained several hundred stu- 
dents from April 22 to Oct. 10. He also acted as patrol pilot for sub- 
marines. He had a narrow escape in June, 1918, when a defective 
engine caused him to fall into the sea while hunting submarines. 
He remained clinging to a wing of his plane for 24 hours without 
help, as passing ships suspected him to be a German decoy. When 
finally rescued, he was so exhausted that he could not have held 
on an hour longer. In Sept. Ensign Smith was stricken with in- 
fluenza, but recovered in two weeks and returned to his duties as 
instructor. At this time he made a flight with Major Shaw, a 
British aviator, and performed many difficult manoeuvres. Less 
than three weeks later he was stricken with double pneumonia, 
and died after a few days' illness at Bay Shore, N.Y., on Oct. 10, 
1918. He was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery, Maiden, Mass. 

Paternal grandfather in Service: served in the Civil War. 

Great-grandfather in Service: Dr. John Sprague of Maiden, sur- 
geon in Revolutionary War. 

Great-great-grandfather in Service: Jonathan Webb of Quincy, 
Captain in Revolutionary War. 



[ 378 ] 



* ARTHUR HOUSTOUN WRIGHT 



First Lieutenant, Ninth Squadron, First Marine 
Aviation Force 
Died of broncho-pneumonia, Oct. 31, 1918 
Son of Rev. Arthur Henry and Claude Houstoun (Hopkins) Wright; 
was born Jan. 27, 1895, at Warehouse Point, Conn. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Newburyport, and at St. Paul's 
School, Garden City, N.Y.; entered Trinity College, class of 1918, 
where he spent two years; he was a member of the Delta Kappa 
Epsilon Fraternity. 

On April 7, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. Naval Reserve, and was 
for two months attached to the Mosquito Fleet. In June he was 
transferred to the U.S. Naval Aviation Force and sent in July to 
Canada to train with the Royal Flying Corps, at Camp Borden, 
Toronto, and other flying fields. He was commissioned Ensign in 
Nov., 1917, and, after two weeks' training at Norfolk with the sea- 
planes, was sent as instructor to Miami, Fla., where he was in 
charge of the gunnery school; in May, 1918, he was commissioned 
2d Lieut, and transferred to the Marine Aviation Corps, instruct- 
ing in the bombing school. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in 
July, 1918, and sailed for overseas July 18, with the 1st Marine 
Aviation Force. 

On Aug. 9 Lieut. Wright was sent to Squadron 218, Royal Air 
Force, B.E.F., where he reported for duty, with 2d Lieut. Charles 
A. Needham detailed as his observer. At 5 a.m. next morning he 
was ready to fly over the lines on a bombing-attack against the 
submarine docks and harbor at Ostend, which was situated at that 
time fifteen miles behind the Hun lines. 

On Aug. 10 his record shows him to have dropped 8 25-pound 
bombs on the mole at Zeebrugge. He was also credited with two 
raids against the submarine base at Bruges, where he was under 
fire from one of the most powerful Hun anti-air craft batteries. On 
one of these raids the Squadron was attacked by Fokker scouts, 
whom he helped materially in beating off. He was ordered to re- 
turn to the American Escadrille, on Aug. 22, to act as instructor. 

In Sept. he was sent to the U.S. Naval Aircraft Base at Eastleigh, 
Eng., to supervise the assembling of airplanes arriving from 
America, and later he flew a plane across the English Channel, to 

[ 380 ] 



ARTHUR HOUSTOUN WRIGHT 

the U.S. aerodrome at the front. On Oct. 7 he piloted Capt. D. C. 
Hanrahan, U.S.N., across the Channel to Dover, Eng., in order 
that Hanrahan might attend an important conference with the 
British authorities, and returned flying over the Channel in a 
heavy fog, in order that he might be back in time to participate in 
the first raid that Squadron 9 made against the Hun. 

On Oct. 14, with the late Gunnery Serg't David F. Price, as 
observer, he flew one of 7 American-built airplanes, equipped with 
Liberty motors and American guns, in a bombing-raid against the 
railway junction at Thielt, Belgium. This raid destroyed the very 
important railway yards and seriously hindered the Hun retreat 
at this strategic point. In the course of this raid 12 Boche fighting- 
scouts attacked the 7 American planes and 3 Germans were shot 
down. All the American airplanes returned safely, although two 
were so badly disabled that they were never flown again, and one 
observer was seriously wounded. This was the first time that a 
flight of fully American-built and armored airplanes, with Ameri- 
can-trained pilots and observers, had flown over the Flanders front. 

On Oct. 17, after flying 25 miles to the rear of the German lines, 
he dropped 4 112-pound bombs on the important railway yards at 
Steenbrugge. In the afternoon of the same date a flight, led by the 
late Major Douglas B. Roben, again bombed Steenbrugge and, 
owing to better visibility, the flight was able to report direct hits. 

On Oct. 18 Lieut. Wright led a raid against the retreating German 
troop-trains at Eecloo, Belgium, in order to destroy certain im- 
portant trains in the vicinity. This was successfully accomplished 
as the flight reported 8 direct hits, without any loss to themselves, 
although Wright's machine was perforated in wings and fuselage, 
by machine-gun bullets from ground batteries. 

On Oct. 23 Lieut. Wright was stricken with influenza and died 
at the British General Hospital 30, Calais, France, on Oct. 31, 1918. 
On Nov. 4, 1918, he was buried with full military honors in the 
British Military Cemetery, Les Baracques, Calais, France. 

Lieut. Wright was one of the founders of the Pursuit School 
of Aerial Bombing at Miami, and at the time of his death was on 
the eve of promotion to a captaincy. 

Married, July 1, 1918, Susan March Lowell. 



[ 382 ] 



* RALPH TALBOT 



Lieutenant (j.g.), Northern Bombing Squadron, U.S. Naval 
Aviation Service 
Killed in airplane accident, Oct. 25, 1918 

Son of Richard J. and Mary (O'Connell) Talbot; was born at 
South Weymouth, Mass., Jan. 6, 1897. He prepared for college at 
the Weymouth High and the Mercersburg preparatory schools, and 
entered Yale in the class of 1920. In college he played on the foot- 
ball, baseball, and cross-country teams in his freshman year. From 
June 1 to Sept. 15, 1917, he attended the DuPont Flying School, 
and on Oct. 15, 1917, enlisted in the U.S. Navy. 

He was sent to the M.I.T. and received further training at Key 
West, and at Miami, Fla. He was commissioned Ensign, about 
April 5, 1918. In July, 1918, he went overseas attached to the 
Northern Bombing Squadron. 

Lieut. Talbot proved a daring and efficient flyer and was the 
only member of his squadron who succeeded in bringing down an 
enemy plane. On Oct. 25, 1918, he went up to test a motor, which 
proved to be bad, and he crashed into a high embankment and 
was instantly killed, at La Fresne, France. He was buried on 
Oct. 31, in the British Military Cemetery at Les Baracques, Calais, 
France. 

The following extracts are from a letter written by a fellow 
aviator who was Talbot's tentmate: 

Our pilots were sent to a British school for a bit of practice after so long 
an absence from flying. Dick (Talbot) was the first from our squadron to 
go, leaving Sept. 15. His flying attracted so much attention there that he 
was allowed to take a Camel scout out, a privilege not given to the rest of 
our pilots. Dick finished there about the 22d, and was given our only 
De Haviland 4, with Liberty motor, to operate with the British. About 
this time they were engaged in dropping bully beef to a detachment of 
French troops cut off from their supply base, and he got some of that work. 
It was quite dangerous as the tins were dropped from under 500 feet, and 
the ships were exposed to a terrific machine-gun and rifle fire. It took 
stamina of the highest sort to stand the gruelling, but Dick enjoyed it. 
He used to laugh about his aerial grocery work. Then he went on high 
bombing with the British, bombing Ostend and Bruges from 12,000 feet. 
As his machine was so fast he was given the very hard task of protecting 
the rear of the squadron. He could dive and circle about without being 
out-distanced. On his first, or almost first raid, the squadron engaged in a 
running-fight with a superior number of Huns, and Dick with his gunner, 

[ 383 ] 



RALPH TALBOT 



Corporal Robinson, shot down one Boche plane, for which he was given 
official credit by the British, and commended by a letter from the com- 
manding officer of the First Marine Aviation Force. After a few more 
raids, he was recalled to stand by until our squadron was ready. 

On its first raid, Dick had motor trouble and hung about 500 feet below 
the squadron. After two hours the ships straggled in one by one, but Dick 
and Capt. Lytle were missing. Several hours later Dick came in with his 
plane shot very badly and his gunner missing. It developed that eleven 
Huns had dived on him, firing. Robinson shot one down, and his gun 
jammed. At that instant he received a stream of bullets through his left 
arm rendering it useless. While he was working with the gun Dick turned 
on the planes with his forward gun, but after three or four shots they 
jammed. Then Robinson recovering shot down a second. The third dived 
and shot him through the chest and stomach. Dick turned on the third 
with all guns useless, one of the most daring magnificent bluffs of the war. 
Then Robinson having fainted and fallen on the control Dick dived to 
within a hundred feet of the ground and started back across miles of 
hostile territory, with the third Hun on his tail, firing constantly. Dick's 
account to me was most graphic. Twisting, turning, zooming trees, he 
fled with every ounce of power, while above the roar of the motor he could 
feel the zip of the bullets as every part of the plane was struck. At every 
house a Boche would snipe at him with rifles, and he passed under a bar- 
rage the Huns were laying on the trenches with heavy artillery. Finally 
he passed over the zigzag line of trenches, saw familiar uniforms and the 
scout left him. Again he showed his coolness by landing at a Belgian air- 
drome and rushing the unconscious Robinson to a hospital, undoubtedly 
saving his life. The Belgian Major was very enthusiastic over his conduct, 
and it is understood was going to recommend both Dick and Robinson for 
medals for heroic conduct. Whether this will go through, I don't know. 

The fatal accident happened about 1.15 the afternoon of Oct. 25. Just 
after lunch he went out to make a short motor test. The motor was bad, 
and he crashed into an earth embankment. His passenger was thrown 
thirty feet and the machine instantly burst into flames. But Dick did not 
know because death was instantaneous and painless. So passed a gallant 
officer, a daring flyer and a most Christian gentleman. 



[ 384 ] 



FRANK W. RILEY 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Instructor in Aviation, Naval Air 
Station, Miami, Florida 
Died of pneumonia, Oct. 12, 1918 

Son of Frank J. and Ellen M. (Hart) Riley of Dorchester, Mass.; 
was born in Boston, on Aug. 13, 1894. He was educated at the 
English High School in Boston, and at the Roxbury Latin School. 

When war was declared, he was in the employ of the Schumaker- 
Santry Co. of Boston. He enlisted on July 25, 1917, at the Charles- 
town Navy Yard, and was assigned to the Ground School at M.I.T. 
He was sent from there, Jan. 19, 1918, to Key West, Fla., where 
he was commissioned Ensign on March 25, 1918. He was subse- 
quently detailed to the Naval Air Station at Miami, Fla., as In- 
structor in Aviation. 

From Miami, he and Electrician Walter P. Clark set out on 
Friday, June 7, 1918, in a regular U.S.N, hydroplane, in search of 
the German submarine which was then terrorizing the Atlantic 
Coast. Before they had gone 25 miles from shore, engine trouble 
developed and they were forced to descend, landing in the Gulf 
Stream. That afternoon and by turns all night, they labored over 
the engine, but were unable to make it work. On the afternoon of 
June 8, when the heavy plane showed signs of sinking, they 
sighted a four-masted schooner. Mounting the wings of their 
plane, they signalled frantically, but the schooner, thinking their 
craft to be a camouflaged U-boat, sped away. At dawn, June 
9, sharks began to hover about the submerging plane, but at about 
8 o'clock that day a Norwegian freighter came into view, and its 
captain made out the figures of the two men signalling from the 
wings. They immediately made for the plane. When Ensign Riley 
and his companion were picked up, they had drifted 150 miles 
from land. 

On Oct. 12, 1918, Ensign Riley died of pneumonia, at Miami, 
Fla., and was buried at Calvary Cemetery in Boston, Oct. 17, 1918. 



[ 386 ] 



* MARTIN LUTHER HOPE 



Cadet, Marine Flying Corps 
Killed in airplane accident, Miami, Fla., Oct. 22, 1918 

Son of Rev. William Frederick and Martha (Festner) Hope, of 
Meredosia, 111.; was bom in Independence, Kan., on Oct. 27, 1897. 
He attended the elementary schools of Portland, Ore., and Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. He graduated from the Central High School, Pitts- 
burgh, with honors, after three years' work, and won the scholar- 
ship offered by the Harvard Club of Western Pennsylvania. He 
entered Harvard College with the class of 1919, but graduated in 
1918, summa cum laude. In 1916 he was a member of the Freshman 
Debating Team against Yale; in 1917-18, a member of the 'Varsity 
Debating Team and the winner of the Interclass Debating Cham- 
pionship Cup. On graduation he was awarded the George B. Sohier 
Prize of $250 and the Bowdoin Prize of $100. He also received the 
John Harvard Scholarship and a Detur as a mark of high academic 
distinction. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, in Feb., 1919, four 
months after his death; this is believed to be the first instance of 
the conferring of the honor of Phi Beta Kappa posthumously. 

He enlisted in the 1st Marine Aviation Corps in Boston, on 
June 5, 1918, and was assigned to the Ground School, M.I.T., for 
instruction. He was ordered to the Marine Flying Field in Miami, 
Fla., in Aug., 1918, where he was soon regarded as the best flyer 
at the field. On Oct. 22, 1918, he was killed. The accident occurred 
during target practice; the pilot, Paul Gering, lost control of the 
machine which crashed to earth, killing both men. At the time of 
his death, Cadet Hope was about to receive his wings as a full- 
fledged pilot, having been recommended for a commission as 1st 
Lieut, on Oct. 9, 1918. After his death he was awarded Golden 
Wings by custom. He was buried in Meredosia, 111. 

An extract from a letter from fellow cadet officers to Mr. Hope's 
father, dated Oct. 24, 1918, follows: 

In the midst of the great loss come to our camp in the loss of your son, 
we ask to join our grief with yours. . . . Months of constant comradeship 
have brought a deep respect and lasting admiration ... for his sober 
judgment, unselfishness and fine qualities as a friend. We feel that death 
in an effort to win this war is the highest honor a man can attain. . . . 

The Secretary of the Harvard Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, in 
sending Mr. Hope's key to his father, wrote on March 12, 1919: 

[ 388 ] 



MARTIN LUTHER HOPE 

Martin's remarkable achievement in getting the summa cum laude in 
three years singled him out as one of the most brilliant men in the class; 
and after all that he had done, we felt that election to Phi Beta Kappa 
was the least we could do in recognition of his unusual success. 

Prof. Chester Noyes Greenough, Acting Dean of Harvard Col- 
lege, wrote on June 2, 1919: 

As you know, we give as prizes to our best scholars, books which we 
call "Deturs," and these books are treasured by men who receive them as 
one of the most valuable souvenirs of their college career. Your son, had 
he lived, would have received a detur, and I should have been very proud 
to hand it to him and to say to him that I felt confident that his future 
career would justify the promise of his work with us. Your son's death in 
the service of his country makes it impossible for me to do more than to 
send you the book which he has so richly earned and to try to say to you 
not only what I say to every recipient of a detur — that the College is 
proud of his scholarship — but also to tell you that the College feels not 
only pride in the success of its students, but grief and sympathy when 
they are cut off at the beginning of their careers. 

The patriotic spirit of Martin Luther Hope is finely shown in a 
letter written Oct. 19, four days before his death: 

I was recommended for my commission about two weeks ago; it will 
arrive shortly now. I was chosen as an instructor, but have gotten around 
the matter now. And so I am to leave with the next squadron. 

Grandfather in Service — 
Frederick C. Festner, Captain, 29th Wisconsin Regiment, 
fought in Civil War, and was wounded at Memphis, Tenn. 



[ 390 ] 



JOHN PERRIN 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of Arthur and Mary (Schlesinger) Perrin; was born in Brook- 
line, Mass., April 23, 1895. He was educated at the Country Day 
School, Newton, Mass., the Volkmann School, and at the Stone 
School, Boston. He entered Harvard College in the class of 1920. 
He was on the Volkmann four-oared crew, and at the Stone School, 
rowed stroke on the winning eight-oared crew against Cascadilla, 
in 1916. At Harvard, during his freshman year, he was on the crew 
squad until the war stopped athletics. He attended the Officers' 
Training Camp at Plattsburg in 1916, and trained with the Harvard 
R.O.T.C., 1916-17. 

He enlisted in the N.R.F.C. in Boston, in April, 1917. He was 
sent to Pensacola, Fla., for both ground work and flying instruc- 
tion, and served there as Instructor and Beach-Master for a few 
weeks in 1917. He was commissioned Ensign on Dec. 17, 1917. 

He sailed overseas on Jan. 13, 1918, and after a week in France 
was ordered to England, and attached as pilot to the Royal Naval 
Air Service at Great Yarmouth, under the command of Capt. 
Samson (later Col.), D.S.O., one of the few men on whose head a 
price was set by the Germans. The Great Yarmouth Station sent 
patrols daily to the German, Dutch, and Friesian coasts, and in 
one night accounted for 5 Zeppelins out of 7 that attempted a raid 
on London. He remained at the Great Yarmouth Station through 
Aug., acting as a pilot for "Shorts" and "Schneider Sea-Scouts." 
An account of one of Lieut. Perrin's experiences follows: 

One morning a flight of five "boats" started for the other side after a 
Zeppelin which made its customary dawn patrol down the German coast. 
Each flying boat carried five men, eleven machine guns, wireless set, and 
gasoline for ten hours. Getting off the water in the pitch dark and forming 
in formation is quite a stunt; but by means of flashes of light we signalled 
to each other, and finally got into formation, and kept it in the dark all 
the way across the 200-odd miles to the German coast. We reached it at 
dawn off Borkum Island, about the place where Germany joins Holland; 
below us was the English light seas fleet with a destroyer which towed a 
Sopwith scout on a lighter. A lighter is a barge about sixty feet long, and 
a Sopwith scout (called a "camel" because of its hump) is a fast land plane 
that is good for getting Zeps. These camels have such a powerful engine 
and can climb so fast that they can get off a lighter and into the air before 
they have travelled the length of the lighter (60 feet). Flying a camel from 
a lighter had only been attempted once before, and unsuccessfully at that. 

[ 391 ] 



JOHN PERRIN 



We skirted the German coast, keeping in close formation, at an altitude 
of 3000 feet. Suddenly I saw the Zeppelin at about 17,000 feet coming 
down the coast toward us, about three miles off the German coast. We 
signalled the find to the leading boat, dived in formation down to the 
water so as to be invisible from the "Zep," tore back to the destroyer and 
signalled it. At once the camel, with Flight Lieut. Culley as pilot, took off 
the lighter, and followed us back up the coast toward the "Zep" until 
we got in sight of it. Before the camel left us, we had to drive off a flight 
of German planes which were attacking it; the camel was helpless be- 
cause it carried only explosive ammunition for the "Zep" instead of 
bullets. Although we successfully protected the camel and drove off the 
German planes, we knew that we did not have much time, for they were 
sure to be back in large numbers as soon as the vanquished machines 
spread the news. Suddenly we picked up a German S.O.S. from the "Zep," 
and then it burst into smoke and fell. 

It was risky to stay around the German coast any longer, for we ex- 
pected an overpowering number of enemy planes to come out after us at 
any second; but we stayed and were successful in finding the camel and 
conducting it back to the destroyer. The original orders were to turn for 
home as soon as the "Zep" had bean shot down; the camel was to fly 
south, and the pilot to intern himself in Holland after destroying the 
machine. This would have meant that the Allies would have lost his serv- 
ices for the rest of the war. We met him on the way to Holland to carry 
out his orders, and took him to his destroyer. Then Flight Lieut. Culley 
made a stall landing with his land plane on the water alongside the English 
destroyer, which quickly got two small boats under the wings of the camel 
before it could sink, and the whole thing was hoisted aboard. We all got 
home safely, feeling satisfied at shooting down a "Zep" under the very 
noses of the Huns. 

After eight months' work at Great Yarmouth, Ensign Perrin was 
transferred to Felixstowe, where he flew "boats." He was subse- 
quently returned to the American command, and stationed at 
Lough Foyle, Ireland. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on Oct. 
1, 1918. 

Lieut. Perrin was placed on inactive service on Jan. 13, 1919, at 
the U.S. Naval Air Station, Bay Shore, New York. 

Brother in Service — 

Hugh Perrin (Harvard R.O.T.C.), seaman, U.S.N.R. (In 
training for Naval Aviation at M.I.T. in the Naval Unit, 
when the Armistice was signed.) 



[ 392 ] 



DONALD CARY PERO 



Ensign, U.S. Naval Aviation Service 
Lost at sea, Aug. 24, 1918 

Son of George Francis and Margaret (Cary) Pero, of Indian Or- 
chard, Mass.; was born in Springfield, Mass., Jan. 14, 1896. He 
was educated at Springfield High School, and Mass. Institute of 
Technology, class of 1919. He received class honors during his four 
years at high school. 

He left M.I.T. in his second year, to enlist in the Naval Reserve, 
May 7, 1917. He attended the 1st class of Naval Aviators at M.I.T. ; 
then went to the Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va. ; and later to the 
Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., where he completed his train- 
ing and was commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.A.F., on Feb. 4, 1918. 
He was stationed at Rockaway Beach, N.Y., as instructor, and 
placed on patrol duty; and it was while he was engaged in this 
service that Ensign Pero met his death, on Aug. 24, 1918. 

Two seaplanes were out on patrol duty in a heavy fog. One was 
commanded by Ensign Pero, the other by Ensign H. Stevens, each 
with two machinists. According to the pilot of the other plane, it 
was only Ensign Pero's superior handling of his machine that pre- 
vented the loss of both crews in the collision that ensued. As soon 
as the approaching plane broke through the fog in front of him, 
Ensign Pero attempted a dive. The front end of his plane cleared 
the approaching one, but the tail was ripped off and all control of 
the plane was lost. It was seen to go into a nose-spin and disappear, 
falling straight down. The other plane circled over the spot for 
nearly an hour, but found no trace of any of the crew, three in all. 
Mine-sweepers and patrol vessels searched the vicinity for the 
missing men, but to no avail. The second seaplane landed safely 
on the water and aided in the unsuccessful search. 

The accident took place 12 miles southeast of Fire Island Light- 
ship, at about seven in the evening, and at an altitude of about 
3000 feet. 

Brother in Service — 

Joseph H. Pero, U.S.N.A.R.F., enlisted May, 1917; served in 
France as chief printer in the Photographic Section. 



[ 394 ] 



DEAN EDMUND LOCHMAN, Jr. 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Naval Aviation Service 
Killed in seaplane accident, May 19, 1919 
Son of Mr. and Mrs. Dean Edmund Lochman; was born in Salem, 
Mass., Nov. 10, 1897. He attended the Lincoln, Bowditch Gram- 
mar, and Salem High School, graduating from the latter in 1916. 
Early in 1916 he joined the Salem Cadets, who were then reorgan- 
izing into artillery. 

On June 25, just before graduating from high school, he was 
sent with the artillery to the Mexican Border. He returned from 
Mexico in Nov., and entered business with the Salem Electric 
Lighting Co. When the U.S. entered the war, he was interested in 
Naval Aviation, and applied for a discharge from the Army in 
order to enter the Navy. He passed his physical examinations and 
started a three months' preliminary course at M.I.T. Ground 
School. In Oct., 1917, he was sent to Pensacola, Fla., to finish his 
work; and was commissioned Ensign in Dec, 1917. On Feb. 16 
he was ordered overseas, and was stationed first in England, then 
at a U.S. Naval Base on the south coast of Ireland, where he re- 
mained until the signing of the Armistice. He returned home on 
Dec. 28, 1918. 

Lochman was anxious to continue his Aviation work. On Jan. 
26, 1919, he received orders to leave at once for New York, to 
prepare to go to Coco Solo, in the Panama Canal Zone. He was 
married that same evening to Miss Evelyn Bowker, of Salem, and 
together they went to New York. They sailed for Panama on Feb. 
6, 1919. Upon arrival he was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), which rank 
he should have received in the preceding Oct. while in England, but 
for some reason the commission was delayed. 

On May 19, 1919, Lieut. Lochman was killed in a seaplane acci- 
dent at Coco Solo, Panama. He is buried in Harmony Grove Cem- 
etery, Salem, Mass. 



[ 396 ] 



ROGER WILSON CUTLER 



Lieutenant, U.S. Naval Aviation Service 

Son of George C. and Mary Franklin (Wilson) Cutler; was born 
in Brookline, Mass., Nov. 3, 1889. He was educated at Volkmann's 
School, Brookline, and at Harvard College, graduating in 1911. He 
engaged in all kinds of athletics — track, football, baseball, golf, 
and basket-ball. He was captain of the 'Varsity crew in 1911. In 
1914 he was stroke of the Union Boat Club crew at Henley, Eng. 

He acted as a radio operator in a naval cruise (P.S. No. 8), in 
Sept., 1916; and was first attached to the submarine chasers at 
Newport, R.I. On March 21, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F., 
and served on Submarine Patrol No. 56, until Sept. 9. He was re- 
lieved and transferred to Naval Aviation Service, Sept. 15, 1917. 
In Oct. and Nov., he trained at the U.S.N.A. Station, M.I.T., 
and during the last four weeks was appointed Squadron Com- 
mander. In Dec. and Jan., he was attached to the Naval Air Sta- 
tion in Hampton Roads, Va. For the next three months he was at 
the Naval Air Station at Pensacola, Fla.; and was commissioned 
Ensign on March 15, 1918. At about this time he was appointed 
aide to Com. Ballinger. He returned to Hampton Roads for April 
and May, and was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on May 30, 1918. 
He sailed overseas and was stationed at U.S.N. Air Station, 
Killingholme, Eng., from June to Dec, 1918. Commissioned, 
Lieut. Nov., 1918. 

In a flight over the North Sea on July 19, 1918, in Ensign Jay 
Scheffelin's plane, Lieut. Cutler dropped a bomb which destroyed 
the German U-boat 110, with 69 of its crew. He was appointed 
Senior Squadron Commander at Killingholme Station, in Oct., 1918. 
Returning to America, Lieut. Cutler was assigned to inactive duty 
on Jan. 15, 1919, at Boston. 

Married, on Dec. 15, 1912, Leslie Bradley, of Boston. 

Brothers in Service — 

John W. Cutler, Major, U.S.A., Ordnance. 
Eliot C. Cutler, Major, U.S.A., Medical. 
George C. Cutler, Jr., Lieut, (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Destroyer 
Flotilla. 

Robert B. Cutler, Capt., U.S.A., Infantry. 



[ 398 ] 



DONALD WILSON 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C., Squadron VI, N.A.S., Pensacola, 
Florida 

Son of Rev. John M. and Helen B. Wilson, of Lexington, Mass.; 
was born at Hudson, Mass., July 7, 1893. He was educated in the 
public schools of Fall River and Lexington, Mass.; at Phillips 
Exeter Academy, and at the Browne and Nichols School, Cam- 
bridge. He graduated from the Buildings Course, Lowell Institute 
School for Industrial Foremen. 

He attended the 1st Plattsburg Camp in 1916. On May 28, 1917, 
he enlisted in the 14th Regulars, Railway Engineers, at Boston. 
He was assigned to Camp Rockingham, N.H., for training the 
latter part of June. On July 9, 1917, he was appointed Corporal, 
and was honorably discharged on July 24, to be enrolled in 
U.S.N.R.F. for Aviation Service. On Oct. 28 he was called for in- 
struction at M.I.T. School of Naval Aeronautics. On Jan. 20, 1918, 
he was sent to Pensacola, Fla., for air training, and was assigned 
to Squadron II, night-bombers. After qualifying as a naval avi- 
ator, he acted as Instructor in Elementary Flying. He was com- 
missioned Ensign on June 4, 1918, and appointed Instructor in 
H-boats and Navigation Pilot. He later became Chief Instructor 
in Squadron VI, Naval Air Station, Pensacola. 

Ensign Wilson made successful experimental flights in the Gulf 
of Mexico, besides his routine work as Aviation Instructor. He was- 
chosen as one of the pilots to fly from Pensacola to Cuba to join 
the Atlantic Fleet at Guantanamo. This flight began Feb. 6, 1919, 
with a journey to Tampa, Fla., and the second part was done 
on Feb. 8, from Tampa to Miami. From Miami on Feb. 13 the 
planes flew across to Sagua la Grande, on the north central shore 
of Cuba; and the next day to Nuevitas, also on the north shore of 
the island. On Saturday, Feb. 15, they made the last part of the 
journey around the east point of Cuba to Guantanamo Bay. The 
planes were heavily loaded with extra propellers, spare parts, and 
baggage, and each carried two pilots and two men. 



[ 400 ] 



NOEL CHADWICK 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of George W. and Ida May (Brooks) Chadwick; was born in 
Boston, Dec. 22, 1894. He was educated at the Noble and Green- 
ough School, and at Harvard College, class of 1917. At school he 
was a member of the crew in 1910-11-12, and of the Noble track 
team, 1912-13. At college he was on the freshman crew and swim- 
ming team. 

He left business to enlist at Boston, in the N.R.F.C., on June 11, 
1917. He was sent at once with the first class to Akron, O., for 
training in dirigible work. He remained there from June 11, 1917, 
to Jan. 11, 1918. He was commissioned Ensign on Nov. 1, 1917, 
and dirigible pilot, in charge of the second class of cadets. From 
Jan. 11 to June 11, 1918, he was stationed at Key West, Fla., as 
Chief Dirigible Officer, to oversee the building and starting of the 
dirigible department of that station. He performed this duty prac- 
tically alone, as he was the only Dirigible Officer. Within two 
months regular patrols were in operation up and down the Florida 
Keys, and to Cuba. 

On June 11, 1918, he was transferred to Montauk, N.Y., Naval 
Air Station; where he remained for five months as Dirigible Officer 
and Navigating Officer, on patrol work until Dec. 11, 1918. He 
was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), on Oct. 1, 1918. Lieut. Chadwick 
was later ordered to Cape May Naval Air Station, where he was 
released from active service on Jan. 8, 1919. 

Married, July 12, 1919, Elizabeth Young, of Boston. 

Brother in Service — 

Theodore Chadwick, Capt., 102d F.A., 26th Division, A.E.F. 



[ 402 ] 



FRANCIS HARTLEY, Jr. 



Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of Frank and Anna C. (Duckworth) Hartley, of Belmont, 
Mass.; was born in Webster, Mass., July 9, 1895. He was educated 
at Phillips Andover Academy, and at the Yale Scientific School, 
graduating in 1917. He enlisted with the Naval Reserve Force, at 
Newport, R.I., and was transferred to Aviation in Aug., 1917. He 
was trained at M.I.T. Ground School in Jan., 1918, and sent from 
there to Pensacola, Fla., on April 1. He was commissioned Ensign 
on June 12, 1918, and was stationed at Rockaway, N.Y. He sailed 
overseas on July 31, 1918. In France he was stationed at Moutchic- 
Lacanau, and later at L'Aber Vrach, where he was trained as a 
pilot and in night-bombing, for two months. Later he engaged in 
night-bombing expeditions. 

The day before the Armistice was signed, he had a narrow escape 
from death when the strut of his plane broke in crossing the English 
Channel, and he and his companion were thrown into the water. 
Their wireless was put out of commission and messages telling of 
their position were sent out by carrier pigeons. After battling for 
seven hours with the waves, they were rescued by a submarine 
sent out in search of them. 

It is of interest to note that Ensign Hartley reports the great 
appreciation of what the Americans have done for them, which has 
been shown by the inhabitants of L'Aber Vrach. Although they 
have but the scantiest means, they have erected a monument to 
the Americans who lost their lives, and have issued a little history 
of their exploits for the native children to remember. 



[ 404 ] 



MORTON GOODSPEED 



Lieutenant (j.gr.), U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 
Eighth Naval District 

Son of Joseph H. and Mabel (Morton) Goodspeed, of Boston, 
Mass.; was born in Boston on Feb. 3, 1895. He fitted for college 
at the Fay School, Southboro, Mass., and at St. George's School, 
Newport, R.I. At St. George's School he was captain of the base- 
ball and basket-ball teams, and received the athletic prize. He 
entered Princeton University with the class of 1918, and was half- 
back on the football team during his freshman year. 

He left college to enlist in the U.S.N.R.F. at Newport, R.I., on 
March 24, 1917. He served on the Coast Patrol, U.S.S. Celeritas, 
off Newport, R.I., until Sept., 1917. On Sept. 13 he was trans- 
ferred to the Aviation Corps, and on Oct. 15 ordered to the Ground 
School, M.I.T., for instruction. On graduating, March 18, 1918, he 
was sent to the U.S. Naval Air Station at Pensacola, Fla., where 
he reported for duty March 22, 1918. He was commissioned Ensign 
on July 3, 1918, and designated as Naval Aviator and Instructor. 
On Aug. 17, 1918, he was appointed Unit Commander in charge 
of Camp Sauftley, Santa Rosa Island, and of the Gunnery School 
of Instruction there. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on Jan. 1, 
1919. He was relieved of active duty on Jan. 22. 

^Brother in Service — 

Joseph H. Goodspeed, Jr., Seaman, U.S.N.R.F. 



[ 406 ] 



GEORGE CROMPTON, Jr. 



Lieutenant, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of George and Alice (Hastings) Crompton; was born in Wor- 
cester, Mass., May 7, 1897. He attended the Ridgefield School, and 
Milton Academy, graduating, 1916; entered Harvard College, class 
of 1920, completing his freshman year. At Milton he played on the 
football and tennis teams. At Harvard he was a member of the 
soccer team. He trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. in 1916-17, 
and enlisted on June 8, 1917. He was ordered at once to the Naval 
Aviation Detachment at Akron, O., where he was trained in flying. 
He ranked as Naval Aviator from Sept. 21, 1917 (N.A. No. 100). 
On Oct. 13 he was sent to N.A. Station at Montauk, N.Y., where 
he was on duty patrolling in dirigibles. He was commissioned En- 
sign, U.S.N.R.F.C., Nov. 1, 1917, and Lieut, (j.g.) March 23, 1918. 

Lieut. Crompton was ordered to Rockaway, N.Y., on June 4, 
and put in charge of dirigibles there from June 28 until Dec. 23. 
He was promoted to Lieut, on Oct. 1, 1918. On Sept. 18, 1918, he 
flew 600 miles in a dirigible across the States of Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New York, making the record cross-country dirigible 
flight for this country. He was also the first to successfully launch 
an airplane in air from a dirigible. 

He was placed on the inactive list of the U.S.N.R.F. on Dec. 23, 
1918, at Rockaway Beach, N.Y. 



[ 408 ] 



CHARLES E. HODGES, Jr. 



Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps, Northern 
Bombing Group 

Son of Charles E. and Mary Elizabeth (O'Neill) Hodges; was born 
in Brookline, Mass., Nov. 29, 1897. He was educated at the Coun- 
try Day School, and at Harvard College, class of 1919. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp, in 1915 and Har- 
vard R.O.T.C. He enlisted on July 2, 1917, at Boston, and attended 
the Ground School, M.I.T., from Oct. 1 to Dec. 1; Naval Air Sta- 
tion, Hampton Roads, Va. ; and N.A.S. Pensacola, Fla. (seaplanes). 
He was commissioned Ensign on Feb. 27, 1918, and sailed overseas 
on March 29, 1918. He trained at N.A.S. Moutchic-Lacanau, U.S. 
Army Bombing School, Clermont-Ferrand, Pilot's Pool, R.A.F., 
south of Calais. On July 18 he was attached to the 218th Squadron, 
R.A.F., near Calais, for active service. In Sept. he was transferred 
to the 5th Squadron Marines, U.S. Naval Region Base, Eastleigh, 
Eng., Headquarters of the Northern Bombing Group, U.S.N.A.F., 
where he remained until the Armistice. He was placed on inactive 
service list on Dec. 29, 1918, at Hampton Roads, Va. 

From an account of his first bombing-raid, published in the 
Harvard Bulletin: 

I went on my first raid yesterday, and for a first experience it was a 
knock-out. I dropped my bombs on a big city, while Archie put shell 
bursts all around me. I could n't keep up with the formation, got about 
200 yards behind, and then the shell bursts stopped; and I took a look 
behind right away, and there was my observer, looking ahead instead of 
behind as he should have done, and five nice little scouts with black 
crosses on 'em about 300 yards away, behind my tail. If that observer 
could have been consumed by the heat of swear words he'd have been 
dead by now. Then he guessed from my hitting him that there was some- 
thing wrong, turned around and began to shoot. I devoted my energies to 
getting all the speed I could, swearing worse than a trooper, and listening 
to the whistle of German steel. Then I took another look at the battle 
just in time to see one Hun stick his nose up in the air and go spinning 
down, and the rest turn around and go home. (One of the other mem- 
bers of the formation claimed the Hun, but if any one got him, my ob- 
server did; at any rate, it was n't confirmed.) Then Archie started again, 
sending up shrapnel and high-explosives, and a piece of shrapnel hit my 
tail. We all got safely home. I had about five bullet holes and a piece of 
shrapnel in the machine. It was my maiden-trip and also the machine's, 
and both a bit worse for it. 



[ 410 ] 



SCHUYLER ADAMS 



Ensign, U.S.A.S. (Naval Aviation) 
Son of Enoch Case and Emma (Haff) Adams, of West Newton, 
Mass.; was born at Newburyport, Mass., June 19, 1893. He was 
prepared for college at the Newton High School, of which his father 
is Head-Master. He graduated from Harvard College, class of 
1914. During 1916-17 he taught English in the Gilman Country 
Day School, Roland Park, Md. 

In June, 1917, he enlisted in Naval Aviation; and in Aug. was 
assigned to the M.I.T. Ground School, after which he was taught 
practical aviation at Pensacola, Fla., in charge of Flight B. He was 
commissioned Ensign at Pensacola in Jan., 1918. Ensign Adams 
then trained in aerial gunnery at Fort Worth, Tex.; after which he 
was sent to Hampton Roads, Va., for work in large hydroplanes. 

On account of his proficiency as an aviator, but much to his own 
regret, he was then detailed to teach Aviation at Bay Shore, N.Y., 
where he remained until flying at that station was suspended on 
account of the cold weather. He was then sent to Brunswick, Ga., 
where he remained but a short time, being detailed for office work 
in the Naval Operations Department, at Washington, D.C. Early 
in the spring of 1919 he was again transferred to Hampton Roads, 
where he is now in the experiment squadron of aviation. 

Shortly after his return to Hampton Roads, Ensign Adams was 
enrolled in the Regular Navy. 



[ 412 ] 



ROGER AMORY 



Major A.S.A., Detached Service 

Son of Charles B. and Lily C. Amory; was born in Boston, Mass., 
March 28, 1887. He was educated at Milton Academy, and at 
Harvard College, A.B. 1910. Prior to the war he served three years 
in Troop B, 1st Squad, M.V.M., 1908 to 1911. 

He enlisted at Newport News, Va., on May 3, 1917, and had 
preliminary training at the M.I.T. Ground School; flying training 
at Newport News, Va., and Mineola, N.Y. He was on duty at the 
School of Military Aeronautics, Austin, Tex.; Kelly Field, San 
Antonio, Tex.; and at Office of Director of Military Aeronautics, 
Washington, D.C. He was commissioned Capt., Sept., 1917; Major, 
Oct. 1918. He was honorably discharged at Washington, D.C, on 
Jan. 6, 1919. 

Brothers in Service — 

Charles B. Amory, Lieut.-Col. 26th Div., A.E.F. 
John Austin Amory, Capt. (Chemical Warfare Service), 3d 
Div., A.E.F. 

Father in Service — 
Charles B. Amory, Major in Mass. Volunteers in the Civil 
War. 



[ 414 ] 



JOHN BAYARD CHEVALIER 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Commanding Officer, 
Aviation Instruction Centre, Cazaux 

Son of Charles N. and Elizabeth A. (Waterhouse) Chevalier, of 
Medford, Mass.; was born Jan. 31, 1887, at Providence, R.I. He 
was educated at Ogdensburg Academy, N.Y., Medford High 
School, class of 1904; Harvard College, class of 1908, B.A., A.M. 
He lived for nine years in the Far East and travelled extensively. 
Was vice-captain of the Shanghai Rowing Club, Shanghai, China. 

For three years he served in the American Company, Shanghai, 
Volunteer Corps, Shanghai, China. He served through the Chinese 
Rebellion of 1913, and was honorably discharged in 1916, with the 
rank of Corporal. From Shanghai he returned to enlist in the 
S.E.R.C. at Cambridge, Mass., on Aug. 31, 1917. He attended the 
Ground School, M.I.T., from Sept. 13 to Nov. 10, 1917. He sailed 
overseas Nov. 27, 1917, as an enlisted man, flying cadet. In April, 

1918, he took a machine-gun course at First Corps School, Gondre- 
court. He had flying training also with the French Army at Ecole 
de Voves, and was breveted as military pilot, June 24, 1918. (Far- 
man planes). He was commissioned 2d Lieut. A.S.A.,U.S.A., June 
10, 1918. From July 1 to Oct. 1, 1918, he was Commanding Officer 
of American Aviation Detachment, Ecole d Avord, advanced flying 
training; transferred to Sopwith planes, followed by chasse train- 
ing on Nieuport planes. From Oct. 1 to Oct. 7, 1918, he had Ameri- 
can pursuit training at Issoudun. From Oct. 19 to Dec. 8, 1918, he 
was Commanding Officer at Aviation Instruction Centre, Cazaux, 
the U.S. Camp attached to the French School of Aerial Gunnery. 
On Nov. 1, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S. On Feb. 3, 

1919, he was honorably discharged at the Air Service Depot, Gar- 
den City, N.Y. 

Brothers in Service — 

Elmer Harold Frye Chevalier, Private 21st U.S. Infantry; 

died in Service during Spanish-American War. 
Godfrey de Courcelles Chevalier, Lieut.-Com., U.S.N.A.S. 



[ 416 ] 



GODFREY de COURCELLES CHEVALIER 

Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Naval Aviation Service 

Son of Charles N. and Elizabeth A. (Waterhouse) Chevalier, of 
Medford, Mass.; was born March 7, 1889, at Providence, R.I. He 
was educated at U.S. Naval Academy, and entered U.S. Service at 
Annapolis on June 28, 1906. 

He entered U.S. Naval Aviation Service in 1912, and flew at 
Annapolis, Pensacola, Cuba, Vera Cruz, and elsewhere; in France 
at Tours, Avord, Pau, and Cazaux. He was Commanding Officer 
of U.S. Naval Air Station at Dunkirk, Seaplane Base, in 1917 and 
1918. He was attached to the U.S. Naval Northern Bombing 
Group, and had special Aviation duty. He was commissioned Lieut. 
Commander in July, 1918. He served as Commanding Officer, 
Grand Fleet; U.S. Naval Aviation Repair Base, Eastleigh, Eng. 

On March 9, 1919, Lieut. -Commander Chevalier was awarded 
the Croix de Guerre, by the French Government: 

For establishing the first seaplane base in France, and maintaining a 
high degree of efficiency and military valor in spite of numerous losses 
and frequent bombardments. 

The Cross of the Legion of Honor was also awarded him, on 
April 9, 1919. 

Married, June 14, 1919, Marguerite Jackson. 

Brothers in Service — 

Elmer Harold Frye Chevalier, Private, 21st Infantry; died in 
1899, aged 20, on board the U.S. Transport Hancock, en 
route for the Philippines, during the Spanish- American War. 

John Bayard Chevalier, 1st Lieut., U.S. Air Service, A.E.F. 



[ 418 ] 



MOSELEY TAYLOR 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F.C., First Northern 
Bombing Group 

Son of William O. and Mary (Moseley) Taylor; was born in Boston, 
Mass., Jan. 30, 1895. He was educated at the Noble and Green- 
ough School, Boston, at Phillips Andover Academy, and at Harvard 
College, class of 1918. He was an all-round athlete. At Noble and 
Greenough he played on the football team two years; track two 
years; crew two years, and was captain the last year. At Andover 
he was on the football, wrestling, hockey, and track teams. He was 
a member of the Harvard freshman crew; and played on the 'Varsity 
football team, and was on the crew in 1916. 

On April 19, 1917, he enlisted in U.S.N.R.F.C., at Washington, 
D.C. He trained at Newport News, Va., and at the Naval Base, 
Jamestown, Va. He was commissioned Ensign Oct. 26, 1917. Ex- 
actly a month later he sailed for France. He trained near Bordeaux 
until Feb., 1918. He was stationed at Naval Base, Dunkirk, France, 
from Feb. 24 to May 10, and was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on 
March 28, 1918. Lieut. Taylor spent 12 weeks of the summer at 
Stonehenge, Eng., taking a course in night-bombing. In Aug. he 
was stationed at St. -Ingle vert, France, with the Northern Bomb- 
ing Group, U.S.N. During the last weeks of the war he served with 
the British 214th Squadron, R.A.F., running a Handley-Page 
bombing-machine, and seeing active service on sea and land. Lieut. 
Taylor was put on the reserve list in Jan., 1919, at Naval Base, 
Norfolk, Va. 



[ 420 ] 



ROBERT A. TALBOT 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Naval Air Station, Pensacola 
Squadron V 

Son of Charles R. and Nellie E. (Cumner) Talbot, of Brookline, 
Mass.; was born in Lowell, Mass., June 11, .1896. He was educated 
at the Brookline High School, Stone School, class of 1915, and at 
Harvard College, class of 1919. 

He enlisted in U.S.N.R.F. on April 20, 1917, at Charlestown, 
Mass. On Sept. 7, 1917, he reported at Naval Air Station, Pensa- 
cola, Fla., where he qualified as Fireman, 3d Class (A). On Nov. 23, 
1917, he was ordered to M.I.T. Ground School, rating, Machine 
Mate, 2d Class (A). On Jan. 1, 1918, he received the rating of Chief 
Quartermaster (A). On Feb. 16 he reported to Naval Air Station, 
Pensacola, Fla., for flight instruction. On June 1, 1918, he qualified 
as Naval Aviator, and was commissioned Ensign on June 12, 1918. 

Ensign Talbot was made Instructor in Advanced Boat Seaplane 
Flying, with Squadron V, June 14, 1918. He was appointed Chief 
Flight Instructor of Squadron V on Sept. 1, 1918, and commissioned 
Lieut, (j.g.) on Oct. 1, 1918. On Oct. 4, 1918, he was made Di- 
vision Commander, Squadron V, Division A. 

Lieut. Talbot received his inactive duty papers (ordered home) 
on March 7, 1919. His cruise expires April 20, 1921. 

Brother in Service — 

Cumner Talbot, U.S. Army. 



[ 422 ] 



HAROLD LYMAN RYAN 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Naval Reserve Force 

Son of T. Harvey and Mary F. (Berry) Ryan, of Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil; was born in Charlestown, Mass., April, 28, 1895. He was 
educated in Brazil, at the Somerville High School, class of 1914, 
and for three years at Tufts College, to which he returned after 
his discharge from the Service. He was class marshal, president of 
the Sword and Shield and Ivy (class honorary societies), and a 
member of Sigma Tau Alpha Fraternity at Tufts College. 

He trained with the Tufts R.O.T.C. on May 24, 1917, he en- 
listed at Boston with the First Naval Aviation Detachment at the 
M.I.T. Ground School. On Aug. 25, 1917, he reported to the 
U.S.N.A.S., Hampton Roads, Va., for flying instruction. Here he 
had much experience in motor and seaplane construction. He was 
detached on Jan. 6, 1918, and sent to the Naval Aviation School, 
Pensacola, Fla., for final instruction in flying. He was commis- 
sioned Ensign on Feb. 19, 1918, and was detailed as Instructor at 
Pensacola, until receipt of orders for overseas service on March 12, 
1918. 

In France he was stationed at Moutchic-Lacanau from April 
29 to Aug. 4, 1918, completing his course in ordnance training and 
bombing. He was ordered to active duty at Le Croisic, Loire In- 
ferieure, where he was Chief Pilot, Chief Censor, and served on 
Court Martial and Survey Boards. He had a number of narrow 
escapes while training and in service. He fell once into the Bay, 
but escaped injury. He has had approximately 240 hours flying- 
time, five hours in the air being his longest period for any contin- 
uous flight. His active service included convoy and patrol duty, 
flying 250 to 300 miles off the French coast. He was commissioned 
Lieut, (j.g.) on Oct. 1, 1918. After the Armistice he returned to 
America. He was placed on inactive duty on March 16, 1919, at 
Hampton Roads, Va. 

Brother in Service — 

Ernest T. Ryan, U.S.N.R.F. 



[ 424 ] 



MERRILL POTTER DELANO 

Lieutenant, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of John M. and Grace Meade (Potter) Delano, of Newton, 
Mass.; was born at Boston, June 23, 1896. He attended Milton 
Academy, and graduated from Harvard College, in 1918. He was 
for two years on the 'Varsity baseball squad. He enlisted, April 24, 
1917, and was assigned to active duty June 1, at the U.S. Naval 
Air Station at Akron, Ohio. He was commissioned Ensign, Oct. 4, 
1917, sailed overseas on Nov. 13, and was stationed at the U.S. 
N.A.S., Paimbceuf, France, for eleven months, and at the U.S. 
N.A.S., Guipavas, for four months. On March 23, 1918, he was 
commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), and on Oct. 1, 1918, Lieut. He received 
inactive duty orders, March 2, 1919. Lieut. Delano was cited by 
the French Minister of the Marine, and received a letter of com- 
mendation from the U.S. Navy Department, for making a flight 
of twenty-four hours and forty minutes. 

Married, Oct. 2, 1919, Hazel Holmes. . 

Left — Merrill Potter Delano. 

CHARLES GRAY LITTLE 

Lieutenant, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of Henry B. and Fanny (Gray) Little; was born in Newbury- 
port, Mass., July 9, 1895. He was educated at the Noble and 
Greenough School, and at Harvard College. 

He enlisted for Aviation Service in the Navy on May 9, 1917, at 
the Boston Navy Yard, and was assigned to the Naval Air Station 
at Akron, Ohio. He was commissioned Ensign, Oct. 31, 1917, 
sailed overseas on Nov. 12, and served at Rochefort and at Paim- 
bceuf. On March 23, 1918, he was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), and 
later appointed Senior Flight Commander. On April 21, 1918, 
he was awarded Brevet de Pilote de Dirigible. He was sent to 
Guipavas in Sept., 1918. Lieut. Little was Chief Pilot in charge 
of the dirigibles which went out to meet President Wilson when he 
arrived in France. On Oct. 1, 1918, he was commissioned Lieut. 

He returned to the U.S. and was stationed at Cape May, N.J. 

Brother in Service : Leon M. Little, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F. 

Right — Charles Gray Little. 

[ 426 ] 



GEORGE M. ABBOTT 

Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, R.F.C., Seventh 
Squadron Northern Bombing Group, Day Wing 

Son of George Chase and Emma (Afford) Abbott, of Waban, Mass. ; 
was born in Melrose, Mass., March 8, 1897. He was educated at 
the Roxbury Latin School, Oak Grove Seminary, and Cornell 
University. At college he was a member of the Cornell cross- 
country team. He trained with the Cornell Cadet Corps. 

He enlisted at Newport, R.I., on April 4, 1917; and was trans- 
ferred to Naval Aviation, for U.S.N.R.F., on Sept. 18, 1917. He 
trained 10 weeks at M.I.T. Ground School, two months at Pensa- 
cola, Fla., and one month at Marine Field, Miami, Fla. He was 
commissioned 2d Lieut., dating from June 5, 1918. 

On July 4, 1918, Lieut. Abbott was transferred to U.S. Marine 
Corps, R.F.C., and was ordered overseas. He landed in France 
Aug. 1, 1918, going directly to Calais, then to the site of the air- 
drome, at Dye, Pas de Calais, France. He was stationed there with 
the 7th Squadron, Northern Bombing Group, Day Wing, from 
Aug. 6 to Nov. 30, 1918. Much time was spent in getting the drome 
into suitable condition, during which period they were frequently 
subject to nocturnal visits by the Germans. Gradually the planes, 
De Haviland 4's and 9's, equipped with Liberty motors, began to 
arrive, and operations began, though upon a small scale. Then 
came the great British effort, when Ostend and Zeebrugge, the 
principal objective of the 7th Squadron, were captured by their 
allies, and their occupation was gone. The Squadron was moving 
to Knesseloere, Belgium, when rumors of the Armistice came, and 
it was ordered to cease moving material and personnel. Lieut. 
Abbott received home orders, which took effect Nov. 30, 1918. He 
was put upon the inactive service list, Feb. 1, 1919, in the Boston 
Reserve district. 



[ 428 ] 



EDWARD A. WENZ 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of Edward G. A. and Grace Eugenie (Vautrinot) Wenz, of 
Dedham, Mass.; was born at Roxbury, Mass., Aug. 1, 1893. He 
attended Boston College High School, and graduated from Bos- 
ton College, class of 1914. 

He enlisted in U.S.N.A. at the Boston Navy Yard on May 23, 
1917. He trained at M.I.T. Ground School, graduating in the first 
class, and was sent to Pensacola, Fla., for flying instruction. He 
was commissioned Ensign on Dec. 29, 1917, and ordered abroad. 
He sailed overseas on Feb. 8, 1918, and was stationed at many 
places on the coast of England and Ireland, on patrol duty. While 
on duty at Budleigh Sallerton, Eng., he met with a severe accident 
on May 31, 1918. He and his observer had a narrow escape when 
his controls jammed. After a month in hospital he returned to 
duty. 

For a time he was loaned to the Royal Flying Forces. He was 
commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on Oct. 1, 1918, and has been a Chief 
Pilot for many months, still in service at Whiddy Island, Bantry 
Bay, Ireland, and expects to reenlist in the Service. 

While on duty at Pensacola, before he had received his com- 
mission, Lieut. Wenz was cited for bravery in rescue work during 
a hurricane. From a copy of the citation: 

Chief Petty Officer MacLaughlin and his men of Group 8, who without 
suggestion swam out into the rough waters of the bay this morning at great 
bodily risk to themselves, bringing in safety many heavy wooden pilings 
which broke loose during the storm. 

From the citation sent by the War Bureau, recommending of- 
ficial recognition of the bravery and generous action as indicated 
herein : 

The Bureau is pleased to note that your action in this case has dem- 
onstrated that you are willing to take advantage not only of the respon- 
sibilities of the naval service, but also of its opportunities for service 
outside the routine of duty. Your action in this case is heartily recom- 
mended. 

Brother in Service — 

Philip H. Wenz, Corp. Army Radio Section, Signal Corps; 
A.E.F. 



[ 430 ] 



WILLIAM WHEELWRIGHT TORREY 



Second Lieutenant, U.S.M.C.R., Northern Bombing 
Squadron, Field E 

Son of David C. and Jane C. (Wheelwright) Torrey, of Cambridge, 
Mass . ; was born at Newbury, M!ass., IVIay 4, 1898. He was edu- 
cated at Concord, Mass., High School, 1914; Phillips Andover 
Academy, 1915; and Harvard College, 1919. Previous to enlist- 
ment he trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. in the spring of 1917. 

He enlisted in U.S. Navy, July 2, 1917, and was a member of 
Naval Aviation Detachment, M.I.T., from Oct. 1, 1917, to Nov. 
24, 1917. He trained at Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Va., 
Nov. 27, 1917, to Jan. 9, 1918, and at Pensacola, Fla., from Jan. 11 
to April 11, 1918. He was commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., 
March 22, 1918. He was transferred to Marine Flying Field, Miami, 
Fla., from April 15 to July 15, 1918. On May 25 he was discharged 
from U.S.N.R.F., and enrolled as 2d Lieut. U.S.M.C.R., on the 
following day. In July he sailed overseas, and saw foreign service, 
attached to the Northern Bombing Squadron, Field E, from July 
18, 1918, to Dec. 20, 1918. The Armistice being signed, he returned 
to America and was attached to the Marine Flying Field, Miami, 
Fla., Squadron C. 

Brothers in Service — 

Kenneth W. Torrey, Private, 106th Machine-Gun Co. Killed 

in action, Oct. 2, 1918. 
Norman Z. Torrey, Corporal, Battery C, 101st F.A. Cited 

for bravery, D.S.C. 



[ 432 ] 



HURD HUTCHINS 



Lieutenant, Aviation Corps, U.S. Naval Reserve Force 

Son of J. Hurd and Olivia (Endicott) Hutchins; was born in Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 25, 1894. He was educated at the Noble and Greenough 
School, and at Harvard College. 

He started flying in April, 1917, under private instructions of 
the Curtiss Flying School, Newport News, Va. In May he joined 
the Navy and flew continuously as a Seaman (2d class), until Nov. 
of the same year, when he received his Naval Aviator's Certificate, 
and was commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C. 

For several months he occupied different positions, serving as 
Instructor and Flight Commander. In March, 1915, he was com- 
missioned Lieut, (j.g.), and was given charge of the Quartermas- 
ters' School, which contained about 500 Quartermasters of the 
Navy, to serve when graduated as Mechanics in various degrees of 
the Aviation Servfce. This School ended in May, when Lieut. 
Hutchins resumed flying in the patrol service around the Virginia 
Capes. In this capacity he served as Patrol Pilot and as Division 
Commander for a short time, then as Flight Commander until Oct., 
1918. While the German submarines were actively engaged off the 
Capes, he made one continuous patrol with full ordnance equip- 
ment out to sea and back, of eight hours and a half. This flight at 
the time was credited to him as the longest any naval plane had 
made. On Oct. 18, he was sent to Philadelphia in charge of flying 
three H-16's, twin motor machines, from Philadelphia to Pensacola 
via the Coast Line. The start was made from the Naval Aircraft 
factory at Philadelphia. Hampton Roads, Va.; Moorehead City, 
N.C.; Paris Island, S.C.; St. Augustine, Fla.; Miami, Fla.; and 
Tampa, Fla. ; were the stations at which the boats made brief stops. 
At Pensacola, Lieut. Hutchins went through the Gunnery and 
the Bombing Schools, and had just completed the course when the 
Armistice was signed. On reaching Washington he was promoted 
to Lieut, in the Flying Corps. In Jan., 1919, he was placed on in- 
active duty, at Boston. 

Brother in Service — 

John Hutchins, 1st Lieut. 42d Division, A.E.F. 



[ 434 ] 



GARDINER COIT MEANS 



Second Lieutenant, Infantry, Transferred to Air 
Service 

Son of Rev. Frederick and Helen (Coit) Means; was born in Wind- 
ham, Conn., June 7, 1896. He prepared for college at Exeter 
Academy, and attended Harvard College for three years. He was 
a member of the Harvard R.O.T.C., and in Aug., 1917, joined the 
R.O.T.C. at Plattsburg. 

He was trained at Plattsburg from Aug. 23, 1917, to Dec. 17, 
when he was commissioned 2d Lieut, of Infantry. After further 
work at Camp Dix, N.J., he was transferred to the Aviation Sec- 
tion, Signal Corps, and sent to the Ground School at Ithaca, N.Y., 
Jan. 29, 1918. While training at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, N.Y., 
Lieut. Means had a narrow escape in a tail-spin fall from 1800 feet. 
After further work at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., and Ellington 
Field, Houston, Tex., he was assigned to 4th Student Officers' 
Squadron, Sept., 1918. 

Lieut. Means was honorably discharged from the Service Jan. 2, 
1919, and is at present serving as a member of the Armenian Relief 
Expedition to the Near East. 

Brothers in Service — 

Paul Howard Means, Private, Medical Enlisted Reserve Corps, 
Winthrop J. Means, Corporal, Harvard S.A.T.C. 



[ 436 ] 



THOMAS ROBESON MORSE 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Naval Aviation Service 

Son of Charles F. and Ellen H. Morse, of Boston; was born in 
Kansas City, Mo., May 29, 1895. He was educated at Groton 
School, and at Harvard College, class of 1918. He was on the fresh- 
man track team in 1915 at college. 

On March 12, 1917, he enlisted in the Aviation Service at Charles- 
town, Mass., and was ordered to the Naval Station at Newport, 
R.I., on April 3. He responded to the call for naval aviators, and 
was sent to M.I.T. Ground School for instruction on Sept. 15, 1917. 
Having finished the course there on Nov. 10, he was ordered to the 
U.S. Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. On Feb. 14, 1918, he was 
commissioned Ensign, and sailed for France on March 23. Until 
Aug. 1, 1918, he was stationed for bombing-training at Moutchic- 
Lacanau, Gironde. He was then ordered to U.S. Naval Air Station 
at Fromentine, Vendee, and served on patrol duty there until the 
end of the war. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on Oct. 1, 1918. 
He returned to the U.S. on Dec. 16, 1918, and was stationed at 
Hampton Roads, Va., until released from active service. 

Brothers in Service — 

Arthur H. Morse, Capt., 810th Pioneer Infantry, U.S.A. 
Charles F. Morse, 102d Regiment, d'Artillerie, French Army. 



[ 438 1 



HORACE SARGENT HINDS 

Ensign, Bombing Squadron, Pensacola, Fla. 

Son of Fred C. and Emma R. Hinds, of Newtonville, Mass.; was 
born at Chelsea, Mass., Jan. 4, 1886. He was educated at the New- 
ton High School, and Mass. Institute of Technology. He played 
on the football team at high school, and also at M.I.T. 

On May 3, 1917, he enlisted in the Naval Reserve, at Newport, 
R .L, where he trained in the Seaman's branch. He then transferred 
to Aviation, and trained at the Ground School, M.I.T. , from Feb., 
1918. He had elementary flying at Miami, Fla., and advanced fly- 
ing at Pensacola, Fla., where he was commissioned Ensign, on Sept. 
6, 1918. At Miami he acted as submarine coast-patrol, and at 
Pensacola, served as bombing-pilot, and as instructor in bombing. 
In the spring of 1919 Ensign Hinds was promoted to Division 
Commander of the Bombing Squadron, at Pensacola, and is still 
in Service in that capacity. 

DAVID B. ARNOLD 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of H. D. and I. Persis Arnold; was born in Boston, Mass., 
March 23, 1898. He was educated at Volkmann's School, and at 
Harvard College, class of 1918. In college he was manager of the 
Harvard crew. He attended the Junior Plattsburg Camp in 1915, 
and trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. in 1916 and 1917. He en- 
listed in Boston in the U.S.N.R.F., on April 1, 1917, and trained 
at the M.I.T. Ground School, and at Key West, Fla. He was com- 
missioned Ensign, March 25, 1918, and retained as Flight Instruc- 
tor. In July, 1918, appointed Squadron Commander. Oct. 1, com- 
missioned Lieut, (j.g.), and placed in charge of all flying at the 
station. On Jan. 24, 1919, he was placed on inactive duty from Key 
West, Fla. 

Brother in Service — 

Warren D. Arnold, Lieut, (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 
Father in Service — 

H. D. Arnold, Lieut.-Col. M.C.N.A. 



[ 440 ] 



A. MORRIS SONN ABEND 



Ensign, U.S. Naval Air Service 
Son of Joseph and Esther Sonnabend; was born in Boston, Mass., 
Dec. 8, 1896. He was educated at Boston Latin School, class of 
1914, and at Harvard College, class of 1918, A.B. 1917. At college 
he played on his class football team in 1915 and 1916. He trained 
with the Harvard Regiment and with the Harvard R.O.T.C. 

On March 4, 1918, he enlisted in Naval Aviation, at the 3d Naval 
Reserve District, N.Y. April-June, 1918, he was trained with 
Flight 20, Naval Aviation Detachment, M.I.T. July-August, 1918, 
he had preliminary training at U.S.N.A. Station, Miami, Fla., 
with the 8th, 9th, and 10th Squadrons. He took advanced training 
Aug.-Nov. 1918, at U.S.N.A. Station, Pensacola, Fla., with the 
3d, 4th, 2d, and 6th Squadrons. In Nov., 1918, he was commissioned 
Ensign, and ordered overseas. Because of the Armistice the orders 
were cancelled, and he was reordered to the Air Station at Miami, 
Fla., as Instructor. In Feb., 1919, he was still in Service. 

JOHN W. ASHLEY 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of Joseph and Edith C. (Johnson) Ashley, of Amesbury, Mass.; 
was born in New York City, Aug. 29, 1895. He graduated from the 
Amesbury High School in 1913, and during the previous summer 
attended a school of wireless telegraphy in Boston, receiving his 
diploma as state electrician, July 17, 1912. He entered the Went- 
worth Institute, where he won a year's scholarship, graduating, 
1916. 

In April, 1917, he enlisted in the N.R.F.C. at Boston Navy Yard. 
He attended M.I.T. Ground School, then the flying school at Pen- 
sacola, Fla., on Oct. 2, 1917. He was commissioned Ensign on Jan. 
17, 1918, and sailed overseas on March 7, 1918; trained at Naval 
Air Station, Moutchic-Lacanau, until July 15, 1918; was then trans- 
ferred to Brest as patrol pilot, convoying ships. 

On Dec. 16, 1918, he sailed for the U.S.; and was ordered to 
U.S.N. Air Station at Chatham, Mass., on Jan. 15, 1919, where 
he is still in Service. He was promoted to Lieut, (j.g.) in March, 
1919, dating from Oct., 1918. 

[ 442 ] 



WILLIAM SINCLAIR CORMACK, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Force, Northern Bombing Group 

Son of William Sinclair and Myrtle A. (Leavitt) Cormack; was 
born at Newton, Mass., Sept. 12, 1896. He graduated from the 
Boston Latin School, class of 1913, and from Bowdoin College, A.B. 

1917. He enlisted at Brunswick, Me., in April, 1917; trained in the 
Bowdoin College R.O.T.C. from April to June, 1917; was detached 
and enlisted in the Naval Air Service in June, 1917; attended the 
M.I.T. Ground School in Sept. and Oct., and continued training 
at Pensacola, Fla. He qualified as a pilot in March, 1918; was in- 
structor in the Gunnery School at Pensacola from March till June, 
1918; was commissioned Ensign on June 12, and ordered to Rock- 
away, N.Y., for convoy and patrol work, remaining until July, 
when he was sent overseas to France with the Northern Bombing 
Group, and stationed at Moutchic-Lacanau, in Aug., and at Paris 
in Sept. In Oct. he was at Brest, and in Nov. again at Moutchic- 
Lacanau. After the Armistice he returned to America, and was 
stationed at Bay Shore, N.Y., from Dec, 1918, till Jan. 15, 1919. 
Then ordered to inactive duty, at Bay Shore, N.Y. 

JAMES COGGESHALL, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

Son of James and Hannah E. Coggeshall, of Allston, Mass.; was 
born in New York City, June 4, 1896. Educated at the Boston 
School of Commerce, and at Harvard College, A.B. 1917 (honoris 
causa). On Sept. 15, 1917, he enlisted in U.S.N.R.F.C., at Wash- 
ington, D.C., and was sent to M.I.T. Ground School, completing 
his course on Nov. 25. He was ordered to the Naval Air Station 
at Hampton Roads, Va., Nov. 25 to Jan. 11, 1918. He was attached 
to N.A.S., Pensacola, Fla., Jan. 11 to Oct. 6, 1918. He was des- 
ignated Naval Aviator, and commissioned Ensign, on March 4, 

1918. Illness with typhoid fever prevented his flying from May 15 
until Oct. 6, 1918. From the latter date until Dec. 13, 1918, he 
was attached to the Office of Naval Operations (Aviation) at 
Washington, D.C.; where he was relieved from active service. He 
was recommended for promotion to Lieut, (j.g.) as of Oct. 1, 1918. 

Married, Aug. 15, 1917, to Esther Clarke. 

[ 444 ] 



JOHN ALEXANDER CASSIDY 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 



Son of John and Helen (Robertson) Cassidy, of Saxonville, Mass.; 
was born in Berlin, Mass., Aug. 4, 1897. He was a graduate of 
Framingham High School, and had passed his examinations for 
Harvard College. He enlisted in U.S. Air Service on Nov. 13, 1917, 
at Boston; and on Feb. 2, 1918, entered Cornell Ground School. 
He graduated March 30, with Squadron 36. He then spent a month 
at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., from which place he was transferred 
to Call Field, Wichita Falls, Tex., for flying training. On Sept. 14, 
1918, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A. On Oct. 1 he was 
transferred to Love Field, Dallas, Tex., where he was honorably 
discharged on Jan. 21, 1919. On one occasion Lieut. Cassidy well- 
nigh established an altitude record, mounting nearly 30,000 feet. 

Brother in Service — 

Thomas A. Cassidy, 78th Division, 303d Supply Train. 



Son of George and Emily (Roberts) Clowes, of Bristol, R.I.; was 
born in Boston, April 3, 1896. He was educated at the Colt Me- 
morial High School, Bristol, R.I., and at the R.I. State College 
(1918), leaving to enlist in his junior year. He trained at Plattsburg 
R.O.T.C. for three months, enlisting on May 12, 1917. He was 
recommended for a commission in the Artillery, Regular U.S. 
Army, but was transferred to Aviation on his request. He was 
sent to the M.I.T. Ground School; then to Mineola, N.Y., and 
to Lake Charles, La., for flying instruction. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut. Feb. 5, 1918, at Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La. After 
receiving his commission, he was transferred to Carlstrom Field, 
Arcadia, Fla., as Instructor in Scout Work and Acrobatics. On 
Oct. 31, 1918, he was given expert Aviator's Certificate No. 204, 
by the Aero Club of America. He was honorably discharged at 
Carlstrom Field, about March 1, 1919, and placed on the reserve 
list. 



LLOYD ROBERTS CLOWES 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 



[ 446 ] 




NELSON C. HINCKLEY 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Instructor at 
Ellington Field 

Son of Herbert N. and May L. Hinckley; was born at Vineyard 
Haven, Mass., Jan. 19, 1893. Educated at Tisbury High School, 
Thayer Academy, and M.I.T., class of 1918. He enlisted at Boston 
on May 12, 1917, and attended the 3d Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg, May 12 to Aug. 14, 1917. He was at M.I.T. Ground 
School, from Oct. 27 to Dec. 22, and trained at Kelly Field, San 
Antonio, Tex., from Jan. 8 to April 6, 1918, when he was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., Reserve Military Aviator, A.S.S.C. He was 
stationed at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., from April 25 to May 25, 
and at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., from May 25 until the end 
of the war. Upon completion of the regular and post-graduate 
courses as a bombing-pilot at Ellington Field, he was assigned to 
the formation and advanced cross-country stage as an instructor. 
After the Armistice he was transferred to the R.M.A. stage to 
teach non-flying officers to become pilots. 

Married, Dec. 26, 1918, Laura Howland Vincent. 

HARRY C. HITCHCOCK 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. George E. Hitchcock; was born at Maiden, 
Mass., Feb. 26, 1887. He was educated at the Maiden High School, 
where he played on the football, baseball, and basket-ball teams, 
and was a member of the track relay team. He enlisted in A.S.A. 
at Boston, on Dec. 6, 1917, and had training successively at S.M.A., 
Cornell University, Feb. 2, 1918, to April 6; Camp Dick, Dallas! 
Tex., April 12 to May 30; Scott Field, Belleville, 111., June 1 to 
Nov. 4, 1918, where he had preliminary flying. He was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut. A.S.A., Army Corps Pilot, on Sept. 4, 1918. From 
Nov. 1 to Dec. 10, 1918, he was stationed at Langley Field, Hamp- 
ton, Va., for advanced flying as an Army Corps Pilot. He was 
honorably discharged at Langley Field on Dec. 10, 1918. 
Married, Jan. 1, 1914, Margarita Bartlett. 



[ 448 ] 



WILLIAM TROTT KING, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of William Trott and Adell (Howe) King, of Bethel, Vt.; was 
born in St. Johnsbury, Vt., July 30, 1895. He was educated at the 
Whitcomb High School, Bethel, Vt.; at St. Johnsbury Academy; 
and Dartmouth College, class of 1917. He won the Powers Gold 
Medal in his freshman year at college, and was the champion ski- 
jumper in the following years. He enlisted in Aviation at Boston, 
in Nov., 1917. He began training at Cornell on Jan. 6, 1918. On 
March 8 he was ordered to Dallas, Tex. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut, in the Air Service on June 28, 1918, and ordered overseas 
on Oct. 16. When the Armistice was signed, he was stationed at 
Issoudun. He was at Angers, awaiting orders home, when he was 
selected an interpreter on the staff of Brigadier-General McKinstry, 
of the Board of Indemnity Appraisers, on Jan. 20, 1919. 
Brother in Service — 

Benjamin H. King, Cadet Aviator. 

LESLIE B. DUKE 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Duke, of Wellesley Hills, Mass.; 
was born in Peoria, 111., June 6, 1890. Educated at Mechanic Arts 
High School, Boston, and at M.I.T. He enlisted at Cambridge on 
Nov. 3, 1917, and trained at M.I.T. and Princeton Ground Schools, 
graduating on Jan. 12, 1918. He had preliminary flying at Kelly 
Field, San Antonio, Tex. On March 27 he was commissioned 2d 
Lieut, and took the Bombing Pilot's course at Ellington Field, 
graduating on Sept. 15. He had training in aerial gunnery at 
Taliaferro Field, from Oct. 5, 1918, to Jan. 25, 1919, then took a 
course in Aeronautical Engineering at M.I.T. At last accounts he 
was still in Service in the Technical Division, at Dayton, O. 



[ 450 ] 



MICHAEL FRANCIS McGRATH 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Thomas and Sarah (Henneberry) McGrath; was born in 
Bennington, Vt., March 24, 1887. He was educated at the public 
schools of Charlestown, Mass. He enlisted in the Air Service in 
Cambridge, Sept. 14, 1917. Attended the Ground Schools at M.I.T. 
and Princeton, and was transferred to Gerstner Field, where he 
was commissioned 2d Lieut. May 21, 1918. He was subsequently 
assigned to the Gunnery School at Wilbur Wright Field in Dayton, 
O.; and later to the Advanced Bombing School at Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex. He had qualified as a day bombing pilot when the 
Armistice was signed, but had not been attached to any squadron. 
Brothers in Service — 

Matthew L. McGrath, Ch. Yeoman, U.S.N.R.F. 

Joseph W. McGrath, Ch. Yeoman, U.S.N.R.F. 

FORREST C. OSGOOD 

Ensign, Squadron 1, Pensacola, Florida 

Son of Alvin F. and Caroline Robertson (Symmes) Osgood; was 
born in Ashmont, Mass., June 22, 1891. He graduated from the 
Arlington High School, where he made a record in athletics as a 
member of the track team and captain of the hockey team in 1912. 
For 5 years he was a member of the Boston Athletic Association 
hockey team. He enlisted in the Naval Reserves, 2d Naval Dis- 
trict, at Newport, R.I., April, 1917, and was assigned duty on 
S.P. 428 Mystery (submarine-chaser), during the summer of 1917. 
He was transferred to Naval Aviation, and entered the Ground 
School, M.I.T., Oct. 30, 1917. On completing the course there, he 
was ordered to Pensacola, Fla., Jan. 19, 1918. He qualified as 
Gunnery Pilot in the U.S. Naval Flying Corps, and made an alti- 
tude record flight of 13,200 feet in the heavy-type bombing-plane 
H-12. Was commissioned Ensign, March 28, 1918. He was held at 
Pensacola as Instructor, and then as Division and Squadron Com- 
mander. From July, 1918, to Jan., 1919, four times recommended 
for promotion. 



[ 452 ] 



JOHN MORSE ELLIOT 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Son of Dr. John Wheelock and Mary Lee (Morse) Elliot; was born 
in Boston, Nov. 5, 1891. He was educated at the Noble and Green- 
ough School, Boston, Middlesex School, and at Harvard College. 
Previous to enlistment he trained with Battery A, M.V.M., for a 
year and a half. He attended the 1st Plattsburg Business Men's 
Training Camp in 1915, and the 2d Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg in 1917. He enlisted in Boston in Jan., 1918, in the Avi- 
ation Service; was sent for training to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; 
to Austin, Tex., S.M.A.; to Fortress Monroe, Va., Aerial Observa- 
tion School; and later to Langley Field, Hampton, Va. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut. Jan. 24, 1919, A.S.A., U.S.A. He was honor- 
ably discharged at Langley Field, Hampton, Va., on Jan. 27, 1919. 

GARDNER DUNTON 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles and Mabel (Hooper) Dunton, of Allston, Mass.; 
was born in Boston, March 13, 1895. He was educated at the Bos- 
ton Latin School and at Harvard College, class of 1918. He trained 
with the Harvard R.O.T.C. in 1916-17; attended the 1st Platts- 
burg Training Camp, from April 23, 1917; and enlisted there on 
May 12, 1917. Following this he trained at M.I.T. Ground School, 
from Oct. 20 to Dec. 15; and at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., 
from Dec. 22, 1917, to May 10, 1918. He was commissioned 2d 
Lieut. March 25, 1918, and was stationed at Camp Dick Concen- 
tration Camp, Dallas, Tex., from April 12 to May 3, 1918; then 
at Fort Sill, Okla., for Corps d'Armee Pilot Training, from May 5, 
to June 8, 1918. He was detailed as Pilot Instructor in Aerial Gun- 
nery at Selfridge Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich., from June 15, 1918, 
to Jan. 30, 1919. He was honorably discharged at Selfridge Field 
on Jan. 30, 1919, to return to college. 



[ 454 ] 



PAUL W. SHEDD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., First Provisional 
Training Squadron 

Son of Charles Gale and Rhoda J. (Colburn) Shedd; was born in 
Keene, N.H., July 14, 1892. He was educated at Exeter Academy 
and at the M.I.T. He enlisted at Boston, on Dec. 1, 1917; was 
assigned to the Ground School, M.I.T., where he remained through- 
out Dec, 1917, and to the Ground School at Cornell, where he 
remained from Jan. 1 to Feb. 1, 1918. He was then transferred to 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., March 1-April 15, and to Eberts Flying 
Field, Ark. April 15-Sept. 25. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., 
R.M.A., Aug. 15, 1918. Stationed from Sept. 25, 1918, to Jan. 
10, 1919, at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., where he was honor- 
ably discharged Jan. 10, 1919. 

Twin Brother in Service — 
Charles Gale Shedd, Jr., Capt., Ordnance Officer Corps; 
stationed at St.-Nazaire, France. 
Father in Service — 

Charles Gale Shedd, 1st Lieut., American Red Cross; served 
in Paris, France, April to Oct., 1918. 

GEORGE PARKER MERRILL, Jr. 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Son of George Parker and Mary Alice (Jones) Merrill; was born 
in Melrose, Mass., March 6, 1894. He was educated at the Mel- 
rose High School, and at the Syracuse Forestry School, from which 
he graduated in 1915. He enlisted in Boston, Oct. 14, 1917, and 
was trained at the Ground School, M.I.T., at Cornell, and at Camp 
Dick, Dallas, Tex. He was assigned to Eberts Field, Lonoke, Ark., 
April 12, 1918. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., July 20, 1918, and 
subsequently held at Eberts Field as Instructor in Acrobatics. He 
was honorably discharged from the Service Dec. 9, 1918. 



[ 456 ] 



FREDERICK B. CANN 
Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Bonman F. and Grace S. (Crosby) Cann, of Jaffrey, N.H.; 
was born at Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 12, 1885. He was educated at 
the Jaffrey High School, and the N.H. State College, at Durham, 
N.H. He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp for three months 
in 1916; and again in 1917. He graduated from the L.M.A. at Aus- 
tin, Tex., from the Flying School at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., 
and has since been Instructor at Park Field, Millington, Tenn. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut, at Kelly Field. 

HALSEY R. BAZLEY 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Staff Pilot, Tours, France 

Son of William H. and Berta B. Bazley, of Everett, Mass.; was 
born in Whitman, Mass., May 7, 1896. He was educated at the 
Everett High School, and Northeastern College. In the summer of 
1916 he attended the Plattsburg Training Camp. He enlisted, Oct. 
30, 1917, at Cambridge, and was trained in Aviation at M.I.T. 
Ground School; elementary flying and aerial gunnery at Taliaferro 
Field, Fort Worth, Tex.; machine-gunnery at Wilbur Wright Field, 
Dayton, O. He was commissioned 2d Lieut. June 17, 1918, and 
sailed overseas on Sept. 16, 1918, reporting at Issoudun, France, 
for further training as pursuit pilot. After completing his instruc- 
tion he was ordered to the 2d A.I.C. at Tours, France, for duty 
as staff pilot. He remained there until ordered back to the U.S. on 
March 1, 1919. He reported at Garden City and was assigned to a 
casual company of Air Service men to be brought to Camp Devens 
for discharge. After completion of duties at Camp Devens he was 
honorably discharged from Service on April 22, 1919. 

Father in Service — 

William H. Bazley, in the Spanish-American War. 



[ 458 ] 



HARRY FOSTER MURCHIE 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Son of Henry S. and Harriet H. C. (Caldwell) Murchie, and 
grandson of Brigadier-General John C. Caldwell; was born in 
Calais, Me., Nov. 14, 1893. He was educated at the Calais High 
School, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., and Dartmouth Col- 
lege. At both school and college he was a 'Varsity letter man. 
Prior to his enlistment, Aug. 15, 1917, he had been in training 
at camp at Gettysburg, Pa., in 1913. He attended the Ground 
School, M.I.T., Aug.-Dec, 1917, and the Ground School at 
Princeton, beginning Jan., 1918. He was later transferred to Camp 
Dick, Dallas, Tex., and to Park Field, Memphis, Tenn., where 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut. Sept. 21, 1918. He was then 
ordered to Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla., and was stationed at Talia- 
ferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he received his honorable 
discharge, Jan. 28, 1919. 

WILLIAM INGERSOLL BOWDITCH 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Ernest W. and Susan (Swann) Bowditch, of Milton, Mass.; 
was born in Boston, Mass., Dec. 8, 1893. He was educated at Mil- 
ton Academy, at Hotchkiss School, Conn., and at M.I.T. He en- 
listed at Camp Devens on Nov. 19, 1917, and was attached to 
the 151st Depot Brigade Infantry at Camp Devens. He was then 
sent to Cornell School of Military Aeronautics, Feb. 16 to April 
20, 1918; to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., April 27 to May 21; to 
Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, Fla., May 27 to July 27; to Dorr Field, 
Arcadia, July 27 to Aug. 20; and to Barron Field, Fort Worth, 
Tex., Aug. 23 to Dec. 10, 1918. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, 
on Dec. 10, 1918, and on the same date discharged in the Reserve, 
at Barron Field, Fort Worth, Tex. 



[ 460 ] 



ROSWELL EMORY DAVIS 



Second Lieutenant, M.C., Tenth Squadron, Northern 
Bombing Group 

Son of F. Irvin and Eunice S. Davis, of Hartford, Conn.; was born 
in New Britain, Conn., April 1, 1898. He attended the Hartford 
High School, and Phillips Exeter Academy, where he won his "E" 
in football, 1916 and 1917, and "E" in hockey and in rowing, 1917. 
He enlisted May 19, 1917, at Newport, R.I. On Oct. 29 he entered 
the M.I.T. Ground School. He left for Pensacola, Fla., on Jan. 19, 
1918, making his first flight there on Jan. 23. On April 23 he went 
to Miami, Fla., to take up land-flying with the Marines. On June 
1 he was discharged from the Navy and the same day enrolled in 
the Marine Corps. Commissioned 2d Lieut, on June 7, with rank 
dating from May 28, 1918, and attached to the 4th Squadron, 1st 
Marine Aviation Force. On Sept. 17, 1918, he sailed overseas, and 
was stationed at La Frene, France, until the Armistice, attached 
to 10th Squadron, Northern Bombing Group. Returning to Amer- 
ica, he was ordered home Feb. 1, 1919. Placed on the inactive list, 
U.S. Marine Corps, Reserve Flying Corps, from Miami, Fla. 



RALPH STARKWEATHER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Oscar W. and S. Josephine Starkweather, of West Medford, 
Mass.; was born in South Boston, Mass., Aug. 29, 1891. He was 
educated in the Needham public schools, and at Bryant and 
Stratton Commercial School. He enlisted Sept. 5, 1917, at Cam- 
bridge, and trained at M.I.T. Ground School. He completed his 
course and training at Princeton, and later was sent to Love Field, 
Dallas, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, on June 6, 1918, and 
sent to Payne Field, West Point, Miss., and from there to Garden 
City, N.Y. Having received overseas orders, he sailed for France 
on Nov. 16, and finished his training at Issoudun, France. 



[ 462 ] 



LEONARD L. STANLEY 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of William and Lila Wetmore (Courtney) Stanley; was born 
in Great Barrington, Mass., on June 19, 1891. He was educated 
at the Hotchkiss School, Lakeville. Conn., at Yale College, and 
at the M.I.T. He was on the Yale intercollegiate champion- 
ship hockey team in 1908. Prior to the declaration of war he at- 
tended the 1st Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg. On June 16, 
1916, he enlisted in Squadron A, in New York City, for service at 
the Mexican Border. On his return he entered the Aviation Service. 
After training at the Princeton Ground School he proceeded over- 
seas in the fall of 1917, was attached to the 2d A.I.C., at Tours, 
France, and to the Flying School of the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun, 
France. Later he attended the school at Ford Junction, Eng. He 
was commissioned 1st Lieut., April 20, 1918. He was honorably 
discharged from the Service at Garden City, N.Y., Jan. 6, 1919. 

CLARENCE STANLEY 
Ensign, R.F., Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Florida 

Son of William and Lila Wetmore (Courtney) Stanley; was born 
in Pittsfield, Mass., Jan. 14, 1897. He was educated at the 
Berkshire School, 1909-14, Sheffield, Mass., and at Yale College, 
1915-17. He played on the hockey and baseball teams at Yale. He 
enlisted at the Boston Navy Yard on May 21, 1918, and was as- 
signed to the Ground School at M.I.T. He took preliminary train- 
ing at the Naval Air Station, Miami, Fla., and advanced training 
at Pensacola, Fla., where he was attached to Squadron 5 as In- 
structor. On Dec. 21, 1918, he was commissioned Ensign, R.F. On 
Feb. 10, 1919, was placed on inactive duty at Pensacola. 

Brother in Service — 

Gilbert Stanley, 1st Lieut., 96th Aero Squadron. 



[ 464 ] 



MICHAEL A. BUTLER 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Seventeenth Aero 
Squadron, Fourth Pursuit Group 

Son of Michael J. and Sarah A. Butler; was born in Boston, Mass., 
in 1898. He attended the public schools of Boston, and later be- 
came an expert automobile mechanic and salesman. In March, 

1917, he joined the American Ambulance Field Service, Section 12, 
at Paris, and remained in the service of the French Army until the 
United States declared war. He was transferred to the U.S. Air 
Service as a cadet in July, 1917, and served in France during the 
remainder of the war. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, in June, 

1918. He was honorably discharged at Long Island, N.Y., on May 
31, 1919. 

Father in Service — 

Michael J. Butler, Sergeant-Major, 11th Hussars, British 
Army; British Veteran of three wars; Egyptian Cam- 
paign, 1882-84; the Soudan, 1884-86; South African War, 
1901-03. 

HENRY W. VOGEL 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Henry W. and Mary J. Vogel; was born in Dedham, Mass., 
Feb. 6, 1897. He was educated at the Avery School, Dedham High 
School, the School of Business Administration and Finance, Bos- 
ton, Y.M.C.A., and Boston University School of Business Admin- 
istration. He enlisted at Boston on Dec. 18, 1917, and was trained 
first at S.M.A., Princeton, N.J., March 23 to June 22, 1918; at Air 
Service Flying School, Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111., June 25 to 
Oct. 10, 1918, being commissioned 2d Lieut, on Oct. 2; at Payne 
Field, West Point, Miss., Oct. 12 to Nov. 7, 1918; and at Air Serv- 
ice Dep6t, Garden City, Field No. 2, N.Y., Nov. 10 to Dec. 19, 
1918. He was honorably discharged at Air Service Depot, Garden 
City, on Dec. 19, 1918. 



[ 466 ] 



CARLETON WOODMAN BLANCHARD 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 
Fourteenth Squadron R.A.F. 

Son of George W. and Nellie H. (Forbes) Blanchard; was born at 
Somerville, Mass., July 30, 1895. He was educated at the Abington 
High School and M.I.T. At school he played football and baseball; 
and baseball at college. He trained with the Cadet Regiment, 
M.I.T. He enlisted Nov. 3, 1917, at Cambridge, and trained at 
M.I.T. and Princeton Ground Schools. He had flying training 
at Kelly Field, and Love Field, Tex., and took a gunnery-course at 
Dayton, O. He was commissioned 2d Lieut. March 28, 1918; sailed 
overseas and trained with the Royal Air Force at Montrose, 
Scotland, where he was attached to the 14th, or "Camel" Squad- 
ron, for service on the British front. He returned to America, and 
was honorably discharged at Camp Devens, Dec. 19, 1918. 

Brother in Service — 

George Kinson Blanchard, 2d Lieut. A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Grandfather: Served in the Civil War; great-great grandfather 
served in the Revolutionary War. 

GEORGE KINSON BLANCHARD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George W. and Nellie H. (Forbes) Blanchard ; was born 
at East Somerville, Mass., March 23, 1897. He was educated 
at Abington High School and Mass. Agricultural College, Am- 
herst. He played football at high school and on the college team. 
He enlisted Nov. 16, 1917, at M.I.T., and had ground- school train- 
ing at M.I.T. and Cornell. He trained for flying at Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex., where he was commissioned 2d Lieut, on May 13, 
1918. He was stationed for a short time at Love Field, Dallas, Tex., 
then went to West Point, Miss., for advanced flying. He was ordered 
overseas, and sailed from Hoboken in the latter part of Sept., 1918. 
He finished his training at Issoudun, France. 

Brother in Service — 

Carleton Woodman Blanchard, 2d Lieut. A.S.A., U.S.A., 

Grandfather: Served in the Civil War; great-great grandfather 
served in Revolutionary War. 

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ROBERT L. CLEVELAND 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of E. C. and Camilla L. (Stedman) Cleveland; was born at 
North Adams, Mass., Feb. 23, 1891. He graduated from Drury 
High School, and from the Fitchburg Normal School. On July 9, 
1917, he enlisted at M.I.T. Ground School, and was attached to 
Squadron 9. He received primary flying instructions at Mineola, 
N.Y., and was then stationed at Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., 
Dec. 20, 1917, to Feb. 27, 1918. On Feb. 14 he was commissioned 
2d Lieut. March 1 to April 1 he was at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; 
then transferred to Carruthers Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he 
was stationed April 3 to Oct. 22. There he was Instructor of Acro- 
batic Flying and had charge of the acrobatic field. At Fort Worth 
he was recommended for a Lieutenantcy. On Oct. 28 he reported 
at Garden City for overseas service, but failed to get across. On 
Dec. 14 he was ordered to Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, Fla., where 
he was stationed until he resigned from Service on Jan. 13, 1919. 

JOHN de FOREST BARKER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Seventy-Fourth 
Aero Squadron 

Son of Guy de Forest and Lillian (Lyon) Barker; was born at St. 
Albans, Vt., March 25, 1897. He graduated from the St. Albans 
High School, class of 1914, and entered Norwich University in 
Sept., 1915. At the end of his first year, June, 1916, he enlisted in 
the U.S. Army for service in Mexico. He was mustered out in Sept., 
1916, and returned to the University to finish his course in Civil 
Engineering. In Sept., 1917, he enlisted in the Aviation Section, 
U.S.A., at Boston. On Dec. 8 he was ordered to M.I.T. Ground 
School. In Jan., 1918, he was transferred to Cornell, where he 
completed the ground course, and was sent to Camp Dick, Dallas, 
Tex. In April, 1918, he was sent to Call Field, Wichita Falls, 
Tex., and at the end of his course there was commissioned 2d Lieut. 
July, 1918, and was assigned to the Bombing Division. He was 
then sent to Love Field, Dallas, Tex., where he remained until 
ordered to Garden City, N.Y., Nov. 2, 1918. He was then attached 
to the 74th Aero Squadron, Roosevelt Field, Mineola, N.Y. 

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WALTER C. MOORE 



Cadet, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Son of Walter B. and Helen B. Moore; was born at Lynn, Mass., 
Jan. 13, 1897. He attended the Huntington Preparatory School,' 
and entered Dartmouth College with the class of 1920. He was a 
member of the Dartmouth Regiment in 1916, and took a course 
in Advanced Military Training in 1917. He enlisted at Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 28, 1918. He entered the M.I.T. Ground School, 
June 20, 1918, and was later transferred to the School of Military 
Aeronautics at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., on Sept. 7, 1918. 
He was ordered to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., on Sept. 24, 1918. 
On Oct. 16, 1918, he was detailed to Fort Monroe, Va., to the 
Aerial Observers' School. He was honorably discharged at Fort 
Monroe, on Nov. 26, 1918. 



STANLEY B. POTTER 

Cadet, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Hiram J. and M. Louise (Russell) Potter, of Brookline, 
Mass.; was born at Lawrence, Mass., Jan. 23, 1895. He was edu- 
cated at the Manor School, Stamford, Conn.; at the Brookline 
High School, Brookline, Mass.; and at Harvard College. He en- 
listed in the Air Service at Boston, Dec. 13, 1917. He graduated 
from the U.S. School of Military Aeronautics, Princeton, N.J., on 
July 13, 1918, with honors, standing first in his class. He was then 
ordered to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he remained until 
Sept. 10, 1918. Subsequently he was sent to Rich Field, Waco, 
Tex., for flying training. He was honorably discharged at Rich 
Field, Waco, Tex.. Dec. 7, 1918. 

Married, July 15, 1918, M. Doris Hitchcock. 



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